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EdTech 506
Unit of Instruction Justification
Spring 2010

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  1. 1. EDTECH 506 Unit of Instruction Justification By Erin C. Markus May 4, 2010
  2. 2. Defining the Visual Context Characteristics ofthe Learner and School Details Age 2nd Grade (ages7-8) Localization Rosa ParksElementarySchool inLake Washington School District,Redmond,WA.Primarylanguage of moststudentsisEnglish,witha5% AsianELL population. Cultural Demographics:55% Caucasian,32% Asian,4% Hispanic,9% Other. Gender 49% Male/51% Female Demographics Suburban,masterplannedcommunitywithsingle familyhomes. Education All studentshave completedPreschool and Kindergarten. Socio-Economics Middle/UpperClass Free/ReducedLunch<2%. Other identifiable features Othermandatory classestakenbystudentsof the school:Dance,Drama, Chess,Computers,Vocal and Instrumental Music,Physical Education. Optional classestakenbystudents:Junior Engineering,Theatreproduction,Foreign Languages,Math Olympics. Many studentsattendprivate mathandreading programs(Kumon,Brainquest) Prior Knowledge Mixed AccessibilityIssues May have studentswhohave hearing,sight, mobility,attention,orlanguage impairments. Environmental Concern Details How is the package to be used? The unitwill be taughtin a whole-groupsetting. Activitieswill includewhole-group,small-group, partners,andindividual work. How many people will share the space? Classsize rangesbetween20-24students. What uniformor dressis required? Normal school uniformwill be worn,withsmocks or jacketsrequiredforsome activitiesthatmaybe messy. Special Equipmentrequired? Some lessonswilluse alarge white boardor smart board,or individual white boards.LaptopsorPC’s will be usedforcomputer activities.Itemssuchas sensoryobjects(foods,textures,etc.) will be used for certainactivities. Lighting The classroomis litbynatural lightor fluorescent bulbs. Some activitieswillbe outdoorsinnatural lighting.Occasionallylightswill be turnedoff for videoorPowerPointpresentations. How are away is the farther learnerfrom the materials? While inthe classroom, studentdesksreachno more than 20 feetfromteachingarea.Outdoorsor ingroup settings,studentswillgatheraround
  3. 3. teacherfor instructionsonactivity,buttheymay branch outto small groupor partneractivitiesina large area. (playgroundorgym) How much time doesthe learnerhave with the materials? The lessonswill be deliveredina30 minute timeframe. Will the learnerbe able to control hisor her own time looking at materials? No,the teacherwill guide the lessonsand activities.Studentsmayfinishincomplete work duringopenworktimes,if needed. How much space does the learner have to spread out materials? Studentswill have theirowndeskspace for individualactivities,largertable areasforsmall- groupor partneractivities,gymspace oroutdoors personal space allottedforlarge groupactivities. In a classroom-type setting,what is the typical room layout? The room is setup withall desksfacingthe smart board or white boardat the frontof the room, withdesksinpairs.Studentswill use laptop computersat theirdeskduringcomputerguided instruction. Other Environmental Issuesto be considered Onlygymnasiumoroutdooractivitiescouldbe affectedbyenvironmentalfactorsdue togymuse or weather. Classroomandcomputerusage shouldnotbe affected. MediaConcerns Details If lessonisprojectedfrom the front of the classroom, how far back is the farthest student? What is the lighting? The farthestdeskisapprox.20 feetfromthe front of the room. Natural lightfromwindowsorfluorescentlighting will be usedinthe classroom. Gymlightingor natural lightingforoutdoorandgym activities. Book usage Read-aloudbookswillbe usedtoopeneach lesson.Studentswill be seatedinasemi-circle aroundthe teacherforthese readings. Partnerreadingbookswill be usedatstudent’s desks. Individual readingbookswill be used atstudent desksor inthe readingarea. FlipChart, BulletinBoard, or Whiteboardusage If usinga flipchartor whiteboard,studentswillbe no fartherthan20 feetfromboards. Bulletinboardsmaybe usedaroundthe roomand dependingondesklocations,studentsmayneed to walkto boardto see details. Studentswill use individualwhiteboardsforsome activitiesattheirdesksorinsmall groups. Computerand Monitorrequirements Maximum/Minimumdisplayresolution:800x600 optimal,butcouldbe 640x480, if necessary. Color Depth:16 bitor more
