Basics of DNA Replication

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  • 1. The Structure & Replication of DNA
  • 2. What is DNA? • Found in the nucleus of a cell in two different structures: chromatin and chromosomes • Genetic Material • Determine inherited characteristics
  • 3. What is the Structure of DNA? • It looks like a twisted ladder. • The 2 sides of the DNA ladder are made up of molecules of sugar (deoxyribose) and molecules called phosphates. • The deoxyribose and phosphates alternate, one followed by the other, all the way up both sides of the ladder.
  • 4. Deoxyribose
  • 5. The Sides of DNA SIDES DEOXYRIBOSE (SUGAR) RUNGS PHOSPHATES
  • 6. What are Nitrogen Bases? • Each rung of the DNA ladder is made up of a pair nitrogen bases. • Nitrogen bases are molecules that contain the element nitrogen combined with other elements. • DNA has 4 kinds of nitrogen bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).
  • 7. The Rungs of DNA SIDES DEOXYRIBOSE (SUGAR) RUNGS PHOSPHATES NITROGEN BASES
  • 8. How do the Nitrogen Bases Pair? • • • • • ADENINE pairs only with THYMINE. GUANINE pairs only with CYTOSINE. A–T G–C This pattern of pairing is the key to understanding how replication works.
  • 9. Nucleotides • One sugar, One phosphate and One base • Make up DNA molecules PHOSPATE BASE SUGAR
  • 10. DNA REPLICATION • Occurs during the 2nd Phase of INTERPHASE: Copying of DNA • It’s so important that we need to talk about it in detail. • First let’s look at what DNA looks like…
  • 11. Here is a DNA Molecule Notice how it is a TWISTED ladder.
  • 12. What is the Replication Process? 1. The 2 sides of the Parent DNA Molecule unwind like a zipper unzipping. The ladder separates between the paired bases. 2. The nitrogen bases that are floating in the nucleus pair up with the bases on each half of the Parent DNA molecule to make 2 new Daughter DNA molecules. • Because the bases only pair with certain bases, the order of the bases in the new Daughter DNA molecules exactly match the order in the Parent DNA molecule.
  • 13. STEP 1: Unzipping the Parent DNA Nitrogen Base Nitrogen Base
  • 14. STEP 2: Nitrogen Bases Pair Up with New Bases Daughter DNA Called a strand of DNA Parent DNA Daughter DNA
  • 15. Here is a Parent DNA molecule replicating to make 2 Daughter DNA molecules
  • 16. STEP 1: Unzipping the Parent DNA A A T T G C G C T A G C
  • 17. STEP 2: Nitrogen Bases Pair Up with New Bases G C A A G T G C T T C C G A G C