GMDSS    ^          ^       ^       ^         HandbookHandbook on the Global Maritime   Distress and Safety System        ...
First published in 1992                 by the INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION                         4 Albert Embank...
ForewordSince its establishment in 1959, the International Maritime Organization and its Member Governments, in closeco-op...
GMDSS Handbook                                                                                                            ...
Page vi                                                                                                          GMDSS Han...
GMDSS Handbook                                                                                        Page vii            ...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 1                                                                                    Page 1         ...
Page 2                                                                                   GMDSS Handbook – Part 11.2     Th...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 2                                                                                          Page 3   ...
Page 4   GMDSS Handbook – Part 2
GMDSS Handbook – Part 2   Page 5
Page 6   GMDSS Handbook – Part 2
GMDSS Handbook – Part 2                                                                                          Page 72.1...
Page 8                                                                                                   GMDSS Handbook – ...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                    Page 9         ...
Page 10                                                                                                 GMDSS Handbook – P...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                    Page 11communic...
Page 12                                                                                GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Inmarsat-C S...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                      Page 133.2.16...
Page 14                                                                                GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Shore-to-shi...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                                   ...
Page 16                                                                                                    GMDSS Handbook ...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                Page 17                            ...
Page 18                                                                                GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Coverage mod...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                            Page 19                ...
Page 20                                                                                                GMDSS Handbook – Pa...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                              Page 213.3.26 For the...
Page 22                                                                           GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                 ...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                       Page 23Syste...
Page 24                                                                             GMDSS Handbook – Part 3The real-time c...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                     Page 253.4    ...
Page 26                                                                                    GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.4.10 I...
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                                Page 273.4.19 A coa...
Page 28                                                                                        GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.4....
GMDSS Handbook – Part 3                                                                             Page 29               ...
Page 30                                                                            GMDSS Handbook – Part 3        . HF nar...
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001

4,944

Published on

GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001

1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • je trouve ce site très intéressant.
    merci à vous tous
    idir
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,944
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
234
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

GMDSS IMO HANDBOOK 2001

  1. 1. GMDSS ^ ^ ^ ^ HandbookHandbook on the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System 3rd Edition, 2001 This Handbook is not to be considered as a replacement or substitute for the ITU ‘‘Manual for Use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services’’ or any other publication required to be carried on board a ship by the Radio Regulations or any other international convention. B IMO London, 2001
  2. 2. First published in 1992 by the INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR Printed by the International Maritime Organization, London Second edition 1995 Third edition 2001 2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 ISBN 92-801-5098-7 Sales number: IMO-970E Copyright # IMO 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may, for sales purposes, be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the International Maritime OrganizationNOTE: ITU materials included in this publication have been reproduced, with the priorauthorization of the publishers, from the following ITU publications: ITU-R Recommenda-tions, 1997 M Series, Volumes 3, 4 and 5; Radio Regulations (Edition of 1998); and FinalActs of WARC–Mob–83, WARC–Mob–87, WRC–95, WRC–97 and WRC–2000. Thesepublications can be ordered directly from the International Telecommunication Union,Sales and Marketing Service, Place des Nations, CH–1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Photos in this publication were kindly made available by the International Mobile Sa-tellite Organization, COSPAS–SARSAT, the International Radio-Maritime Committee, andthe Japan Maritime Safety Agency.
  3. 3. ForewordSince its establishment in 1959, the International Maritime Organization and its Member Governments, in closeco-operation with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and with other international organiza-tions, notably the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Hydrographic Organization(IHO) and the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat), and with the COSPAS–SARSAT partners,have striven to improve maritime distress and safety radiocommunications.The culmination of this work was the entry into force and implementation of the global maritime distress andsafety system (GMDSS) in February 1999.The intent of this Handbook is to provide in a single comprehensive publication an explanation of the principlesupon which the GMDSS is based, the radiocommunication requirements and recommendations for its im-plementation, the operational performance standards and technical specifications to be met by GMDSS equip-ment, and the procedures for and method of operation of the various radio services which form the GMDSS andthe Master Plan for the GMDSS.Regulations cited in the text are taken from the 1988 (GMDSS) amendments to the International Convention forthe Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended. NoteEvery effort has been made to ensure that the material in this publication is accurate and up to date, but a certaindegree of obsolescence is inevitable. Most of the texts in this publication are up to date as of July 2000, but in caseof doubt or uncertainty about the material, readers should contact their national maritime Administrations or theInternational Maritime Organization for guidance.
  4. 4. GMDSS Handbook Page v Contents PageAbbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiPart 1 – Introduction1.1 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 The old system and the need for improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Part 2 – Basic concept of the GMDSS2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Communications functions in the GMDSS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Alerting SAR co-ordinating communications On-scene communications Locating Promulgation of maritime safety information General radiocommunications Bridge-to-bridge communicationsPart 3 – Communications systems in the GMDSS3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Satellite communications Terrestrial communications Frequencies used in the GMDSS3.2 Inmarsat system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction Space segment Coast earth stations Ship earth stations Inmarsat services3.3 COSPAS–SARSAT system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Introduction General concept of the system Coverage modes 121.5 MHz satellite EPIRBs 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs Space segment Local user terminals and mission control centres System performance and operations  >>>
  5. 5. Page vi GMDSS Handbook3.4 Digital selective calling system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Introduction Basic description of DSC3.5 Search and rescue radar transponders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Introduction Operational and technical characteristics3.6 Equipment performance standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.7 Maritime safety information system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Introduction The International NAVTEX system Enhanced group call systemPart 4 – GMDSS equipment carriage requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Part 5 – Operational procedures for the GMDSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Part 6 – Shore-based SAR communication network and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Part 7 – Master Plan for the GMDSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Part 8 – Maintenance of equipment in the GMDSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Annex 1 – Amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention concerning radiocommunications for the GMDSS and Conference resolutionsAnnex 2 – IMO Assembly and MSC resolutions relevant to the GMDSSAnnex 3 – GMDSS radio equipment (IMO performance standards and related ITU-R recommendations)Annex 4 – Maritime safety informationAnnex 5 – Master Plan for the GMDSSAnnex 6 – COSPAS–SARSAT system dataAnnex 7 – MSC Circulars relevant to the GMDSSAnnex 8 – COM and COMSAR Circulars relevant to the GMDSSAnnex 9 – Articles and appendices of the Radio Regulations relevant to the GMDSSAnnex 10 – WARC-Mob-83, WARC-Mob-87, WRC-95, WRC-97 and WRC-2000 Resolutions and RecommendationsAnnex 11 – Resolutions of the 1979 SAR Conference relevant to the GMDSS
  6. 6. GMDSS Handbook Page vii AbbreviationsIn addition to standard SI units, the following abbreviations are used in this publication: ADE above-deck equipment ALC automatic level control BDE below-deck equipment CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee CES coast earth station CMC COSPAS mission control centre (Moscow) COSPAS Space System for Search of Distress Vessels CSS co-ordinator surface search DMG distress message generator DSC digital selective calling EGC enhanced group call ELT emergency locator transmitter EPIRB emergency position-indicating radio beacon GMDSS global maritime distress and safety system HF high frequency ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IF intermediate frequency IFRB International Frequency Registration Board IHO International Hydrographic Organization IMO International Maritime Organization Inmarsat International Mobile Satellite Organization ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-R ITU Radiocommunication Sector (former CCIR) ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (former CCITT) LCD liquid-crystal display LUT local user terminal MCC mission control centre MF medium frequency MSI maritime safety information NBDP narrow-band direct printing (telegraphy) NCC network control centre NCS network co-ordination station OCC operations control centre OSC on-scene commander PLB personal locator beacon RCC rescue co-ordination centre RF radio-frequency RR Radio Regulations RSC rescue sub-centre SAR search and rescue SAR Convention International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979 SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking SART search and rescue radar transponder SES ship earth station SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended VDU visual display unit VHF very high frequency VTS vessel tracking system WARC World Administrative Radio Conference WMO World Meteorological Organization WRC World Radiocommunication Conference WWNWS World-Wide Navigational Warning Service
