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Introduction to Animals
 

Introduction to Animals

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This PowerPoint is used as an introduction to animals characteristics in my High School Honors Zoology Class.

This PowerPoint is used as an introduction to animals characteristics in my High School Honors Zoology Class.

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    Introduction to Animals Introduction to Animals Presentation Transcript

    • *List as many characteristics as you can that define something as an “ANIMAL”...
    • CHARACTERISTICS of ANIMALS *to be an “animal” it must:
      • MOVE
      • MULTICELLULAR
      • EAT (use energy)
      • “ BREATHE”
      • GROW
      • REPRODUCE
      • RESPOND to a STIMULUS
      • STORE ENERGY as GLYCOGEN
      • ?????????
    • MOTILE: *the ability to MOVE by...
      • “ limbs” = walking
      “ fins” = swimming
      • “ wings” = flying
      “ false foot” = ??? (pseudopod)
    • WHEN did animals 1st appear on Earth?: 700-800 M.Y. ago
    • VERTEBRATES vs. INVERTEBRATES *presence of a backbone
    • BODY SYMMETRY
    • RADIAL SYMMETRY =>
      • “ circular”
      • starfish, jellyfish, marine worms
      • tend to be slow
      • Have a TOP or “DORSAL” surface
      • have a BOTTOM or “VENTRAL” surface
    • “ ventral” “ dorsal”
    •  
    •  
    • BILATERAL SYMMETRY =>
      • fast-moving
      • also have “dorsal” & “ventral” side
      • Has an ANTERIOR or “front”
      • has a POSTERIOR or “back”
    •  
      • has a “left” & “right”
      *more complex/ advanced than radials
    •  
    • Tissue Development
    • EGG + SPERM = ZYGOTE
    • ZYGOTE “ cleavage”
    • ZYGOTE etc... BLASTULA
    • ZYGOTE etc... *certain cells move inward
    • GASTRULA “ ectoderm” “ blastopore” “ endoderm”
    • * DEUTEROSTOMES: (blastopore ---> anus) *PROTOSTOMES: (blastopore ---> mouth)
    • 3 cell layers form in most animals:
      • * ENDODERM (inner)
        • -dig. tract, resp. system
      • * MESODERM (middle)
        • -circ. system, muscles,
        • rep. system, exc. system
      • * ECTODERM (outer)
        • -skin, nerves, sense organs
    •  
    • Support & Movement Systems - (3)
    • I. HYDROSTATIC skeleton: *muscles that surround & are supported by water (roundworms & earthworms)
    • II. EXOSKELETON: * “hard shell”… muscles att. to the inside of shell (insects & crustaceans) * limits mobility & growth
    • III. ENDOSKELETON: * rigid framework inside an animal (protects less) (vertebrates/humans) * allows movement & growth
    • DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
    • I. MOST PRIMITIVE *A cavity where food is partially digested before moved into cells to complete the process (flatworms)
    • II. MEDIUM SOPH. *a two-way digestive system *digested & undigested food mix (cnidarians)
    • III. ADVANCED *food takes a one-way path *w/ special cells to absorb nutrients (fish)
    • REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
    • *Nearly ALL animals are capable of sexual reproduction.
    • hermaphrodite (An advantage for members of small populations that seldom encounter others of the same sp.) *An animal w/ fully functioning male & female rep. structures is a:
    • * timed gamete production *
    • Asexual
    • sexual
    •  
    • NICHE
    • Species Interactions - Symbiosis
      • Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship
    • Species Interactions - Symbiosis
      • Commensalism - one species benefits from the relationship while the other is not affected
    • Species Interactions - Symbiosis
      • Parasitism - one species benefits from the relationship while the other is harmed
    •  
    •  
    • *The End*