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Behavioral theories

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Mc Gregor theory, Kurt Lewins, Jenkins and Henderson

Mc Gregor theory, Kurt Lewins, Jenkins and Henderson

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  • 1. Leadership Theories --Behavioral Theory Presented By; Hanna Grace G. Olvido, R.N. September 28, 2013 1
  • 2. Behavioral Theory In the behavioural view of leadership, personal traits provide only foundation for leadership; real leaders are made through education, training, and life experiences. Effective Leaders acquire a pattern of learned behaviours. 2
  • 3. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist • (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) • German-American psychologist, • One of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology. • Recognized as the "founder of social psychology" and was one of the first to study group dynamics and organizational development. 3
  • 4. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist LEADERSHIP CLIMATES 1.Autocratic (Paternalistic) 2.Democratic (Participative) 3.Laissez – faire (Permissive) 4
  • 5. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Authoritarian Leadership Assumes that individuals are motivated by external forces; therefore, the leader makes all decisions and directs the followers’ behaviour. 5
  • 6. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Authoritarian Leadership 6
  • 7. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Authoritarian Leadership (Benefits) • • • • • Quick Decision Making Absolute Control Focused Targets Close Supervision Maintains Order & Discipline 7
  • 8. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Authoritarian Leadership (Downfall) • • • • • • Excessive Leader Dependence One way communication Fearful and devalued Employees Exploitation of Employees High Staff Turnover and Absenteeism Low Employee Morale 8
  • 9. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Authoritarian Leadership Common Characteristics? Implications to Nursing Settings? 9
  • 10. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Democratic Leadership Assumes that individuals are motivated by internal forces; leader uses participation and majority rule to get work done. 10
  • 11. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Democratic Leadership 11
  • 12. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Democratic Leadership (Benefits) • • • • • Reduced Communication Gap All ideas are welcome and considered Positive working environment Reduced Employee turnover Leadership skills are developed 12
  • 13. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Democratic Leadership (Downfall) • Managers tend to please the subordinates • Long process for decision making 13
  • 14. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Democratic Leadership Common Characteristics? Implications to Nursing Settings? 14
  • 15. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Laissez-faire Leadership Assumes that individuals are motivated by internal forces and should be left alone to complete facilitation. 15
  • 16. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Laissez-faire Leadership 16
  • 17. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Laissez-faire Leadership(Benefits) • No work for the leader • Allows the visionary workers the opportunity to do what they want to do, free from interference. • Frustration may force others into leadership roles. 17
  • 18. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Laissez-faire Leadership (Downfall) • • • • Less Group satisfaction Less Group productivity & Poorer quality of work Less personal growth Jobs fall back on someone else or are not completed 18
  • 19. Kurt Lewins Behavioral Theory – 1st Theorist Laissez-faire Leadership How is this significant? Implications to Nursing Settings? 19
  • 20. Jenkins and Henderson Behavioral Theory – 2nd Theorist Bureaucrat Leadership Assumes that individuals are motivated by external forces; leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decisions and therefore relies on organizational policies and rules. 20
  • 21. Jenkins and Henderson Behavioral Theory – 2nd Theorist Bureaucrat Leadership 21
  • 22. Jenkins and Henderson Behavioral Theory – 2nd Theorist Bureaucratic Leadership(Benefits) • Very useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks • Ensure safety and accuracy and increase security and minimize malpractice • Ensure strict adherence to policies such as financial handling 22
  • 23. Jenkins and Henderson Behavioral Theory – 2nd Theorist Bureaucratic Leadership (Downfall) • Inflexible; work habit forms are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful. • Does not promote creativity, innovation, advancement of skills and knowledge. • Cause resentment as the expertise, qualifications, and advices of followers/team members are not valued in this approach. How is this significant? Implications to Nursing Settings? 23
  • 24. Comparison Autocratic (Paternalistic) Democratic (Paternalistic) Laissez Faire (Permissive) Bureaucratic 24
  • 25. Comparison Autocratic Democratic  Concerned with task accomplishment rather than relationships.  Makes decisions alone  Expects respect and obedience of staff.  Lacks group support generated by participation.  Exercises power with coercion.  Proves useful (even necessary) in crisis situation.  Is primarily concerned with human relations and teamwork.  Fosters communication that is open and usually twoway.  Creates a spirit of collaboration and joint effort that results in staff satisfaction Laissez Faire Bureaucratic  Tends to have few  Lack a sense of established policies; security and depends abstains from leading. on established policies  Is not generally useful and rules.  Exercises power by in highly structured organizations. (e.g., applying fixed, relatively health care institutions) inflexible rules.  Tends to relate impersonally to staff  Avoids decision-making without standards or norms for guidance. 25
  • 26. Douglas McGregor Behavioral Theory – 3rd Theorist • (1906 – 1 October 1964). • Management professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management • President of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954. • He also taught at the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. • His 1960 book The Human Side of Enterprise had a profound influence on education practices. 26
  • 27. Douglas McGregor Behavioral Theory – 3rd Theorist Human Side of Enterprise or X and Y Theory 27
  • 28. Douglas McGregor Behavioral Theory – 3rd Theorist X Theory (-) Assumes that people dislike work and will avoid it; consequently, workers must be directed, controlled, coerced, and threatened so that organizational goals can be met. 28
  • 29. Douglas McGregor Behavioral Theory – 3rd Theorist Y Theory (+) It is the manager’s assumption that people do not inherently dislike work and that work can be a source of satisfaction. Theory Y managers assume that workers have the self direction and self-control necessary for meeting theirs objectives and will respond to rewards for the accomplishment of those goals. 29
  • 30. Comparison 30
  • 31. Comparison 31
  • 32. "If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader." --- John Quincy Adams --- Thank you! 32
  • 33. --- END --- Presented By; Hanna Grace G. Olvido, R.N. September 28, 2013 33