  7. 7. GMDSS Handbook – Part 1 Page 1 Part 1 Introduction1.1 HistorySince its establishment in 1959, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in its efforts to enhance safety atsea by the adoption of the highest practicable standards, has sought to improve the radiocommunication pro-visions of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and to exploit the advances made inradiocommunication technology.The shipborne radiocommunication equipment prescribed by the 1960 and 1974 SOLAS Conventions consistedof radiotelegraph equipment for passenger ships of all sizes and cargo ships of 1,600 tons gross tonnage andupwards, as well as radiotelephone equipment for cargo ships of 300 to 1,600 tons gross tonnage. The ships sofitted, although they could receive a distress alert, could not communicate with each other, and it was not until1984 that all ships were required to be able to communicate by means of VHF and MF radiotelephone. The rangeof transmission on MF was only 150 miles, so for ships beyond this distance from the nearest coast station, the oldsystem is essentially a ship-to-ship distress system.In 1972, with the assistance of the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR), IMO commenced astudy of maritime satellite communications which resulted in the establishment, in 1979, of the Inmarsat or-ganization, thus making available to shipping an international satellite communications system.In 1973, through Assembly resolution A.283(VIII), IMO reviewed its policy on the development of the maritimedistress system so as to incorporate satellite communications and foresaw the possibility of automatic alerting andtransmission of maritime distress and safety information.In 1979 the International Conference on Maritime Search and Rescue adopted the International Convention onMaritime Search and Rescue, 1979 (1979 SAR Convention), the ultimate objective of which is to establish aglobal plan for maritime search and rescue (SAR) on a framework of multilateral or bilateral agreements betweenneighbouring states on the provision of SAR services in coastal and adjacent ocean waters to achieve co-operationand mutual support in responding to distress incidents. The Conference also invited IMO to develop a globalmaritime distress and safety system, including telecommunication provisions, for the effective operation of thesearch and rescue plan prescribed in the 1979 SAR Convention.*The IMO Assembly, at its eleventh session in 1979, considered the existing arrangements for maritime distressand safety communications and decided that a new global maritime distress and safety system should be estab-lished to improve distress and safety radiocommunications and procedures. In conjunction with a co-ordinatedsearch and rescue infrastructure, it would incorporate recent technical developments and significantly improve thesafety of life at sea.With the assistance of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), CCIR, other international organi-zations, notably the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Hydrographic Organization(IHO), Inmarsat, and the COSPAS–SARSAT partners, IMO developed and proved the various equipment andtechniques used in the global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS). The ITU also established theappropriate regulatory framework for the implementation of the GMDSS.The 1983 and 1987 World Administrative Radio Conferences for the Mobile Services (WARC Mob-83 and-87) and WARC-92 adopted amendments to the ITU Radio Regulations which prescribe the frequencies,operational procedures and radio personnel for the GMDSS.In 1988, the Conference of Contracting Governments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention on the Global MaritimeDistress and Safety System (GMDSS Conference) adopted amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention con-cerning radiocommunications for the GMDSS, together with several relevant resolutions. These amendmentsentered into force on 1 February 1992, and the GMDSS was fully implemented on 1 February 1999.* See annex 11-2.
  8. 8. Page 2 GMDSS Handbook – Part 11.2 The old system and the need for improvementThe old maritime distress and safety system, as defined in chapter IV of the 1974 SOLAS Convention in forceprior to 1 February 1992, was based on the requirements that certain classes of ships, when at sea, keep con-tinuous radio watch on the international distress frequencies assigned in accordance with the ITU Radio Reg-ulations and carry radio equipment capable of transmitting over a minimum specified range. The master of anyship at sea should, on receiving a signal that a ship, aircraft or survival craft is in distress, proceed with all speed tothe assistance of the persons in distress, informing them that he is doing so. Since the minimum specified range ofcommunications provided by the required shipborne equipment is 100–150 nautical miles, assistance to a ship indistress could generally only be rendered by other shipping in the vicinity of an incident, which means that the oldsystem is primarily intended for ship-to-ship operation. However, in accordance with the ITU Radio Regula-tions, coast stations generally maintain a continuous watch during their service hours on the distress frequencies.The old system includes two major manually operated subsystems: . The Morse telegraphy system on 500 kHz for all cargo ships of 1,600 tons gross tonnage and over and all passenger ships. Since Morse competence is essential to the operation of this system, a Morse- qualified radio officer is required on all ships having radiotelegraph installation. . The radiotelephony system on 2182 kHz and 156.8 MHz for all cargo ships of 300 tons gross tonnage and over and all passenger ships, which provides common distress communications for all ships subject to the 1974 SOLAS Convention.It has proved difficult to make any significant progress in the communication arrangements for a ship in distresswhen it is beyond the range of MF coast radio stations, although various measures have been implemented toimprove the situation.The introduction of modern technology, including satellite and digital selective calling techniques, enables adistress alert to be transmitted and received automatically over long range with a significantly higher reliability.
  9. 9. GMDSS Handbook – Part 2 Page 3 Part 2 Basic concept of the GMDSS2.1 General2.1.1 The basic concept of the GMDSS (shown in figure 1) is that search and rescue authorities ashore, as wellas shipping in the immediate vicinity of the ship in distress, will be rapidly alerted to a distress incident so that theycan assist in a co-ordinated SAR operation with the minimum delay. The system also provides for urgency andsafety communications and the promulgation of maritime safety information (MSI) – navigational and meteor-ological warnings and forecasts and other urgent safety information to ships. In other words, every ship is able,irrespective of the area in which it operates, to perform those communication functions which are essential for thesafety of the ship itself and of other ships operating in the same area. Figure 1 – General concept of the GMDSS
  10. 10. Page 4 GMDSS Handbook – Part 2
  11. 11. GMDSS Handbook – Part 2 Page 5
  12. 12. Page 6 GMDSS Handbook – Part 2
  13. 13. GMDSS Handbook – Part 2 Page 72.1.2 Recognizing that the different radio subsystems incorporated in the GMDSS system have individuallimitations with respect to the geographical coverage and services provided, the equipment required to be carriedby a ship is determined in principle by the ship’s area of operation, which is designated as follows (regulation IV/2.1.12–2.1.15): . Sea area A1 – an area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous digital selective calling (DSC) alerting is available, as may be defined by a Contracting Government; . Sea area A2 – an area, excluding sea area A1, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC alerting is available, as may be defined by a Contracting Government; . Sea area A3 – an area, excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an Inmarsat geo- stationary satellite in which continuous alerting is available; and . Sea area A4 – an area outside sea areas A1, A2 and A3.In all areas of operation, the continuous availability of alerting is required. Criteria for establishing those GMDSSsea areas are given in annex 2-16.2.2 Communications functions in the GMDSSThe GMDSS comprises the following communications functions as required by regulation IV/4. These functionsare individually performed by the radio subsystems set out in part 3.Alerting (regulation IV/4.1.1–4.1.3)2.2.1 Distress alerting is the rapid and successful reporting of a distress incident to a unit which can provide orco-ordinate assistance, as prescribed in RR N3112* This would be a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) oranother ship in the vicinity. When an alert is received by an RCC, normally via a coast station or coast earthstation, the RCC will relay the alert to SAR units and to ships in the vicinity of the distress incident. A distressalert should indicate the ship’s identification and the position of the distress and, where practicable, its nature andother information which could be used for rescue operations (RR N3113*).2.2.2 The communication arrangements under the GMDSS are designed to enable distress alerting to beperformed in all three directions – ship-to-shore, ship-to-ship and shore-to-ship – in all sea areas (regulation IV/4.1.1–4.1.3). The alerting function is based on both satellite and terrestrial means and the initial distress alert isprimarily transmitted in the ship-to-shore direction. When the distress alert is transmitted by DSC on VHF, MFor HF, ships within DSC range of the ship in distress will also be alerted (ship-to-ship alerting).2.2.3 A distress alert is normally initiated manually and all distress alerts are acknowledged manually. When aship sinks, a float-free satellite emergency position-indicating radio beacon (EPIRB) is automatically activated.Ships operating exclusively in sea area A1 may, in lieu of satellite EPIRBs, use VHF EPIRBs on channel 70.2.2.4 The relaying of a distress alert from an RCC to ships in the vicinity of a distress incident is made bysatellite communication or by terrestrial communication, using appropriate frequencies. In either case, to avoid allships in a large sea area being alerted, an ‘‘area call’’ is normally transmitted so that only those ships in the vicinityof the distress incident are alerted. On receipt of a relayed distress alert, ships in the area addressed are required toestablish communication with the RCC concerned to enable the assistance to be co-ordinated. Parts 5 and 6 dealwith the operational procedure and routeing of the distress alert.SAR co-ordinating communications (regulation IV/4.1.4)2.2.5 In general, these are the communications necessary for the co-ordination of ships and aircraft participatingin a search and rescue operation following a distress alert and include communications between RCCs{ and any‘‘on-scene commander (OSC)’’{ or ‘‘co-ordinator surface search (CSS)’’{ in the area of the distress incident.* See annex 9-6.{ They are defined in the annex to the 1979 SAR Convention, chapter I, as amended.
