Ch05 details and transitions

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Ch05 details and transitions

  1. 1. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Chapter 5 Understanding Paragraphs: Supporting Details and Transitions
  2. 2. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers THIS CHAPTER WILL SHOW YOU HOW TO: 1. Recognize supporting details 2. Identify types of supporting details 3. Use transitions to guide your reading 4. Paraphrase paragraphs
  3. 3. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Four Parts of a Paragraph 1. Topic: The one thing the whole paragraph is about 2. Main Idea: The broad, general idea the whole paragraph is concerned with 3. Details: The ideas that explain or support the main idea 4. Transitions: The words or phrases that link ideas together
  4. 4. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Paragraphs Supporting Details:  facts and ideas that prove or explain the main idea of a paragraph.  range in degree of importance. Transitions:  linking words or phrases used to lead the reader from one idea to another.
  5. 5. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Recognizing Supporting Details  Supporting details are facts and ideas that prove or explain the main idea of a paragraph.  Key details directly explain the main idea.  Minor details provide additional information or further explain one of the key details.
  6. 6. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers TYPES OF SUPPORTING DETAILS Examples Facts and Statistics Reasons Descriptions Steps or Procedures
  7. 7. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Examples  Examples make ideas and concepts real and understandable.  Example: The speed that a body has at any one instant is called instantaneous speed. For example, when we say that the speed of a car at some particular instant is 60 kilometers per hour, we mean that if the car continued moving as fast for an hour, it would travel 60 kilometers.
  8. 8. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Facts and Statistics  The facts and statistics may provide evidence that the main idea is correct. Or the facts may further explain the main idea.  Example: An increasing number of minority workers will join the work force by the year 2000. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that white males, who have dominated the work force for several generations, will make up only 15 percent of the new entrants in the labor force between 1990 and 2000.
  9. 9. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Reasons  A writer may support an idea by giving reasons why a main idea is correct.  Example: There are several reasons why warm air rises. Warm air expands and becomes less dense than the surrounding air and is buoyed upward like a balloon. The buoyancy is in an upward direction because the air pressure below a region of warmed air is greater than the air pressure above. And the warmed air rises because the buoyant force is greater than its weight.
  10. 10. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Descriptions • When the topic of a paragraph is a person, object, place, or process, the writer may develop the paragraph by describing the object. • Example: The Koran is the sacred book of the Islamic religion. It was written during the lifetime of Mohammed during the years in which he recorded divine revelations. The Koran includes rules for family relationships, including marriage and divorce.
  11. 11. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Steps or Procedures  When a paragraph explains how to do something, the paragraph details are lists of steps or procedures to be followed:  Example: To prepare an outline of a speech, you should first read about the topic. Next, find the main points. After that, locate the details that support the main points. Finally, organize the main points and details in a logical order.
  12. 12. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers TRANSITIONS  Transitions are linking words or phrases used to lead the reader from one idea to another. Types of transitions are:  Time-Sequence  Example  Enumeration  Continuation  Contrast  Comparison  Cause-Effect  Summation
  13. 13. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Time-Sequence Transition  The author is arranging ideas in the order in which they happened.  Examples: first later next finally
  14. 14. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Example Transition  It tells the reader that an example will follow.  Examples:  for example  for instance  to illustrate  such as
  15. 15. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Enumeration  The author is marking or identifying each major point (sometimes these may be used to suggest order of importance).  Examples: first, second, third, last, another, next
  16. 16. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Continuation  The author is continuing with the same idea and is going to provide additional information.  Examples:  also,  in addition,  and,  further,  another
  17. 17. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Comparison/Contrast  Comparison: The writer will show how the previous idea is similar to what follows.  Examples: Like, likewise, similarly  Contrast: The author is switching to a different, opposite, or contrasting idea than previously discussed.  Examples: on the other hand; in contrast; however
  18. 18. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Cause/Effect  The writer will show a connection between two or more things, how one thing caused another, or how something happened as a result of something else.  Examples: because, thus, therefore, since, consequently
  19. 19. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers PARAPHRASING PARAGRAPHS  Substitute synonyms.  Rearrange sentence parts.  Concentrate on maintaining the author’s focus and emphasis.  Work sentence-by-sentence, paraphrasing the ideas in the order in which they appear in the paragraph.
  20. 20. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers SELF-TEST SUMMARY  Name and describe the four essential parts of a paragraph.  What is the difference between key details and minor details?  What are the five types of details used to support the main idea?  What are transitions, and what information do they give the reader?  What two steps are involved in paraphrasing paragraphs?
  21. 21. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers For additional readings, exercises, and Internet activities, visit this book’s Companion Website at: http://www.ablongman.com/mcwhorter If you need a user name or password, see your instructor. Visit the Companion Website
  22. 22. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers TEST-TAKING TIPS: Answering Questions About Supporting Details  Do not try to memorize factual information as you read the passage because you can look back at the passage.  As you read, pay attention to how the writer supports the main idea.  Do not trust your memory about a fact. Look back at the passage.  It may be necessary to consider several details together in order to answer a question.

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