  4. 4. Connectivity:studentswill use awireless connectionfortheirlaptopsandbroadbandfor desktop,if necessary. Browser-basedactivities:all computershave plug-inscapable of anyanimation,audio,orvideo necessary. E-LearningCharacteristics Details Monitor Display Studentswill be usingcomputerswithLEDdisplays and 1024 x 768 resolution Color Depth 16-bit or greater Connectivity Highspeedbroadbandconnectionwithwireless access forlaptops Mediacards or Plug-ins Flashplayer,WindowsMediaplayer,andReal Playerisinstalledoneachcomputer Firewalls All computersandnetworksare protectedwith firewallsthatpreventcertainsitesfrombeing used. Certaineducational sitescanbe permitted to be usedwithan override bydistricttech supportstaff. Color Depthor File Format Concerns Details Images Imageswill be .jpg,.gif,or.pngfiles Individual Graphic Visualization and Creation Note: Each blue heading contains a link to the live visual When visualizing my graphic images and interactive activities, I made an attempt to maintain a common theme of my graphics used throughout the unit. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), certain types of graphics such as organizers and explanatory visuals need to be designed early in the development process, as they may be carried through the design of several lessons, affect several visuals, and perhaps even influence the overall look and feel of your product. It was with this in mind that I decided early on that, because of the grade level that I was working with, that I would maintain a constant theme of colorful, even “cartoonish”, graphics and visuals. All graphics and images that were used in the development of the unit maintained this theme. The graphics that I used to depict the five senses were used throughout the entire unit and even on the assessments. The photographs that were used throughout the unit all included familiar images for children of this age, and often included children in the photographs for relativity. In this section, I will describe, in detail, each visual image that I created and how they relate to each other and the unit as a whole.
  5. 5. Advanced Organizer According to Clark and Lyons (2004), Advanced organizers were defined by Ausubel in 1968 as instructional presentations appearing early in a lesson that “provide ideational scaffolding for the stable incorporation and retention of more detailed and differentiated material that follows”. The advanced organizer that I used throughout my unit meets this requirement. The image depicts each sense that the students will be learning about, along with an example showing a real-world picture of the sense, and the word that describes the sense. The organizer will be used at the beginning of each lesson to introduce the lesson and as a review of previous lessons. During the opening of each lesson, all five senses will be reviewed before focus turns to the lesson at hand. Because the learners in this situation do have prior knowledge of the basic content of the unit, a comparative advanced organizer is used. An effective comparative organizer incorporates information familiar to the learner and links that familiar information to new lesson content (Clark and Lyons, 2004). During the previous year, students learned the name of each sense and what sensory organ it belongs to, but in this unit they will be learning to put words to the senses and parts of the sensory organs will be addressed. The organizer is simple and easy to understand, using "cartoon" depictions of the 5 organs, paired with a photographic visual of the sense and the word to describe the sense. The graphic is arranged in very distinct vertical and horizontal lines with guiding arrows to enhance the vertical path of the chart. I used muted colors for the words and visually appealing colors for the "cartoon" graphics and photographs with simple colors so as not to draw attention away from the other graphics. The graphic shows vertical and horizontal balance, as well as harmony. Unity is accomplished by all pictures and words sharing a common meaning...the senses. I used pictures and words to depict the 5 senses, so that a correlation can be made by any age. Prior Knowledge Prior Knowledge New Knowledge SMELL Attention Visual When creating my attention visual, I followed the guidelines stated in Clark and Lyons (2004):  Use cueing visuals to draw attention to important instructional content when the display is complex and presentation rate is not controlled by the learner.  Use color to improve job performance in tasks that involve visual search.  Place words close to the visuals they describe.  Avoid visuals that distract the learner from important instructional content.