  14. 14. Page 8 GMDSS Handbook – Part 22.2.6 For SAR operations, messages are transmitted in both directions, as distinct from ‘‘alerting’’, which isgenerally the transmission of a specific message in one direction only, and distress and safety traffic by radio-telephony and direct-printing telegraphy will normally be used for passing such messages.2.2.7 The techniques which are available for SAR co-ordinating communications are radiotelephony or direct-printing telegraphy or both. These communications can be carried out by terrestrial or satellite means, dependentupon the equipment fitted on the ship and the sea area in which the incident occurs.On-scene communications (regulation IV/4.1.5)2.2.8 On-scene communications normally take place in the MF and VHF bands on frequencies designated fordistress and safety traffic (given in annex 9-3), by radiotelephony or direct-printing telegraphy. These commu-nications between the ship in distress and assisting units relate to the provision of assistance to the ship or therescue of survivors. When aircraft are involved in on-scene communications they are normally able to use 3023,4125 and 5680 kHz. In addition, SAR aircraft can be provided with equipment to communicate on 2182 kHz or156.8 MHz or both, as well as on other maritime mobile frequencies.Locating (regulation IV/4.1.6)2.2.9 Locating is the finding of a ship/aircraft in distress or its survival craft or survivors, as defined by regulationIV/2.1.8. In the GMDSS this function is performed by means of 9 GHz SAR radar transponders (SARTs) carriedby the ship in distress or its survivors, whose position is indicated when the SART is interrogated by the searchingunit’s 9 GHz radar. Use of the frequency 121.5 MHz in most satellite EPIRBs is provided for homing byaeronautical SAR units.Promulgation of maritime safety information (MSI) (regulation IV/4.1.7)2.2.10 Ships need to be provided with up-to-date navigational warnings and meteorological warnings andforecasts and other urgent maritime safety information (MSI). MSI is made available by narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy broadcasts, using forward error correction, on the frequency 518 kHz (International NAV-TEX service – regulation 2.1.7) and, for ships which navigate beyond the NAVTEX coverage, by broadcasts viathe Inmarsat enhanced group call (EGC) system (known as the International SafetyNET system). A high-seasMSI broadcast system by HF direct-printing telegraphy is under development.* Details for MSI systems are givenin section 3.7.General radiocommunications (regulation IV/4.1.8)2.2.11 General radiocommunications in the GMDSS are those communications between ship stations andshore-based communication networks which concern the management and operation of the ship and may havean impact on its safety (regulation IV/2.1.5). These communications can be conducted on any appropriatechannel, including those used for public correspondence. Examples are orders for pilot and tug services, chartreplacement, repairs, etc.Bridge-to-bridge communications (regulation IV/4.1.9)2.2.12 Bridge-to-bridge communications are inter-ship safety communications conducted from the positionfrom which the ship is normally navigated (regulation IV/2.1.1), normally performed by VHF radiotelephony.* See regulation IV/7.1.5 and annex 2-12, paragraph 3.5 of this publication. See also annexes 3-5-3, 3-5-4 and 3-5-6.
  15. 15. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 9 Part 3 Communications systems in the GMDSS3.1 GeneralSatellite communicationsSatellite communications are particularly important elements of the GMDSS.3.1.1 The Inmarsat system, which employs geostationary satellites and operates in the 1.5 and 1.6 GHz band (L-band), provides ships fitted with ship earth stations with a means of distress alerting and a capability for two-waycommunications using direct-printing telegraphy, data transmission and radiotelephone. L-Band satellite EPIRBsare also used for distress alerting. The International SafetyNET system is used as a main means to provide MSI toareas not covered by the International NAVTEX system.3.1.2 A polar-orbiting satellite system, operating in the 406 MHz band using satellite EPIRBs (COSPAS–SARSAT system), provides one of the main means of distress alerting and determining the identity and positionof the ship in distress or its survivors in the GMDSS.Terrestrial communications3.1.3 With terrestrial communications, DSC forms the basis of distress alerting and safety communications.Distress and safety communications following a DSC call can be performed by radiotelephony or direct-printingtelegraphy or both.Long-range service3.1.4 Use of HF provides a long-range service in both the ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship directions. In areascovered by Inmarsat it can be used as an alternative to satellite communications and outside these areas it providesthe only long-range communication capability. Frequencies have been designated in the 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 MHzbands for this service.Medium-range service3.1.5 MF radiocommunications provide the medium-range service. In the ship-to-shore, ship-to-ship andshore-to-ship directions 2187.5 kHz is used for distress alerts and safety calls using DSC, and 2182 kHz is used fordistress and safety traffic by radiotelephony, including SAR co-ordinating and on-scene communications.2174.5 kHz is used for distress and safety traffic by direct-printing telegraphy.Short-range service3.1.6 VHF provides short-range service on the frequencies: . 156.525 MHz (channel 70) for distress alerts and safety calls using DSC, and . 156.8 MHz (channel 16) for distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony, including SAR co-ordinating and on-scene communications.There is no short-range direct-printing telegraphy service on VHF.Frequencies used in the GMDSS3.1.7 Frequencies used in the GMDSS communications systems allocated by ITU WARC Mob-87 are given inannex 9-3 (RR Art. N38).
  16. 16. Page 10 GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.2 Inmarsat systemIntroduction3.2.1 Inmarsat grew out of an idea that originated within IMO in 1966. Following extensive study by IMOexperts, an international conference was convened which, after three sessions, on 3 September 1976 unanimouslyadopted the Convention and Operating Agreement on the International Maritime Satellite Organization* (In-marsat). According to its Convention, Inmarsat is ‘‘to make provision for the space segment necessary forimproving maritime communications, thereby assisting in improving distress and safety of life at sea commu-nications’’.3.2.2 The Inmarsat system has three major components: the space segment provided by Inmarsat, the coast earthstations (CESs) provided by Inmarsat signatories and ship earth stations (SESs).3.2.3 The nerve centre of the system is the operations control centre (OCC), located at Inmarsat’s headquartersin the United Kingdom. The OCC is responsible for controlling the Inmarsat system operation as a whole.Operating 24 hours a day, it co-ordinates a wide range of activities. The OCC also arranges the commissioning ofSESs upon application by the shipowner.Space segment3.2.4 Four satellites in geostationary orbit 36,000 km above the equator cover four ocean regions, namelyAOR-E (Atlantic Ocean Region – East), AOR-W (Atlantic Ocean Region – West), IOR (Indian OceanRegion) and POR (Pacific Ocean Region), and provide near-global coverage. The current status of the Inmarsatsystem is given in annex 5 of the GMDSS Master Plan (see annex 5 of this publication).Coast earth stations3.2.5 The CESs provide the link between the satellites and terrestrial telecommunications networks. Currently,all CESs are owned and operated by telecommunications carriers. A typical CES consists of a parabolic antennaabout 11 m to 14 m in diameter, which is used for transmission of signals to the satellite at 6 GHz and forreception from the satellite at 4 GHz (figure 2). The same antenna or another dedicated antenna is used forL-band transmission (at 1.6 GHz) and reception (at 1.5 GHz) of network control signals. The type of com-munication service provided varies depending on the CES. A CES designated for each ocean area for each Figure 2 – Example of an Inmarsat coast earth station (The photo includes antennas other than Inmarsat)* The full name was amended to ‘‘International Mobile Satellite Organization’’ in December 1994, but the acronym ‘‘Inmarsat’’ is retained.
