Introduction to Animals

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This PowerPoint is used as an introduction to animals characteristics in my High School Honors Zoology Class.

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Introduction to Animals

  1. 1. *List as many characteristics as you can that define something as an “ANIMAL”...
  2. 2. CHARACTERISTICS of ANIMALS *to be an “animal” it must:
  3. 3. <ul><li>MOVE </li></ul><ul><li>MULTICELLULAR </li></ul><ul><li>EAT (use energy) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ BREATHE” </li></ul><ul><li>GROW </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCE </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>RESPOND to a STIMULUS </li></ul><ul><li>STORE ENERGY as GLYCOGEN </li></ul><ul><li>????????? </li></ul>
  6. 6. MOTILE: *the ability to MOVE by...
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ limbs” = walking </li></ul>“ fins” = swimming
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ wings” = flying </li></ul>“ false foot” = ??? (pseudopod)
  9. 9. WHEN did animals 1st appear on Earth?: 700-800 M.Y. ago
  10. 10. VERTEBRATES vs. INVERTEBRATES *presence of a backbone
  11. 11. BODY SYMMETRY
  12. 12. RADIAL SYMMETRY => <ul><li>“ circular” </li></ul><ul><li>starfish, jellyfish, marine worms </li></ul><ul><li>tend to be slow </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Have a TOP or “DORSAL” surface </li></ul><ul><li>have a BOTTOM or “VENTRAL” surface </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ ventral” “ dorsal”
  15. 17. BILATERAL SYMMETRY => <ul><li>fast-moving </li></ul><ul><li>also have “dorsal” & “ventral” side </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Has an ANTERIOR or “front” </li></ul><ul><li>has a POSTERIOR or “back” </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>has a “left” & “right” </li></ul>*more complex/ advanced than radials
  18. 22. Tissue Development
  19. 23. EGG + SPERM = ZYGOTE
  20. 24. ZYGOTE “ cleavage”
  21. 25. ZYGOTE etc... BLASTULA
  22. 26. ZYGOTE etc... *certain cells move inward
  23. 27. GASTRULA “ ectoderm” “ blastopore” “ endoderm”
  24. 28. * DEUTEROSTOMES: (blastopore ---> anus) *PROTOSTOMES: (blastopore ---> mouth)
  25. 29. 3 cell layers form in most animals: <ul><li>* ENDODERM (inner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-dig. tract, resp. system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* MESODERM (middle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-circ. system, muscles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rep. system, exc. system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* ECTODERM (outer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-skin, nerves, sense organs </li></ul></ul>
  26. 31. Support & Movement Systems - (3)
  27. 32. I. HYDROSTATIC skeleton: *muscles that surround & are supported by water (roundworms & earthworms)
  28. 33. II. EXOSKELETON: * “hard shell”… muscles att. to the inside of shell (insects & crustaceans) * limits mobility & growth
  29. 34. III. ENDOSKELETON: * rigid framework inside an animal (protects less) (vertebrates/humans) * allows movement & growth
  30. 35. DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
  31. 36. I. MOST PRIMITIVE *A cavity where food is partially digested before moved into cells to complete the process (flatworms)
  32. 37. II. MEDIUM SOPH. *a two-way digestive system *digested & undigested food mix (cnidarians)
  33. 38. III. ADVANCED *food takes a one-way path *w/ special cells to absorb nutrients (fish)
  34. 39. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
  35. 40. *Nearly ALL animals are capable of sexual reproduction.
  36. 41. hermaphrodite (An advantage for members of small populations that seldom encounter others of the same sp.) *An animal w/ fully functioning male & female rep. structures is a:
  37. 42. * timed gamete production *
  38. 43. Asexual
  39. 44. sexual
  40. 46. NICHE
  41. 47. Species Interactions - Symbiosis <ul><li>Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship </li></ul>
  42. 48. Species Interactions - Symbiosis <ul><li>Commensalism - one species benefits from the relationship while the other is not affected </li></ul>
  43. 49. Species Interactions - Symbiosis <ul><li>Parasitism - one species benefits from the relationship while the other is harmed </li></ul>
  44. 52. *The End*

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