  6. 6. The attention visual is attached to the “Smell” lesson of the unit. The visual is a simple depiction of the concept of smell and the process that we use to understand a smell, whether good or bad. Following the guidelines, I used a simple graphic depicting a nose smelling a baking pie. This image will immediately draw attention because this is a nice smell that everybody can relate to. The directive arrows then direct the attention to the brain to show that the scent is taken in by the nose, then the message goes to the brain, then finally the brain decides whether it likes the smell or not. I used pictures of children showing a “good smell” face and a “bad smell” face. Adhering to the next guideline to use color and contrast as a visual signal, I used large, colorful directive arrows to have the viewer follow the progression from left to right. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), color has been reported in some studies to direct attention to important information in a lesson. Without the arrows in my visual, the viewer may not know that the progression is left to right. By placing text next to each image in the visual, the student will understand what they are looking at and make a correlation between written word and pictures. In my visual, this is accomplished by having written descriptions of each step below the images. I avoided distracting visuals, by keeping the entire page simple and easy to understand, using only necessary images to promote understanding by the student. Memory Load and Far Transfer Visual Learning the taste buds of the tongue can be a complex task. They all have different purpose and they all have their own location on the tongue. Going beyond the fact that we have a tongue and we use it to taste, the students learn the specific taste areas of the tongue in this unit. I created a simple interactive visual that shows the tongue with the areas of taste and images with word rollovers to teach the new knowledge. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), mental load, which is the amount of work required of working memory, can be reduced by replacing text with visuals. Words can also be replaced with audio to lessen memory load. For this particular visual, I used pictures with rollover words for learning. The graphics that I used are simple in that fact that students will know what they are looking at, such as popcorn, chocolate, and lemons. They will then correlate this taste to a name of the taste bud region. Because students are learning to read and spell at this age, they will be learning new words with the rollovers to apply to their new vocabulary of words. Prior Knowledge New Knowledge = SWEET
  7. 7. Mental Models and Near-Transfer Visual According to Clark and Lyons (2004), mental models are memory structures that are stored in long-term memory and that are the basis of thinking. Good mental models enable learners to discriminate new concepts, to solve problems, to make predictions, and to interpret data from the environment. Mental models can be simple or complex. My mental model image will be used in the “Hearing” lesson of the unit. The model teaches the students new knowledge of the parts of the inner and outer ear. There are several complex organs in the ear, but for this age group, only the large, main organs were introduced. The organ names of the ear can be complicating to teach. They have some difficult names (cochlea) and some simple names (hammer, anvil, ear drum). This interactive visual teaches each part of the ear by pairing together the actual name word with a simple image that will aid in memory of what the organ is called. This way, the student can memorize the pictures because they know what they are, and the word will follow. The part organ names depict very much what the organ itself looks like. For example, the ear drum looks like an actual drum head, the hammer is long and skinny like a real hammer, and the cochlea is a spiral of tubing that looks similar to a snail shell. These were very easy to depict with pictures. In this visual, I used dual encoding, or when information is provided in both text and visual formats, two memory traces are formed (Clark and Lyons, 2004). This increases the chance of the new information being encoded into long-term memory. Prior Knowledge New Knowledge = EAR DRUM = COCHLEA Procedures Visual Procedural graphics, even abstract holistic organizers illustrating views from first step through last, need to correlate what the learner is supposed to be doing, responding to, and avoiding at each step along the way (Clark and Lyons, 2004). For my procedures visual, I am teaching the students on the procedure of playing the game, I-Spy, in the “Sight” unit. The game is described in a step-by-step process using an interactive visual that also contains audio directions for those that cannot read the visual directions. According to our text, an organizational visual is one good way to orient learners to the flow of procedures involved in a series of tasks. The steps to play the game are clearly
  8. 8. stated and should be easily understood by students. If they have difficulties understanding what they are reading, they can push the buttons to hear the audio version of the directions. When you explain a demonstration with audio, you effectively use the visual and auditory centers of working memory and thus maximize the limited capacity of working memory (Clark and Lyons, 2004). I added the image of the cartoon “spy” girl as an attention image to attract the children to the visual and give them an understanding of what kind of game they will be playing. The “spy” theme was maintained throughout the visual. The visual is presented in a linear formation. Concepts Visual According to Clark and Lyons (2004), when collecting data for concept graphics, do not forget the counter, or non-example. For my concepts visual, I am using simple opposites as examples and non-examples to teach the concept of touch to young children. At the 2nd grade level, children understand the concept of opposites pretty well. There are many opposites that can be used to explain the sense of touch. This visual uses four examples of simple opposites using the sense of touch. In teaching about concepts, I followed the guidelines in our text. The following guidelines were met by my visual:  I presented two or more examples of the sense of touch  I used one or more counter-examples of the concept  I used picture analogies to link the new knowledge with familiar knowledge. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), to help learners build an effective concept model, create practice exercises that require them to identify instances of the concept. I included a review exercise after the initial lesson. The review focuses on the understanding of opposites of 2nd graders and relating it to the sense of touch. Opposites Soft Hard