  17. 17. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 11communication service (i.e. telephone, direct-printing telegraph, etc.) serves as a network co-ordination station(NCS) which assigns communication channels, on demand, to SESs and other CESs and monitors signalstransmitted by these stations.Ship earth stations3.2.6 The requirements for the SESs in the GMDSS can be met by Inmarsat SESs capable of two-way com-munications, such as Inmarsat-A, Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-C SESs. Performance standards for SES equipmentare given in annex 3-4.Inmarsat-A SES3.2.7 An Inmarsat-A SES consists of two parts, above-deck equipment (ADE) and below-deck equipment(BDE) (figure 3). The ADE includes a parabolic antenna, about 0.85 m to 1.2 m in diameter, mounted on aplatform and stabilized so that the antenna remains pointed at the satellite regardless of ship motion. It alsoincludes a solid-state L-band power amplifier, an L-band low-noise amplifier, a diplexer and a low-loss protectiveradome. The BDE consists of an antenna control unit; communications electronics used for transmission,reception, access control and signalling; and telephone and telex equipment Figure 3 – Example of Inmarsat-A SES3.2.8 The new generation of Inmarsat-A equipment currently being produced by manufacturers is smaller andeasier to use than earlier models. ADE is now available weighing less than 50 kg, making it suitable for installationon most types and sizes of vessels and yachts. Many of the current systems are modular in design and allow theaddition of optional equipment such as facsimile, data and slow-scan television, etc. Some BDE has a micro-computer with a visual display unit (VDU), alphanumeric keyboard, hard-copy printer and modem. Thecomputer can be used to prepare telex messages with the ease of modern word-processing equipment. Messagescan be composed, edited and transmitted directly from the screen or stored for later transmission. In somemodels, the computer memorizes the satellite’s co-ordinates and CES tariffs and automatically routes the call inthe most economical way.3.2.9 With additional facilities, users have modified their terminals to allow automated vessel reporting. Thoseinvolved in vessel management on shore can dial the ship at any time of the day or night and automatically receiveinformation as to its position, heading, etc., as well as data on its cargo and operation – all without disturbing ordistracting the crew. A distress message generator is normally built into a terminal (mostly a software mod-ification) for storage of basic essential vessel information and automatic transmission in a distress situation.Inmarsat-B SES3.2.10 The Inmarsat-B SES is a digital complement of Inmarsat-A SES developed to replace Inmarsat-A SESequipment in the future. It provides the same communications services as an Inmarsat-A SES.
  18. 18. Page 12 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Inmarsat-C SES3.2.11 Inmarsat-C SESs are small, lightweight terminals designed for two-way message communication (figure4). Inmarsat-C SESs cannot be used for radiotelephone communications; they operate at 600 bits/s and provideaccess to the international telex/teletex networks, electronic mail services and computer databases. This low-powered terminal with its omnidirectional antenna and light weight is a practical solution for installation on thesmallest of vessels, thereby bringing the benefits of satellite communications within the reach of all mariners. Itwill enlarge the user community by providing equal access to existing and emerging satellite services to allseafarers. Figure 4 – Example of Inmarsat-C SES3.2.12 Additionally, an Inmarsat-C SES can serve as a back-up for an Inmarsat-A SES on large ships and alsofulfill a potentially vital role as a fixed or portable transmitter/receiver for use on board ship or in survival craft.The omnidirectional antenna characteristics are particularly valuable for a vessel in distress as the SES continues tooperate even when the vessel is listing severely. As with the Inmarsat-A SES, a distress message generator can beincluded in the terminal software for storage of basic essential vessel information and automatic transmission in adistress situation.Enhanced group call receiver3.2.13 The Inmarsat EGC receiver is a dedicated piece of equipment for the reception of information byInmarsat EGC service. It has been designed to enable automatic continuous watch on International SafetyNETMSI broadcasts and commercial Inmarsat FleetNET messages, such as subscription to news services, etc. An EGCcapability can be added to Inmarsat-A, Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-C SESs or it can be a stand-alone receiver withits own antenna. Annex 3-5-2 gives the performance standards for EGC receivers.3.2.14 An EGC receiver is required in the GMDSS for all ships which proceed beyond coverage of theInternational NAVTEX service (regulation IV/7.1.5).Inmarsat servicesShip-to-shore distress alerting3.2.15 The Inmarsat system provides priority access to satellite communications channels in emergency situ-ations. Each SES is capable of initiating a ‘‘request’’ message with distress priority (Inmarsat priority-3 call). Any‘‘request’’ message with a distress priority indication is automatically recognized at the CES and a satellite channelis instantly assigned. If all satellite channels happen to be busy, one of them will be pre-empted and allocated tothe SES which initiated the distress priority call. The processing of such calls is completely automatic and does notinvolve any human intervention. The CES personnel, however, are notified of the reception and passing throughof a distress priority message by audio-visual alarms.
  19. 19. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 133.2.16 To ensure the correct treatment of distress priority requests, the NCS in each ocean region automaticallymonitors the processing of such calls by all other CESs in that region. In the event that any anomalies inprocessing are detected, the NCS will take appropriate action to establish the end-to-end connection. In addition,the monitoring NCS also checks the CES identity contained in the distress priority message and automaticallyaccepts the call if an identity of a non-operational CES has been detected (which may happen due to operatorerror aboard the vessel in distress).3.2.17 The distress priority applies not only with respect to satellite channels but also to the automatic routeingof the call to the appropriate RCC. Each CES in the system is required to provide reliable communicationinterconnection with an RCC; these national RCCs are known as associated RCCs. The means of CES–RCCinterconnection may vary from country to country and include the use of dedicated lines or public switchednetworks. Thus, any distress priority request message received at the CES is automatically processed and passed tothe associated RCC. Some CESs, due to national considerations, pass distress priority messages to specialoperators, who are responsible for the subsequent routeing of the call to the appropriate RCC, or provide anoption which allows the shipboard operator to contact any RCC when a satellite channel has been assigned onthe distress priority basis.3.2.18 The initiation of a distress priority message in most SESs is made simple for ship crew members byprovision of a ‘‘distress button’’ or code in the SES. On activation of this button, the equipment instantaneouslytransmits a distress priority message. This single operation, a push of the ‘‘distress button’’, provides automatic,direct and assured connection to a competent rescue authority, thereby avoiding the need for the SES operator toselect or key the telex or telephone number of the RCC and eliminating possible human error. The establishmentof this end-to-end connection, being completely automatic and on a priority basis, takes only a few seconds.3.2.19 Inmarsat has issued technical guidelines to manufacturers for a distress message generator (DMG), whichconsists of SES software to transmit automatically, after the connection has been established, the distress messagein a standardized format that provides information on the vessel’s identification, its position and the particularemergency.3.2.20 The procedure described above is the primary means of ship-to-shore distress alerting in the Inmarsatsystem. It should be noted, however, that Inmarsat SES-equipped ships can also contact any RCC of their choiceby following the calling procedure for routine calls. In this case, the complete international telephone/telexnumber has to be selected.3.2.21 A major benefit of the Inmarsat distress priority system is that it eliminates the need for dedicatedfrequencies to be allocated for distress and safety communications. Distress messages made through the Inmarsatdistress priority system are sent through the general communication channels on an absolute priority basis toensure an immediate connection.Shore-to-ship distress alerting3.2.22 Shore-to-ship alerting to groups of ships with Inmarsat-A, Inmarsat-B or Inmarsat-C SESs but withoutInternational SafetyNET capability can be performed in the following modes: .1 ‘‘All ships calls’’ – Calls to all ships in the ocean region concerned. It should be noted, however, that, due to the large coverage zones of geostationary satellites, such alerting is not very efficient, although it may be justified under exceptional circumstances; .2 ‘‘Geographical area calls’’ – Calls to ships navigating in a defined geographical area. Each satellite coverage region is subdivided into smaller areas, and the boundaries of these areas are based on NAVAREAs each having a unique two-digit area code.* SESs will automatically recognize and accept geographical area calls only if the correct code has been input by the SES operator; the system requires the periodic manual input of appropriate area codes; or .3 ‘‘Group calls to selected ships’’ – This service is provided by a number of CESs in the operator- assisted mode and allows alerting of a predetermined group of vessels. This service could be very useful for alerting, for example, SAR units.3.2.23 As long as they are not engaged in traffic, SESs accept all incoming messages without any differentiationof priority.* See annex 4-1 (WWNWS).
  20. 20. Page 14 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Shore-to-ship distress alerting through the International SafetyNET system3.2.24 The EGC receiver can be an integral part of an SES or a completely separate unit, and it ensures a veryhigh probability of receiving shore-to-ship distress alert messages. When a distress priority message is received, anaudible alarm will sound and it can only be reset manually.3.2.25 Accessing the International SafetyNET service by RCCs requires arrangements similar to those neededfor shore-to-ship distress alerting to a standard SES. Those RCCs unable to obtain a reliable terrestrial connectionto a coast earth station can install an Inmarsat SES at the RCC. The RCC would then transmit the distress alertvia the SES to a CES, where it would be relayed by means of a broadcast over the International SafetyNETsystem. See section 3.7 and annex 4-3* for further details of the International SafetyNET system.Search and rescue co-ordinating communications3.2.26 For the co-ordination and control of SAR operations, RCCs require communications with the ship indistress as well as with units participating in the operation. The methods and modes of communication (ter-restrial, satellite, telephone, telex) used will be governed by the capabilities available on board the ship in distressas well as those on board assisting units. Where those ships are equipped with an SES, the advantages of theInmarsat system for rapid, reliable communications, including receipt of MSI, can be exploited.3.2.27 A reliable interlinking of RCCs is important for the GMDSS, in which a distress message may bereceived by an RCC thousands of miles away from where the assistance is needed and it may not be the RCCbest suited to provide the necessary assistance. In this case prompt relay of the distress message to the appropriateRCC is essential and any means of communication, whether land-lines, terrestrial radio networks or satellitelinks, must be used.3.2.28 To increase the speed and reliability of inter-RCC communications, some RCCs have installed SESsproviding them with the capability of communicating via the Inmarsat system.{ These facilities are useful forlong-distance interconnection of SAR organizations, especially when dedicated lines or public switched networksare unavailable or unreliable.On-scene SAR communications3.2.29 On-scene communications are those between the ship in distress and assisting vessels, and between SARvessels and the OSC or the CSS, and are normally short-range communications made on the VHF or MF distressand safety frequencies in the GMDSS. However, Inmarsat SES-fitted ships could, if necessary, use satellitecommunications as a supplement to their VHF and MF facilities.Promulgation of MSI (via International SafetyNET services)3.2.30 In the Inmarsat system, promulgation of MSI is performed by means of the International SafetyNETsystem. Although an Inmarsat-A, Inmarsat-B or Inmarsat-C SES can receive the SafetyNET broadcasts, ifuninterrupted receipt of important MSI is required when the SES is engaged for other communications, then it isessential to have a dedicated EGC reception capability for such broadcasts. Alternatively, an EGC receiver can beinstalled as a separate unit. Details of the International SafetyNET service are given in annex 4-3 (InternationalSafetyNET Manual).General radiocommunications3.2.31 The Inmarsat system provides ships at sea with the same types and quality of modern communications asare available ashore. The capability for direct-dial, automatic connection without delay, using high-quality multi-mode communications, is provided by SES. Teleprinters, VDUs and telephone sets, as well as facsimile machinesand data equipment, can serve as peripheral equipment to SESs.3.2.32 The quality and availability of general radiocommunications offered by the Inmarsat system permit aship’s master to rapidly consult and seek assistance on any matter, whether of a safety or commercial nature. High-quality general communications are therefore a valuable asset to safety at sea as well as to the efficient operation ofthe ship.* International SafetyNET Manual.{ See RR N2938 (annex 9-2).
  21. 21. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 153.2.33 The following are examples of Inmarsat services: . Telephony . Direct-printing telegraphy . Data communications . Facsimile transmission . Slow-scan television . Automatic data collection from ships (see section 3.2.9)L-Band satellite EPIRBs (Inmarsat-E)3.2.34 L-Band satellite EPIRBs operating through the Inmarsat system can be used as a means of alerting byships operating in sea areas A1, A2 and A3 as an alternative to 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs, mentioned in section3.3.3.2.35 The basic concept of the Inmarsat L-band satellite EPIRB system is shown in figure 5. The distress signaltransmitted from the float-free satellite EPIRB on the dedicated channel in the 1.6 GHz frequency (L band) isrelayed by an Inmarsat satellite to CESs equipped with the appropriate receiver and processor equipment. 2001 JSIMS 28/1/01 Canio) 1 (Di United Ham 0 West United Manchester Receiver processor RCC Figure 5 – Basic concept of the L-band satellite EPIRB system3.2.36 The L-band satellite EPIRB provides for rapid distress alerting (in the order of 10 minutes with 1 Woutput power radiated by an EPIRB), coverage up to latitude 708N and 708S, 20 simultaneous alerts within a 10-minute time-frame and the possibility of manual or automatic entry and updating of position information to thesatellite EPIRB. The satellite EPIRB can be activated either manually or automatically, by floating free from thesinking ship.3.2.37 After activation, the satellite EPIRB transmits the distress message containing the ship station identity,position information and additional information which could be used to facilitate rescue. The transmission isrepeated on a pre-selected duty cycle. Additionally, unless an integrated electronic position-fixing device isincluded which provides position updates, a built-in 9 GHz SART is activated for locating purposes. Annexes3-3-4 and 3-3-5 give detailed technical characteristics of L-band satellite EPIRBs.3.2.38 After being relayed by the satellite, the distress signal is down-converted at the CES to the specifiedintermediate frequency to be transferred to the computer-aided multi-channel receiver for satellite EPIRBidentification and message decoding.
