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History and approaches p

  1. 1. The History of Psychology
  2. 2. Super Important Psychology is … the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  3. 3. Before it became psychology…
  4. 4. 1649 1859 1861 1874 1879 1887 1890 RENEE DESCARTES: Mind & body separate PIERRE PAUL BROCA: l & r hemispheres = separate functions WILHELM WUNDT: 1st experimental psych lab in Lepzig WILLIAM JAMES: 1st Psych textbook: Principles of Psych CHARLES DARWIN: Origin of Species – inherited traits, survival of fittest CARL WERNICKE: Evidence that damage to specific area of brain causes specific skill loss G. STANLEY HALL: 1st Pres of APA – 1st ed of Journal of American Psych
  5. 5. Galen  Humor: body fluid  Levels of humors = effect personality  4 temperaments  Sanguine: too much blood  Phlegmatic: too much phlegm  Choleric: yellow bile  Melancholic: black bile  Early suggestion of a mind / body connection
  6. 6. Ancient Greeks Socrates & Plato  Mind separate from body, knowledge was innate  Dualism Aristotle  Mind & body connected, knowledge from experience
  7. 7. Renee Descartes Mind & body connected, knowledge from experience Believed mind was a tabula rasa (blank slate) at birth & experience was written on it “Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters.” John Locke
  8. 8. Psychology is born…
  9. 9. Wilhelm Wundt “The exact description of the consciousness is the sole aim of experimental psychology”  Father of psychology  1st psych lab built in 1879 (Leipzig, Germany)  1st to apply scientific principles to study of human mind  Believed mind = thoughts, experiences, emotions & other elements  Students had to think objectively
  10. 10.  Objective introspection: objectively examining & measuring own thoughts  Examining basic sensory processes  Sensations = 3 components:  Quality, Intensity, Feeling-tone  Ex: Dead rat = nauseating quality, strong intensity, stench feeling-tone  Wundt experiments (Time lag):  Press button when hearing sound of a ball dropping  Press button when consciously aware of perceiving the sound  Demonstrating choice reaction time Wundt styleFUN FACT: Wundt believed that meaning is more impt than language as evidenced by the fact that we often remember the general meaning of what a person said long after we’ve forgotten the words that were used to convey it.
  11. 11. Why is Wundt considered the first psychologist?
  12. 12. Structuralism
  13. 13. Edward Titchener  Student of Wundt  Structuralism: Titchner’s idea that objective introspection can be used on physical sensations (Wundt) + thoughts  Ex: Use Titchner’s structuralist view on objective introspection to explain a rose (What sensations would you have and what thoughts?) Margaret F. Washburn  Student of Titchner  1st PhD in Psych  Studied the animal mind
  14. 14. Functionalism Competing view arising at same time (also after Wundt’s lab was formed)
  15. 15. William James  Taught at Harvard  1st US school to have psych  Author of the Principles of Psychology  How the mind allows ppl to function in real world  Live, work, play, adapt etc  Consciousness = an indiv’s awareness of his/her own thoughts, incl sensations, feelings, memories  Stream of consciousness – constant chg in response to
  16. 16. Mary Whiton Clakins  Student of James  Denied Harvard degree – offered from Radcliffe – refused  Became first female pres of APA
  17. 17. Structuralism vs Functionalism  Structuralism: What the mind is Vs.  Functionalism: What the mind is for  No longer major viewpoints
  18. 18. Charles Darwin  On The Origin of Species  Theory of natural selection: an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring  Genes are inherited  If random genetic mutation that is beneficial gets passed down it becomes more common in the species  How might this be connected to psychology?
  19. 19. Gestalt Psychology
  20. 20. Max Wertheimer  Perception & sensation couldn’t be broken down into smaller pieces and still be understood  Ex: A melody is made up of indiv notes that alone don’t = a song  “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”  Ppl naturally seek out patterns and wholes in sensory info  Today part of cognitive psychology
  21. 21. Psychoanalysis
  22. 22. Sigmund Freud  Neurologist – patients had nervous disorders  Proposed an unconscious mind into which we repress (push) unwanted/threatening thoughts  Repressed thoughts result in nervous disorders  Personality formed in first 6 yrs of life  Psychoanalysis – theory & therapy based on work of Freud (dream analysis, word association, etc)  Psychotherapy – based on psychoanalysis – trained professional helps patient gain insight into own behavior  Criticized for being unscientific  Followers:  Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson
  23. 23. Behaviorism
  24. 24. Ivan Pavlov  Reflex could be caused by unrelated stimuli  Conditioning – learned reflexive response
  25. 25. John B. Watson  Behaviorism – focus only on observable behavior  No focus on consciousness  All behavior is leaned  Stimuli (environmental events) + responses (physical reactions)  Little Albert – taught to fear a rat by making scary noise – eventually other white fluffy things scary (Watson & Rayner)  Little Albert update…  Opposed to Freud (phobia result from repressed
  26. 26. B F Skinner  Included the idea of reinforcement into behaviorism  Environmental stimuli that encourage or discourage responses
  27. 27. Mary Cover Jones  Little Peter – countering fear of rabbit  Counterconditioning – slow exposure to rabbit to eliminate fear
  28. 28. The Approaches to Psychology
  29. 29. Many psychologists today use an eclectic approach
  30. 30. The Biological Approach  Sometimes called biopsychological  Attributes behavior to biological events  Criticized for that  Genetic inf, hormones and nervous system  Behavior is the direct result of events in the body  Ex: Investigate why heart races when you are afraid
  31. 31. The Behavioral Approach  Scientific study of observable behavior responses & their environmental determinants  We do what we do bc of the conditions we have experienced  Ex: Child is well-mannered bc parents have rewarded that behavior  Applied to help ppl chg behavior for better  Today not all reject cognition (thought
  32. 32. The Psychodynamic Approach  The idea that behavior comes from unconscious drives & conflicts  Conflict btwn biological drives and societal demands & early experiences  Originates with Freud  Today: less emphasis on sexual drives and more on experience
  33. 33. The Humanistic Approach  Emphasizes a person’s positive qualities, capacity for growth & free will to chose destiny  Ppl controls their lives, their environments don’t  Humans have free will & strive for self- actualization (achievement of ones full potential)  Differs from psychoanalytic: Not driven by unconscious impulses  Differs form behaviorism: Not driven by external rewards  Can aim for altruism
  34. 34. The Cognitive Approach  Focuses on mental processes involved in knowing  How we direct our attn., perceive, remember, think, solve probs  Ex: How we solve math problems, why we remember somethings for only a short time but others a long time, how we use our imagination to plan for the future  Differs from behaviorism: not driven by external forces  rather the indiv mental processes are in control of
  35. 35. The Sociocultural Approach  Focuses on relationship btwn social & cultural environments inf on behavior  Understanding a person’s behavior requires understanding the cultural context in which it occurs  Compares behavior across countries and different ethnic groups within a country  Ex: A smile is a smile everywhere
  36. 36. The Evolutionary Approach Note: Sometimes not considered one of the approaches  Focuses on the biological basis of the universal mental characteristics of all humans  Uses evolutionary ideas to explain level of aggressiveness, fears, mating patterns, etc.  All are traceable to probs early humans faced  Ex: Aggressiveness is more necessary in men bc they fought off other animals  Believe they have umbrella approach that underlies all others