  9. 9. Facts Visual The facts visual of my unit will be presented as a review of new terms learned throughout the unit. The facts that the students will be learning in this unit are how the new terms and words they are learning relate to a sense. This visual gives them a review of that concept. For example, the word “anvil” belongs to the hearing sense and the word “taste bud” belongs to the sense of taste. I used representational visuals to address the senses, as directed in our text. According to our text, to promote transfer of learning, display concrete facts with representational visuals in the form of screen captures or illustrations (Clark and Lyons, 2004). Below are two examples of how I am teaching facts by using a newly learned word and having the students use the interactive visual to learn which sense each new word belongs to. This is done by using interactive rollovers. It is not showing the definition of the words, but the fact that it belongs to a certain sense. / Nostril / Ear Drum Process Visual According to Clark and Lyons (2004), processes are descriptions of state changes that communicate how systems work. For my process visual, I am teaching the students about the process of how we see an image and process it into knowledge. The model that I used is a dynamic model of the eye and the process of an image as it travels through the parts of the eye and into a final image for knowledge. A dynamic mental model allows learners to visualize the entire process and reach a deep understanding of the system (Clark and Lyons, 2004). In the model, I used red arrows to depict the travel direction of the sensory image, the tree. The simple organs of the eye are also labeled with rollover images to see them from a frontal view for further understanding. The interactive visual culminates with a review activity where the student uses the “tree” figure to understand that an image gets flipped upside down while traveling through the eye and then our final image, processed by our brain, is right-side up again! This visual is easy to understand and uses a linear progression of teaching the process. Below is a visual representation of how we see. This is a simple representation without even using the eye organs themselves. In the lesson, the students will learn how and why this happens. This is a fun sense to teach about.
  10. 10. Principles Visual For my visual on teaching principles, I chose to teach about the Pain-Pleasure Principle of the Senses. This is an easy principle to teach children because most of the concepts of it are familiar to them. They already have the basic knowledge of how we use our senses to feel pain or pleasure, in fact, they experience it every day. The point of this lesson is to put that prior knowledge into comparative knowledge with what they are learning about the five senses. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), use interpretive graphics and dynamic simulations to model principles in action. I accomplished this by using an interactive visual that shows graphic images that are easy to understand. The interactive visual is shown as a tutorial with several pages of information breaking down what pain and pleasure is and then teaching them how words we use every day are relevant to this principle. To help the students further learn their new words and how to spell them, I included a culminating activity where they fill in the blanks of words that they just learned. This will not only aid in their spelling skills, but also in their recall of what the word is and eventually what sense it belongs to. Below is an example of a graphic that I created for my visual to teach students the basic meaning of pain: OUCH! Instructional Visual Design Model According to Clark and Lyons (2004), good designers start by looking at the goals of the instruction and the graphic needs of the entire package. The Visual design model focuses on planning and design, and not the development of the graphics themselves. Below is a synopsis of how I followed the Visual Design Model found in Chapter 2 of Clark and Lyons (2004). I. Define Goals a. Goals are to inform and motivate b. Goals are to build near-transfer (procedural) skills and associated knowledge c. Goals are to build far-transfer (problem-solving) skills and associated knowledge The first task of creating my Unit of Instruction was to set the goals for my unit. Defining the goal of instruction determines the direction of the graphic design process (Clark and
  11. 11. Lyons, 2004). The goals of my Unit of Instruction are based on the education standards for the state of Washington. The following is a list of the goals for my Unit of Instruction:  The student will be able to name the 5 senses.  The student will be able to give examples of using the senses (smell a flower).  The student will be able to name the organ that uses the sense (the ear hears).  The student will be able to complete educational activities and games using the senses (“Which smell is it?” Game).  The student will be able to identify the simple parts of the five sensory organs. Each goal is obtainable through completion of the individual lessons of the unit. All lessons and activities in the unit are directly related to the goals of the unit, and all goals will be met by successful completion of the unit. II. Define Context a. Context includes learner profiles, learning landscapes, delivery media, and pragmatic issues. When defining the visual concept, I took the above considerations and created a chart showing the results of my research to create the unit. This chart can be found at the beginning of this paper. The first consideration is learner profiles. According to our text, research shows that visuals benefit low prior knowledge learners the most. It is very important to consider the prior knowledge of the learner when creating a unit of instruction. If a learner goes into a new unit with no prior knowledge of the materials, they will begin the unit with a disadvantage and possibly fall farther behind as the unit progresses. For my unit, the learners have some prior knowledge of the materials from 1st grade. There may be a mix of prior knowledge if a student transferred from another school that did not require knowledge of the material in 1st grade. Another important aspect of learner characteristics is demographics. This includes location of the school, socio-economic status, language, and accessibility. For my unit, the school is located in a suburban middle-class, master planned community with very few low SES students in attendance. Almost all students speak fluent English, with some students speaking Asian and Hispanic languages at home. The school has a mixed population of families from Asian countries, India, and European countries due to its close proximity to the Microsoft Corporation Main Campus. The learning environment of the school, as stated in my chart, is conducive to successful learning and this particular unit. The unit requires classrooms, computers, gymnasium, cafeteria, and a fenced in outdoors area. The school does provide for all of those factors. The classrooms are very nicely organized and all students will have easy access to viewing media delivered in the unit. Each class has full usage of computer labs and/or laptops in the classroom. Classrooms have a lot of natural lighting and fluorescent lighting to supplement the natural light. Teachers will guide the students through the unit activities in 30-minute or 1-hour time increments, depending on the lesson.
  12. 12. According to our text, the delivery medium is a major factor that shapes your visuals. The delivery medium refers to the material or equipment on which the material is displayed. The delivery media for my unit will include computers, projectors or smart boards, read-aloud books, decodable books, DVD players, and worksheets. There will also be hands-on activities within each lesson of the unit. This school meets all requirements of the unit. All computers available for use meet the minimum requirements for the unit. The only possible constraints of the unit for the school will be related to obtaining recommended materials for the lessons. There are recommended read-aloud books and DVD’s that the teacher should use for the lessons, but if they do not have those particular books or DVD’s, they will be able to supplement with topic-appropriate books or videos of their choice. This is stated in the Unit of Instruction Plan that all teachers will read. There is very low cost to the unit. Most items can be brought in by the teacher or students for hands-on activities. III. Design Visual Approach a. Determine the image b. Assess general graphic requirements of content c. Design Treatment: i. Instructional Strategy ii. Text dominant or visual dominant iii. Layout or Interface for media iv. Navigation and functionality v. Surface features that align with context and goals In this section of the model, the appearance and approach of the delivered content is addressed. Because my learners are young and have limited prior knowledge of the topic, the delivery media will be attractive and simple. Throughout the unit, a bright, colorful theme is maintained. Children respond to bright colors and “cartoonish” art or figures. I used very few real-life photographs, but the ones that I did use usually included children as the main focus character of the picture. This is an important relevance, as children will be more likely to remember the face or actions of another child than an adult. Many of my visuals use simple text for learning basic terms, but they are always accompanied by visual and/or audio to ensure that children of all capabilities can learn the content. Navigation through interactive visuals is simple and easy to understand with large arrows and buttons. Many visuals use rollovers that only require a mouse to touch the image.
  13. 13. IV. Identify Communication Function Needed to Match Content Types a. Multiple content- use organizational visuals b. Procedures- use representational, transformational visuals c. Concept- use diverse representational or interpretive visuals d. Facts- use representational and mnemonic visuals e. Process- use transformational visuals f. Principles- use explanatory visuals, such as relational, interpretive, or transformational In this phase of the model, I evaluated my content to determine individual graphics that will illustrate key instructional points. Using a few examples of my visuals, I will describe how they apply to this part of the model. Multiple Content Visuals use organizational visuals. Organizational visuals illustrate qualitative relationships among lesson content. In my Advanced Organizer, I used a simple model of the five senses and paired the appropriate images with sample real-life pictures of the sense being performed and the word that associates with the name of the sense. An example of this is explained in the section of this paper where I describe my Advanced Organizer visual. This organizational model is used throughout the entire unit as a discussion visual for new and spiral learning. Procedure Visuals use representational and transformational visuals to teach about a procedure. Transformational visuals communicate movement and change over time or over space. In my Procedure Visual, I use a representational model of the eye and demonstrate, as simply as possible, how we perform the sense of sight. This is done by beginning with an image, such as a tree, and using arrows to show the path the image travels through the eye organs and is processes through the brain and a final image for understanding is produced. This is a difficult procedure to teach because it is quite complicated how it happens, but I thought it was a great sense to use for this visual because the eye is such an intriguing organ. Concept Visuals use diverse representational or interpretive visuals to teach a concept for understanding. Representational visuals portray the appearance of lesson content in a realistic manner. For my Concept Visual, I decided to create a lesson on the concept of “touch”. Touch is a difficult concept to put into words or pictures. We use our sense of touch in everything that we do. The best way that I could figure out to teach the concept is to show pictures that represent common feelings associated with touch, such as hot and cold, dry and wet, and smooth and rough. When creating an interactive visual to teach this concept, the images have to be visually “tactile” and really make the learner feel like they are experiencing the sensations. I could only do this with pictures. I chose pictures that are easy to correlate to the texture being shown. I also included rollovers on the images that show the word that associates to the picture and an audio
  14. 14. clip to hear the word spoken. This way, a correlation is made between picture, word, and sound. Facts Visuals use representational and mnemonic visuals. Mnemonic visuals aid in the recall of lesson facts and concepts. My Facts Visual is used as a review for the unit. The visual is teaching about the fact that certain words, body parts, and feelings are associated with the five senses. In the visual, the students look at new vocabulary words that they learned throughout the unit and they place their mouse over the word to see if they guessed correctly which sense that word belongs to. The senses are represented by pictures of the sensory organs and the vocabulary words are in text. Process Visuals use transformational visuals to teach a process. For my Process Visual, I chose to teach the students how to play the game called “I-Spy”. The game is to be played as part of the Sight Lesson. The visual is a linear description of the game. In the visual, I give the directions in both written and audio form. The student can touch the visual with the mouse and the written direction will appear, or they can press the “Play” button to hear the audio direction. The visual must be used in the correct progression or the game will not be played correctly. This is accomplished by following the “Steps” images. Principles Visuals use explanatory visuals, such as relational, interpretive, or transformational. A relational visual is used to communicate quantitative relationships among two or more variables and can include charts and diagrams. Interpretive graphics help learners build mental models of events or processes that are invisible, abstract, or both. My Principles Visual is the final visual of the unit and is used to teach the Pain-Pleasure Principle. Since pain and pleasure cannot be tactile, this visual is used as an interpretive explanation of the principles of pain and pleasure. The visual puts the concept of pain and pleasure into simple graphic images using pictures and words to help the students understand what pain and pleasure is and how it relates to our senses and our daily lives. V. Apply Principles of Psychological Instructional Events a. Apply principles for all instructional goals and to awaken prior knowledge and support transfer b. Apply Principles if complex content, novice audience, or runs outside learner control, then apply attention and cognitive load principles c. Apply Principles if building far-transfer skills, then apply mental model principles d. Apply Principles if building near-transfer skills, then apply transfer principles e. Apply Principles if learners low in personal motivation, then apply motivational visual principles
  15. 15. Each visual in the unit uses graphics and other media to continually awaken prior knowledge. Because the students have simplified prior knowledge of the content, it can be used to build upon and pave the way for new knowledge. I feel that all of the graphics and images used in my unit of instruction are age appropriate and will be easily understood by the age group for which the unit is intended. AECT Standards Met by Unit of Instruction Standard 1: Design Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics. . Assignment that meets this standard: Unit of Instruction The Unit of Instruction meets all parts of this standard. By completing the Unit of Instruction, I am demonstrating my knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies and learner characteristics. All of these elements are evident in my completed Unit of Instruction. Within the Unit of Instruction, the following sub- standards are met: 1.2 Message Design Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral, perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task. Components that meet this standard: 1. Directing attention: Attention Visual 2. Awakening prior knowledge: Unit of Instruction and all lessons within the Unit 3. Minimizing memory load: Memory Load and Far-Transfer Visual: Sense of Taste Lesson 4. Helping learners build mental models: Mental Model and Near-Transfer Visual: Sense of Hearing Lesson 5. Accommodating learner differences: Many of my visuals have text, picture, and audio to accommodate different learners. 6. Visualizing a procedure: Procedure Visual: Sense of Sight Lesson 7. Visualizing a concept: Concept Visual: Sense of Touch Lesson 8. Visualizing facts: Facts Visual: Review in Lesson 5 9. Visualizing processes: Process Visual: Sense of Sight Lesson 10. Visualizing principles: Principles Visual: Pain-Pleasure Lesson
  16. 16. 1.3 Instructional Strategies In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the types of objectives. Components that meet this standard: The lesson plans for the Unit of Instruction meet standard 1.3 by including instructional strategies that take into consideration learner characteristics, learning environment, and the objectives of the school, district, and state. The objectives are fully attainable by competing the unit and its lessons. 1.4 Learner Characteristics Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, learning situations, and the nature of the content. Components that meet this standard: The Unit of Instruction includes a Visual Context Analysis that addresses learner characteristics. The visual context includes such factors as school location, student population, cultures and languages within the school, socioeconomic status of student body, and special accommodations that need to be made for students. The lesson plans include special accommodations for students that have physical or sensory impairments. Standard 2: Development Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies. Assignment that meets this standard: Unit of Instruction The Unit of Instruction was completely developed using instructional materials created by the designer, myself. The materials created include print, audiovisual, computer- based, and integrated technologies throughout the unit. All of the computer-based visuals and interactive visuals were completely created by the designer. The following sub-standards were met by materials within the Unit of Instruction: 2.1 Print Technologies Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.
  17. 17. Components that meet this standard: Each lesson of the Unit of Instruction includes print materials, either created by the designer or chosen by the designer with links to the resource that created the materials for optional use in the unit. The assessments throughout the unit were created by the designer and fulfill the unit objectives. Each lesson of the unit includes the reading of a read-aloud book relating to the lesson topic. Students will also be reading and sharing decodable books that are age and grade level appropriate. 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application. Component that meets this standard: During the Sense of Sight lesson of the Unit of Instruction, a DVD video will be shown to teach the children about the sense of sight. The sense of sight is the most complex sense that is taught in the lesson. The DVD video gives many examples of how we use the sense of sight to see our world. 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital data. Examples include computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer managed instruction (CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global resource/reference access. 2.4 Integrated Technologies Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various levels of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio, video, and graphic environments. Components that meet this standard: Interactive visuals include audio, graphic, or both forms of interaction to enhance the learning environment. The following interactive visuals that allow for learner control and interactivity are included within the lessons of the Unit of Instruction: 1. Procedure Visual in the Sense of Sight Lesson (audio and graphic) 2. Process Visual in the Sense of Sight Lesson (graphic) 3. Concept Visual in the Sense of Touch Lesson (audio and graphic) 4. Facts Visual in the Review Lesson (graphic) 5. Principles Visual in the Review Lesson (audio and graphic) 6. Mental Model Visual in the Sense of Hearing Lesson (graphic) 7. Memory Load Visual in the Sense of Taste Lesson (graphic) Standard 3: Utilization Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.
  18. 18. Assignment that meets this standard: Unit of Instruction The Unit of Instruction meets the standard of utilization by demonstrating the designer’s knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making. The following sub-standard was met by components of the Unit of Instruction: 3.1 Media Utilization Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design specifications. Components that meet this standard: 1. Directing attention: Attention Visual 2. Awakening prior knowledge: Unit of Instruction and all lessons within the Unit 3. Minimizing memory load: Memory Load and Far-Transfer Visual: Sense of Taste Lesson 4. Helping learners build mental models: Mental Model and Near-Transfer Visual: Sense of Hearing Lesson 5. Accommodating learner differences: Many of my visuals have text, picture, and audio to accommodate different learners. 6. Visualizing a procedure: Procedure Visual: Sense of Sight Lesson 7. Visualizing a concept: Concept Visual: Sense of Touch Lesson 8. Visualizing facts: Facts Visual: Review in Lesson 5 9. Visualizing processes: Process Visual: Sense of Sight Lesson 10. Visualizing principles: Principles Visual: Pain-Pleasure Lesson Mission of Boise State University Educational Technology Program The Department of Educational Technology is a diverse network of education scholars, professionals, and candidates who:  Lead research and innovations in online teaching and learning  Model, promote, manage, and evaluate digital-age teaching and learning resources in K-higher education environments  Inspire creativity and expertise in digital media literacy  Design and develop imaginative learning environments  Empower learners to be evolving digital citizens who advocate cultural understanding and global responsibility  Promote and pattern participatory culture, professional practice, and lifelong learning  Forge connections between research, policy, and practice in educational technology By creating a Unit of Instruction for Educational Technology 506: Instructional Message Design, I am fulfilling several parts of the Department of Educational Technology Mission Statement. The Mission Statement states that candidates will “model, promote,
  19. 19. manage, and evaluate digital-age teaching and learning resources in K-higher education environments.” My Unit of Instruction is a model that was created to be used in an actual classroom, utilizing resources available such as computer and interactive learning activities. As the mission statement states, my Unit of Instruction shows my “creativity and expertise” in digital media literacy. I have learned how to use tools for creating and implementing interactive and graphical visual learning tools. The creation of the unit involved research, policy and practice in educational technology. All of these efforts resulted in a complete and ready-to-use Unit of Instruction that is designed for a second grade curriculum. College of Education Conceptual Framework The Professional Educator Boise State University strives to develop knowledgeable educators who integrate complex roles and dispositions in the service of diverse communities of learners. Believing that all children, adolescents, and adults can learn, educators dedicate themselves to supporting that learning. Using effective approaches that promote high levels of student achievement, educators create environments that prepare learners to be citizens who contribute to a complex world. Educators serve learners as reflective practitioners, scholars and artists, problem solvers, and partners. As a student of Educational Technology, I have learned new skills and practices to improve teaching and learning using computer technology, web-based tools, and creative lesson planning. I have learned to create, use, and manage new technological processes and resources. I believe that technology is a tool that enhances and expands the educational environment. During this class, specifically, I have learned how to create a Unit of Instruction from the ground-up. I am excited to deploy my new knowledge into the world of computer-based and online learning. Biography of the designer, Erin C. Markus I am currently in my 3rd Semester in the Boise State University Educational Technology program. I am working towards the Masters of Educational Technology with a Graduate Certificate in Online Teaching. I hold a Bachelors Degree in Business Management from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University with a Minor in Aviation Safety and Aircraft Crash Investigation. I went into the teaching career field in 2006 and am a certified teacher for the State of Idaho. I taught for 2 years in Mountain Home, Idaho before moving to Redmond, Washington due to my husband’s Air Force career. I am not teaching currently and enjoy spending my free time with my 3 children, ages 8, 5 and 5 (twins).
  20. 20. REFERENCES Text: Clark, R. C., & Lyons, C. (2004). Graphics for Learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Unit and Lesson Plan Templates: Unit of Instruction Plan template obtained from http://edtech.tennessee.edu/~bobannon/unit_plans.html Lesson Plan template: O'Bannon, B. W., & Puckett, K. (2010). Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for Technology Integration. Allyn & Bacon. Graphics and Images: Advanced Organizer Visual: All images and graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. Attention Visual: All images and graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. Procedure Visual: All graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. All audio clips were created by the designer using Audacity 1.3 Beta. Mental Model Visual: Martin, Phillip (Artist). The Human Ear [Clip Art], Retrieved February 20, 2010 from http://humanbody.phillipmartin.info/human_ear.htm and adapted for the interactive visual using Adobe Fireworks. All other graphics were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. Memory Load Visual: All graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files.
  21. 21. Concepts Visual: All graphics and images were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. All audio clips were created by the designer using Audacity 1.3 Beta. Facts Visual: All graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. Process Visual: Eye diagram retrieved on March 26, 2010 from www.wikipedia.com/images and adapted for visual using Adobe Fireworks Retina image retrieved on March 6, 2010 from www.yahoo.com/images All other graphics and images obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. Principles Visual: All graphics used were obtained from Microsoft Word Clip Art files. All audio clips were created by the designer using Audacity 1.3 Beta. Book and DVD Images: All book and DVD cover images used were retrieved on April 21, 2010 from www.amazon.com Printable Materials: All printable activity materials were obtained from www.edhelper.com All lesson and unit assessments were created by the designer using Microsoft Word and Word Clip Art files and the following sources: Diagram of the skin retrieved April 26, 2010 from www.wikipedia.com Diagram of the ear retrieved April 26, 2010 from www.yahoo.com/images Diagram of the eye created by the designer using Adobe Fireworks. Online Tutorials: Children’s University of Manchester tutorials retrieved April 23rd, 2010 from http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/brainandsenses
  22. 22. Web-site Logo Images: Children’s University of Manchester logo was retrieved April 26th, 2010 from http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/brainandsenses/ Amazon.com logo was retrieved April 26th, 2010 from www.amazon.com EdHelper.com logo was retrieved April 26th, 2010 from www.edhelper.com Mission Statement: The Boise State University Department of Educational Technology mission statement was retrieved on May 3, 2010 from http://edtech.boisestate.edu/web/edtech.htm Department of Education Conceptual Framework: The Boise State University Department of Education Conceptual Framework was retrieved on May 3, 2010 from http://edtech.boisestate.edu/dbeck/541/activities/week16/conceptualframework.htm