  22. 22. Page 16 GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.2.39 After the signal channels are identified, they are assigned to processor channels where the incomingsignal plus noise is superimposed in the memory. Having accomplished the necessary number of superpositions,which results in 2 to 3 dB improvement of signal-to-noise ratio for every frame, the memory is read out and theusual procedures, such as bit and frame synchronization, evaluation of the error-correcting code and the messageprint-out, are performed.3.2.40 The distress message is then forwarded to an associated RCC for appropriate action.3.3 COSPAS–SARSAT systemIntroduction3.3.1 The COSPAS–SARSAT* system is a satellite-aided SAR system designed to locate distress beaconstransmitting on the frequencies 121.5 MHz or 406 MHz.{ It is intended to serve all organizations in the worldwith responsibility for SAR operations whether a distress occurs at sea, in the air or on land.3.3.2 COSPAS–SARSAT is a joint international satellite-aided SAR system, established by organizations inCanada, France, the United States and the former USSR.{3.3.3 The COSPAS–SARSAT system has demonstrated that the detection and location of distress signals canbe facilitated by global monitoring based on low-altitude satellites in near-polar orbits. It has been used suc-cessfully in a large number of SAR operations world-wide.3.3.4 Unless, as an alternative, a ship is provided with an L-band satellite EPIRB, the carriage of a float-freesatellite EPIRB operating on the frequency 406 MHz in the COSPAS–SARSAT system is mandatory on allSOLAS ships (regulation IV/7.1.6.1).General concept of the system3.3.5 The basic COSPAS–SARSAT system concept is given in figure 6. There are at present three types ofsatellite beacons, namely emergency locator transmitters (ELTs) (airborne), EPIRBs (maritime) and personallocator beacons (PLBs) (on land). These beacons transmit signals that are detected by COSPAS–SARSAT polar-orbiting satellites equipped with suitable receivers/processors. The signals are then relayed to a ground receivingstation, called a local user terminal (LUT), which processes the signals to determine the beacon location. An alertis then relayed, together with location data and other information, via a mission control centre (MCC), either to anational RCC, to another MCC or to the appropriate SAR authority to initiate SAR activities.3.3.6 Doppler shift (using the relative motion between the satellite and the beacon) is used to locate the beacons.The carrier frequency transmitted by the beacon is reasonably stable during the period of mutual beacon–satellitevisibility. The frequencies currently in use are 121.5 MHz (international aeronautical emergency frequency) and406.025 MHz. The 406 MHz beacons are more sophisticated than the 121.5 MHz beacons because of theinclusion of identification codes in the messages, but complexity is kept to a minimum. To optimize Dopplerlocation, a low-altitude near-polar orbit is used.} The low altitude results in a low uplink power requirement, apronounced Doppler shift, and short intervals between successive passes. The near-polar orbit results in completeworld coverage over a period of time.3.3.7 The Doppler location concept provides two positions for each beacon: the true position and its mirrorimage relative to the satellite ground track. This ambiguity is resolved by calculations that take into account theearth’s rotation. If the beacon frequency stability is good enough, as with 406 MHz beacons which are designedfor this purpose, the true solution is determined over a single pass. In the case of 121.5 MHz beacons, theambiguity is resolved by the results of the second pass if the first attempt is unsuccessful. The improved per-formance of 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs is the reason these devices were selected for the GMDSS. The status ofthe COSPAS–SARSAT system is given in annex 6.* COSPAS: Space System for Search of Distress Vessels; SARSAT: Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking.{ Certain beacons also transmit on 243 MHz, but this signal is relayed only by SARSAT satellites and not all local user terminals are equipped with243 MHz receivers. This system, therefore, is not described in this publication, but it operates in the same manner as a 121.5 MHz system.{ Since 26 December 1991 the membership in IMO of the USSR and its participation in treaty instruments adopted under the auspices of IMO iscontinued by the Russian Federation.} The altitude of the COSPAS satellites’ orbit is approximately 1,000 km while that of SARSAT satellites is about 850 km.
  23. 23. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 17 Satellite ELT Emergency locator transmitter EPIRB Emergency position-indicating radio beacon LUT Local user terminal MCC Mission control centre RCC Rescue co-ordination centre SAR Search and rescue PLB Personal locator beaconPLB SAR forces ELT EPIRB RCC MCC LUT Distressed vessels Figure 6 – Basic concept of the COSPAS–SARSAT system
  24. 24. Page 18 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3Coverage modes3.3.8 The COSPAS–SARSAT system implements two coverage modes for the detection and location ofbeacons, namely the real-time mode and the global coverage mode. Both the 121.5 and 406 MHz systems operatein the real-time mode, while only the 406 MHz system operates in the global coverage mode.121.5 MHz real-time mode3.3.9 In this mode, an LUT and EPIRBs must be in the same view of the satellite for the 121.5 MHz EPIRBsignal to be relayed by a repeater on board the satellite directly to the ground, where it is received and processed.For this reason, world-wide real-time mode coverage is unlikely to be achieved.406 MHz real-time mode3.3.10 Once the satellite receives the 406 MHz satellite EPIRB signals, the Doppler shift is measured and thebeacon digital data, which include ship’s identification, etc., are recovered from the beacon signal. This in-formation is time-tagged, formatted as digital data, and transferred to the downlink repeater for real-timetransmission to any LUT in the satellite’s view. The data are simultaneously stored in the on-board memory ofthe satellite for later transmission in the global coverage mode.406 MHz global coverage mode3.3.11 The 406 MHz system provides global coverage by storing data on board for later dumping and receptionby LUTs. Each satellite EPIRB can therefore be located by all operating LUTs.121.5 MHz satellite EPIRBs3.3.12 EPIRBs operating on 121.5 MHz are already in widespread use. They are used on board light aircraft andships and must meet national specifications based on International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards.The 121.5 MHz beacon signals also provide for homing by SAR units and overflight monitoring by aircraft.406 MHz satellite EPIRBs3.3.13 The development of 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs (figure 7) has been undertaken to overcome certainshortcomings of the 121.5 MHz system. The new EPIRBs were specifically designed for satellite detection andDoppler location and include the following features: . improved location accuracy and ambiguity resolution; . increased system capacity, i.e. a greater number of beacons transmitting simultaneously in the field of view of a satellite can be processed; . global coverage; . unique identification of each beacon; and . inclusion of distress information.Annexes 3-3-1 and 3-3-6 give technical details of the 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs.3.3.14 The 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs transmit a 5 W radio-frequency (RF) burst of approximately 0.5 sduration every 50 seconds. Improved frequency stability ensures improved location accuracy, while the high peakpower increases the probability of detection. The low duty cycle provides good multiple-access capability, with asystem capacity of 90 activated beacons simultaneously in view of the satellite, and low mean power consumption.3.3.15 An important feature of the new satellite EPIRBs is the inclusion of a digitally encoded message, whichmay provide such information as the country of origin of the unit in distress, identification of the vessel or aircraft,nature of distress and, in addition, for satellite EPIRBs coded in accordance with the maritime location protocol,*the ship’s position as determined by its navigation equipment.* See annex 3-3-6 (Recommendation ITU-R M.633).
  25. 25. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 19 Figure 7 – Example of 406 MHz COSPAS–SARSAT satellite EPIRB3.3.16 Satellite EPIRBs are dual-frequency 121.5/406 MHz beacons. This enables suitably equipped SAR unitsto home in on the 121.5 MHz transmission and permits overflight monitoring by aircraft.3.3.17 Depending on the type of beacon (maritime, airborne or land), beacons can be activated either manuallyor automatically.Space segment3.3.18 The SAR instrumentation on board the COSPAS and SARSAT satellites operates in the followingmodes: . real-time mode: 121.5 MHz repeater; . real-time mode: 406.025 MHz data processing and downlink; and . global coverage mode: 406.025 MHz stored data transmission.3.3.19 The equipment on board the satellite consists of the following basic sub-assemblies: . 121.5 MHz receiver; . 406.025 MHz receiver/processor and memory unit; and . 1544.5 MHz downlink transmitter.121.5 MHz receiver3.3.20 This unit has a bandwidth of 25 kHz. Automatic level control (ALC) is provided to maintain a constantoutput level.406.025 MHz receiver/processor3.3.21 The functions of the receiver/processor are as follows: . demodulating the digital messages received from beacons; . measuring the received frequency; and . time-tagging the measurement.
