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Chemical contextoflife[1]
 

Chemical contextoflife[1]

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Biochemistry Powerpoint

Biochemistry Powerpoint

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    Chemical contextoflife[1] Chemical contextoflife[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life
    • Basic Terms
      • Element = cannot be broken down to other substances
        • Examples: Na, O, C, Cl
      • Compound = combination of 2 or more different elements
        • Examples: NaCl, CO 2 , CH 4
      0
    • Requirements for Life
      • 92 natural elements…
        • 25 are essential to life
        • Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter
      • Trace elements are needed, too, though
        • Iodine…lack of = goiter!!
      0
    • Atomic Structure
      • Atom = smallest possible amount of an electron that retains the element’s properties
      • Subatomic particles:
        • Protons = + charge
        • Electrons = - charge
        • Neutrons = neutral charge
      0
    • Atomic Structure
      • Atomic Number:
        • # of protons (also equals # of electrons…)
      • Mass Number:
        • # of protons + # of neutrons
          • Examples
      0
    • Isotopes
      • Def’n: atoms that have more neutrons than atoms of the same element
        • Same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
        • Therefore…different atomic mass!
      0
    • Radioactive Isotopes
      • Radioactive Isotopes:
        • Nucleus decomposes spontaneously, giving off particles and energy (ie. Carbon 14)
      • Uses:
        • Dating fossils
        • Tracers
          • marking something and finding it again later
    • Energy
      • Energy = the ability to do work
      • Energy levels
        • Further out = more energy
    • Electron Orbitals
      • Electrons move within orbitals
        • Orbitals are 3-D spaces, not linear
    • Valence Shells
      • Valence shell = outermost energy level
      • Valence shell determines an atom’s reactiveness
      • Alone = reactive/unhappy!
      • Paired = nonreactive/happy  !
    • Chemical Bonding
      • 2 types of bonding that occurs between atoms:
        • Covalent bonding
        • Ionic bonding
    • Covalent Bonds
      • Def’n: 2 atoms share a pair of valence electrons
      • Valence = bonding capacity
    • Covalent Bonds
      • Nonpolar covalent bonds
        • Electrons are shared equally between 2 atoms
      • Polar covalent bonds
        • Electrons are NOT shared equally between 2 atoms
      • Whether a bond is nonpolar and polar is determined by an atom’s electronegativity
        • Electronegativity = how much an atom wants to pull its electrons to itself
    • Ionic Bonds
      • Def’n: one atoms “donates” its electrons to the other
        • Cation = atom that donates, +
        • Anion = atom that receives, -
    • Hydrogen Bonds
      • A hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
      • Usually between oxygen of one water molecule and hydrogen of another
      • Individually weak, but strong together!
    • Molecular Shape & Function
      • Molecules have characteristic sizes and shapes
      • Molecular shape is crucial in biology because it determines how biological molecules recognize and respond to each other with specificity
        • Examples: ??
    • Applications
      • Morphine
        • Lock and key concept
        • Morphine is designed to be the same shape as endorphins
          • Therefore, morphine will bind to the endorphin binding site in the brain
          • Brain will be tricked!
        • Heroin works in the same way
    • Chemical Reactions
      • Def’n: the making and breaking of chemical bonds
      • Reactants  Products
      • 1 st Law of Thermodynamics:
        • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed