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  • 1. The History of Psychology
  • 2. Super Important Psychology is … the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  • 3. Before it became psychology…
  • 4. 1649 1859 1861 1874 1879 1887 1890 RENEE DESCARTES: Mind & body separate PIERRE PAUL BROCA: l & r hemispheres = separate functions WILHELM WUNDT: 1st experimental psych lab in Lepzig WILLIAM JAMES: 1st Psych textbook: Principles of Psych CHARLES DARWIN: Origin of Species – inherited traits, survival of fittest CARL WERNICKE: Evidence that damage to specific area of brain causes specific skill loss G. STANLEY HALL: 1st Pres of APA – 1st ed of Journal of American Psych
  • 5. Galen  Humor: body fluid  Levels of humors = effect personality  4 temperaments  Sanguine: too much blood  Phlegmatic: too much phlegm  Choleric: yellow bile  Melancholic: black bile  Early suggestion of a mind / body connection
  • 6. Ancient Greeks Socrates & Plato  Mind separate from body, knowledge was innate  Dualism Aristotle  Mind & body connected, knowledge from experience
  • 7. Renee Descartes Mind & body connected, knowledge from experience Believed mind was a tabula rasa (blank slate) at birth & experience was written on it “Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters.” John Locke
  • 8. Psychology is born…
  • 9. Wilhelm Wundt “The exact description of the consciousness is the sole aim of experimental psychology”  Father of psychology  1st psych lab built in 1879 (Leipzig, Germany)  1st to apply scientific principles to study of human mind  Believed mind = thoughts, experiences, emotions & other elements  Students had to think objectively
  • 10.  Objective introspection: objectively examining & measuring own thoughts  Examining basic sensory processes  Sensations = 3 components:  Quality, Intensity, Feeling-tone  Ex: Dead rat = nauseating quality, strong intensity, stench feeling-tone  Wundt experiments (Time lag):  Press button when hearing sound of a ball dropping  Press button when consciously aware of perceiving the sound  Demonstrating choice reaction time Wundt styleFUN FACT: Wundt believed that meaning is more impt than language as evidenced by the fact that we often remember the general meaning of what a person said long after we’ve forgotten the words that were used to convey it.
  • 11. Why is Wundt considered the first psychologist?
  • 12. Structuralism
  • 13. Edward Titchener  Student of Wundt  Structuralism: Titchner’s idea that objective introspection can be used on physical sensations (Wundt) + thoughts  Ex: Use Titchner’s structuralist view on objective introspection to explain a rose (What sensations would you have and what thoughts?) Margaret F. Washburn  Student of Titchner  1st PhD in Psych  Studied the animal mind
  • 14. Functionalism Competing view arising at same time (also after Wundt’s lab was formed)
  • 15. William James  Taught at Harvard  1st US school to have psych  Author of the Principles of Psychology  How the mind allows ppl to function in real world  Live, work, play, adapt etc  Consciousness = an indiv’s awareness of his/her own thoughts, incl sensations, feelings, memories  Stream of consciousness – constant chg in response to
  • 16. Mary Whiton Clakins  Student of James  Denied Harvard degree – offered from Radcliffe – refused  Became first female pres of APA
  • 17. Structuralism vs Functionalism  Structuralism: What the mind is Vs.  Functionalism: What the mind is for  No longer major viewpoints
  • 18. Charles Darwin  On The Origin of Species  Theory of natural selection: an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring  Genes are inherited  If random genetic mutation that is beneficial gets passed down it becomes more common in the species  How might this be connected to psychology?
  • 19. Gestalt Psychology
  • 20. Max Wertheimer  Perception & sensation couldn’t be broken down into smaller pieces and still be understood  Ex: A melody is made up of indiv notes that alone don’t = a song  “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”  Ppl naturally seek out patterns and wholes in sensory info  Today part of cognitive psychology
  • 21. Psychoanalysis
  • 22. Sigmund Freud  Neurologist – patients had nervous disorders  Proposed an unconscious mind into which we repress (push) unwanted/threatening thoughts  Repressed thoughts result in nervous disorders  Personality formed in first 6 yrs of life  Psychoanalysis – theory & therapy based on work of Freud (dream analysis, word association, etc)  Psychotherapy – based on psychoanalysis – trained professional helps patient gain insight into own behavior  Criticized for being unscientific  Followers:  Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson
  • 23. Behaviorism
  • 24. Ivan Pavlov  Reflex could be caused by unrelated stimuli  Conditioning – learned reflexive response
  • 25. John B. Watson  Behaviorism – focus only on observable behavior  No focus on consciousness  All behavior is leaned  Stimuli (environmental events) + responses (physical reactions)  Little Albert – taught to fear a rat by making scary noise – eventually other white fluffy things scary (Watson & Rayner)  Little Albert update…  Opposed to Freud (phobia result from repressed
  • 26. B F Skinner  Included the idea of reinforcement into behaviorism  Environmental stimuli that encourage or discourage responses
  • 27. Mary Cover Jones  Little Peter – countering fear of rabbit  Counterconditioning – slow exposure to rabbit to eliminate fear
  • 28. The Approaches to Psychology
  • 29. Many psychologists today use an eclectic approach
  • 30. The Biological Approach  Sometimes called biopsychological  Attributes behavior to biological events  Criticized for that  Genetic inf, hormones and nervous system  Behavior is the direct result of events in the body  Ex: Investigate why heart races when you are afraid
  • 31. The Behavioral Approach  Scientific study of observable behavior responses & their environmental determinants  We do what we do bc of the conditions we have experienced  Ex: Child is well-mannered bc parents have rewarded that behavior  Applied to help ppl chg behavior for better  Today not all reject cognition (thought
  • 32. The Psychodynamic Approach  The idea that behavior comes from unconscious drives & conflicts  Conflict btwn biological drives and societal demands & early experiences  Originates with Freud  Today: less emphasis on sexual drives and more on experience
  • 33. The Humanistic Approach  Emphasizes a person’s positive qualities, capacity for growth & free will to chose destiny  Ppl controls their lives, their environments don’t  Humans have free will & strive for self- actualization (achievement of ones full potential)  Differs from psychoanalytic: Not driven by unconscious impulses  Differs form behaviorism: Not driven by external rewards  Can aim for altruism
  • 34. The Cognitive Approach  Focuses on mental processes involved in knowing  How we direct our attn., perceive, remember, think, solve probs  Ex: How we solve math problems, why we remember somethings for only a short time but others a long time, how we use our imagination to plan for the future  Differs from behaviorism: not driven by external forces  rather the indiv mental processes are in control of
  • 35. The Sociocultural Approach  Focuses on relationship btwn social & cultural environments inf on behavior  Understanding a person’s behavior requires understanding the cultural context in which it occurs  Compares behavior across countries and different ethnic groups within a country  Ex: A smile is a smile everywhere
  • 36. The Evolutionary Approach Note: Sometimes not considered one of the approaches  Focuses on the biological basis of the universal mental characteristics of all humans  Uses evolutionary ideas to explain level of aggressiveness, fears, mating patterns, etc.  All are traceable to probs early humans faced  Ex: Aggressiveness is more necessary in men bc they fought off other animals  Believe they have umbrella approach that underlies all others