  26. 26. Page 20 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3All these data included in the output signal frame are modulated for downlinking to LUTs. The signal frame istransmitted at 2,400 bits/second in the real-time mode and also stored in memory for later transmission by theglobal coverage mode. In the global coverage mode, the on-board memory is dumped in the same format and atthe same bit rate as real-time data. LUTs thus directly receive the stored beacon messages acquired during anentire orbital revolution. If a new beacon signal is received during the stored memory dump, the dump isinterrupted so that the signal can be processed and the resultant message is interleaved with the stored data.Appropriate flag bits indicate whether the data are real-time or stored and the time at which full playback of thestored data was accomplished.1544.5 MHz downlink transmitter3.3.22 The 1544.5 MHz downlink transmitter accepts input from the 406 MHz receiver/processor and re-ceiver(s) operating on the other COSPAS–SARSAT band(s) (121.5 MHz and 243 MHz*), adjusts the relativepower level in accordance with ground command, phase-modulates a low-frequency carrier with the compositesignal, multiplies the frequency to produce 1544.5 MHz, amplifies the power level and drives the satellitedownlink antenna.Local user terminals and mission control centres3.3.23 The configuration and capabilities of each LUT vary to meet the specific requirements of countries, butthe COSPAS and SARSAT satellite downlink signal formats ensure interoperability between the various satellitesand all LUTs meeting COSPAS–SARSAT specifications.{3.3.24 There are two types of LUTs, those which process 121.5 MHz and 406 MHz signals and those whichprocess 406 MHz signals only.3.3.25 Figure 8 is a block diagram of a typical COSPAS–SARSAT LUT. The antenna and receiving systempick up the signal, which is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) and linearly demodulated toproduce the composite baseband spectrum, which is filtered and separated into the various bands of interest. Asthe signal is received, the processing of each band is accomplished according to the specific capabilities of theLUT. The option for LUT configuration incorporating analogue tape recorders provides a back-up mode in theevent of processor failure. A/D 121.5 MHz1544.5 MHz SIGNAL CONVERTER PROCESSOR playback 121.5 MHz bands ANALOGUE ELT/EPIRB 408 MHz pre- locations PHASE TAPE COMMUNICATION ANTENNA RECEIVER processed data DEMODULATOR RECORDER INTERFACE (2400 bit/s) orbital (optional) data playback BIT & 406 MHz ANTENNA DATA FRAME DRIVE PROCESSOR SYNC. CONTROL updated orbit & time ELECTRONICS TIME CODE orbital data GENERATION FREQUENCY STANDARD Figure 8 – Example of a COSPAS–SARSAT LUT functional block diagram* See second footnote to paragraph 3.3.1.{ Refer to the following COSPAS–SARSAT basic documents: .1 Specification for COSPAS–SARSAT 406 MHz Distress Beacons (C/S T.001); .2 Local User Terminal (LUT) Performance Specification (C/S T.002); .3 COSPAS–SARSAT Data Distribution Plan (C/S A.001); .4 COSPAS–SARSAT MCC Standard Interface Description (C/S A.002).
  27. 27. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 213.3.26 For the 121.5 MHz signal, each transmission is detected and the Doppler shift is calculated. A beaconlocation is then determined, using these data. All 406 MHz data received from the satellite memory on each passcan be processed within a few minutes of pass completion. Figures 9 and 10 show a typical LUT and an exampleof an MCC/RCC. Figure 9 – Example of a local user terminal Figure 10 – Example of a mission control centre/rescue co-ordination centre
  28. 28. Page 22 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 N TUL 2 TUL 1 TUL segassem gnimocni evieceR sTUL lla morf evieceR gnimocni nocaeb egrem dna troS rehtO evloser ot snoitacol nocaeb erotS segassem sCCM rehto morf ytiugibma atad sCCM timsnarT timsnarT gniogtuo gniogtuo etareneG rehtO eht ni segassem gniogtuo sCCR segassem segassem sCCM rehto ot tamrof deriuqer sCCR ot sCCM niatniam dna tcelloC noitamrofni lacitsitats Figure 11 – Functions of MCCs3.3.27 MCCs have been set up in each country operating at least one LUT. Their main functions are to collect,store and sort the data from LUTs and other MCCs, and to provide such data to SAR networks (see figure 11).Most of the data handled consist of the following: .1 Alert data is the generic term for COSPAS–SARSAT 121.5 and 406 MHz data derived from EPIRB information. Alert data comprise the beacon location and (for 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs) other information such as beacon identification data and other coded information. .2 System information is primarily used to maintain efficient operation of the COSPAS–SARSAT system and to provide users with as accurate and timely alert data as possible. It consists of tabulated data (ephemeris and time calibration) used to determine beacon locations, the current status of all sub- systems, and co-ordination messages required to operate the COSPAS–SARSAT system.3.3.28 The COSPAS mission control centre (CMC) in Moscow is responsible for co-ordinating all COSPASactivities and provides the link via the SARSAT MCCs for all interaction with the SARSAT system. The CMCcomputes and sends COSPAS satellite ephemeris data to other MCCs and LUTs, and receives, processes andtransmits SARSAT ephemeris and time calibration data received from the SARSAT MCC to the COSPASMCCs and LUTs.3.3.29 A designated MCC in the United States (USMCC) acts as a focal point for the co-ordination ofSARSAT satellite operations. It calculates 406 MHz satellite EPIRB locations, using stored data received fromLUTs, distributes ephemeris data, processes time calibration data (required for use of SARSAT 406 MHz data),and forwards the appropriate results to other MCCs. The USMCC acts as the main system operational contactpoint between the SARSAT system and the CMC.
  29. 29. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 23System performance and operationsPerformance parameters3.3.30 The following parameters are particularly important for the user: . EPIRB detection probability; . EPIRB location probability; . EPIRB location error; . ambiguity resolution probability; . capacity; . coverage; and . notification time..1 EPIRB detection probability for the 406 MHz satellite EPIRB is defined as the probability of detection by LUT of at least one message with a correct code-protected section from the first tracked satellite..2 EPIRB location probability for the 406 MHz satellite EPIRB is defined as the probability of detecting and decoding at least four individual message bursts during a single satellite pass so that a Doppler curve-set estimate can be generated by the LUT. At 121.5 MHz, EPIRB location probability is defined as the probability of location during a satellite pass above 108 elevation with respect to the beacon. EPIRB location probability relates to the two solutions (‘‘true’’ and ‘‘mirror’’) and not to a single unambiguous result..3 EPIRB location accuracy is defined as the difference between the location calculated by the system using measured Doppler frequencies and the actual location..4 Ambiguity resolution probability is defined as the ability of the system to select the ‘‘true’’ rather than the ‘‘mirror’’ location..5 Capacity is defined as the number of EPIRBs in common view of the spacecraft which the system can process simultaneously..6 Notification time is the period from activation of an EPIRB (i.e. first transmission) to reception of a valid alert message by the appropriate RCC.Performance of the COSPAS–SARSAT system3.3.31 The system performance characteristics are given in table 1. Note: Performance at 121.5 MHz is highly sensitive to EPIRB spectral characteristics. The values given below were confirmed by statistical analysis of over 5,000 beacons during the development and experi- ment phase. Table 1 Characteristic 121.5 MHz 406 MHz Detection probability (not applicable) 0.98 Location probability 0.9 0.9 Location accuracy 17.2 km 90% within 5 km Ambiguity resolution probability 0.73 0.96 Capacity 10 90.1 Coverage: The 121.5 MHz system operates in real time only, while the 406 MHz system operates in both real-time and global modes. The overall coverage provided by the COSPAS–SARSAT system in real- time mode is determined by the number and positions of LUTs, each covering an area with a radius of approximately 2,500 km.
  30. 30. Page 24 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3The real-time coverage of LUTs is shown in the COSPAS–SARSAT system status in annex 6. In the globalcoverage mode, using 406 MHz satellite EPIRBs, complete world coverage is achieved..2 Notification time depends on the following parameters: . satellite constellation; . LUT configuration; . beacon location relative to an LUT; . beacon latitude; and . ground communication network.Operational procedures3.3.32 This section provides a description of alert data and system information and a general description of dataflow.Alert data3.3.33 Alert data users are defined as those responsible for SAR operations; system information users are primarilyorganizations with technical responsibility for the COSPAS–SARSAT system (MCCs, LUT operators, managersof ground-segment facilities).3.3.34 Alert data are of two types: coded beacon-generated messages and LUT/MCC-generated alert messages.Signals transmitted by activated EPIRBs provide the initial input which triggers the generation of alert messages.Once the incoming coded EPIRB message has been received and processed by the LUTs, the alert data areforwarded to the national MCC for distribution.3.3.35 Each MCC distributes alert data according to its own requirements and procedures to any countrywithin its service area which has agreed to accept such data. These data are given to SAR authorities so thatimmediate SAR action can be taken. Additionally, any MCC receiving alert data relating to an EPIRB withinanother MCC’s service area or elsewhere in the world relays that information to the appropriate MCC or SARauthority.System information3.3.36 The term system information covers five types of system messages – ephemeris messages, time calibrationmessages, telemetry data, satellite command messages and co-ordination messages: . Ephemeris or orbit vector information is used to acquire and track the satellite and to compute EPIRB positions. . Spacecraft time calibration is vital for the accurate determination of EPIRB locations. . Telemetry data provide information on the status of the on-board SAR instruments. . Satellite command messages are transmitted on uplink during the post-launch checkout procedure to correct faults or out-of-limit conditions. . Co-ordination messages are used to communicate general information required for COSPAS–SAR- SAT system operation.Communications network3.3.37 Each MCC transfers alert data and system information to ground-system elements within its service areaaccording to communications network requirements and procedures.Message formats3.3.38 Messages between MCCs are sent in a specific format permitting automatic processing and re-transmission, while messages between MCCs and their LUTs are formatted in accordance with national re-quirements. Standard message formats are used to transmit alert data to RCCs outside the COSPAS–SARSATsystem.
  31. 31. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 253.4 Digital selective calling (DSC) systemIntroduction3.4.1 Digital selective calling (DSC) is an integral part of the GMDSS and is used for transmitting distress alertsfrom ships and for transmitting the associated acknowledgements from coast stations. It is also used by ships andcoast stations for relaying distress alerts and for other urgency and safety calls. Trials of DSC systems were co-ordinated by the CCIR Interim Working Party 8/10 during 1982–1986 and included tests of the HF, MF andVHF DSC systems. The distribution of VHF, MF and HF DSC coast stations is given in annex 5 (GMDSSMaster Plan).Basic description of DSCTechnical characteristics3.4.2 The system is a synchronous system using a ten-unit error-detecting code. The information in the call ispresented as a sequence of seven-unit binary combinations.3.4.3 The classes of emission, frequency shifts and modulation rates are as follows: . F1B or J2B 170 Hz and 100 baud for use on HF and MF channels. When frequency-shift keying is effected by applying audio signals to the input of single-sideband transmitters (J2B), the centre of the audio-frequency spectrum offered to the transmitter is 1700 Hz. . Frequency modulation with a pre-emphasis of 6 dB/octave with frequency shift of the modulating sub- carrier for use on VHF channels: – the frequency shift is between 1300 Hz and 2100 Hz, the sub-carrier being at 1700 Hz; – the frequency tolerance of the 1300 Hz and 2100 Hz tones is +10 Hz; – the modulation rate is 1,200 baud; and – the modulation index is 2.0 +10%.3.4.4 More detailed technical characteristics of DSC, including signal format, are given in annexes 3-2-1, -2, -3,-4, -5, -6 and -7.Operational procedures3.4.5 Recommendation ITU-R M.541* gives operational procedures of the DSC system. The content of aDSC call includes the numerical address of the station (or stations) to which the call is transmitted, the self-identification of the transmitting station and a message which contains several fields of information indicating thepurpose of the call.3.4.6 Various types of DSC calls are available, being broadly either distress and safety-related calls or ‘‘com-mercial’’ calls (to indicate that a commercial communication, e.g. a telephony or telegraphy call, etc., is required).In the case of VHF, automatic connection to the public network can also be established through suitablyequipped coast stations.3.4.7 The receipt of a DSC call by a receiving station is accompanied by a suitable display or print-out of theaddress, the self-identification of the transmitting station and the content of the DSC message, together with anaudible or visual alarm or both for certain categories of calls (e.g. for distress- and safety-related calls).3.4.8 The transmission speed of a DSC call is 100 baud on MF and HF and 1,200 baud on VHF. Error-correction coding is included, involving the transmission of each character twice together with an overallmessage-check character. The duration of a single DSC call varies between 6.2 and 7.2 seconds on MF and HF or0.45 and 0.63 second on VHF, depending on the type of DSC call transmitted.3.4.9 For distress and safety operation, simplex frequencies are used, there being one frequency in the MF band,five in the HF bands and one in the VHF band (these frequencies are given in annex 9-3). For commercialoperation at MF and HF, paired frequencies are used, but at VHF the simplex channel 70 is used for both distressand safety calling and commercial calling.* Annex 3-2-8. See also RR Art. N39 (annex 9-4).
  32. 32. Page 26 GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.4.10 In order to increase the probability of a DSC distress call or a DSC distress relay being received, it isrepeated several times to form a distress call attempt. On MF and HF two types of distress call attempts may be used,either a single-frequency call attempt* (five consecutive DSC distress calls on one frequency) or a multi-frequency callattempt* (up to six consecutive DSC distress calls dispersed over any of the six DSC distress frequencies – one onMF and five on HF). On VHF only a single-frequency call attempt is used since there is only one VHF DSCfrequency (channel 70). VHF and MF/HF distress calls may be transmitted simultaneously.3.4.11 The various distress and safety-related calls by DSC are itemized below, together with a description ofthe content of the message for each type of call. In addition to the message content, each DSC call also containsother information, which is not displayed to the receiving station but which is used to ensure the technicalintegrity of the DSC system. Signal format in the various DSC calls is specified in RecommendationITU-R M.493.{Distress call (alert)3.4.12 DSC distress calls are transmitted by a ship in distress and will be received by all suitably equipped shipsand coast stations within propagation range of the radio frequency used.3.4.13 A DSC distress call contains various items of information, including the self-identification of the ship indistress, which will be displayed to the receiving station. This information will either be automatically included inthe transmitted DSC distress call or will be inserted by the operator prior to transmission. When time does notpermit the insertion of any information, ‘‘default’’ information will be included automatically.Distress acknowledgement3.4.14 Distress acknowledgements by DSC are normally transmitted manually by coast stations in response to aDSC distress call on the same frequency as the distress call was received (RR N3129, N3130{). However, adistress alert may be acknowledged by ship stations when they believe that no coast station is likely to be able toacknowledge it (RR N3132, N3133 and N3124{). In this case, the acknowledgement is made by radiotelephonyon the associated radiotelephone distress and safety traffic frequency.}Distress relay3.4.15 DSC distress relays are transmitted in the following two situations: .1 By a coast station to alert ships in the area of a distress incident. Such a relay transmission would be addressed, as appropriate, to all ships, to a selected group of ships or to a specific ship (RR N3117{). .2 By a ship station to an appropriate coast station if it received a DSC distress call on an HF frequency and it was not acknowledged by a coast station within 3 minutes (RR N3134{).3.4.16 The distress relay is transmitted as either a single-frequency or a multi-frequency call attempt.3.4.17 If a ship receives a DSC distress relay addressed to ships in a particular geographical area,} then the displayor print-out and alarm will not be activated if geographical co-ordinates inserted manually or by navigationalinterface into the receiving ship station’s DSC equipment processor lie outside the addressed geographical area.DSC distress call repetitions and acknowledgement transmissions3.4.18 If no distress acknowledgement is received in response to a DSC distress call transmission, then the shipin distress may repeat the DSC distress call attempt (on different DSC distress frequencies if desired) after a delayof between 3.5 and 4.5 minutes from the beginning of the initial call.|| This delay allows time for any ac-knowledgement to be received.* See Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, paragraphs 3.1.3.1 and 3.1.3.2 (annex 3-2-8).{ Annex 3-2-7.{ See annex 9-6.} Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, paragraph 3.3.4 (see annex 3-2-8).} Recommendation ITU-R M.493, Annex 1, paragraph 5.3 (see annex 3-2-7).|| Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, paragraph 3.1.3 (see annex 3-2-8).
  33. 33. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 273.4.19 A coast station receiving a DSC distress call on MF or HF should transmit a DSC distress acknowl-edgement after a minimum delay of 1 minute after receipt of the distress call, normally within a maximum delayof 2.75 minutes. On VHF, a DSC distress acknowledgement should be transmitted as soon as practicable.*Reception of DSC calls3.4.20 All DSC distress-related calls transmitted on MF and HF contain, at the beginning of each single call, a200-bit 100-baud (i.e. 2 seconds) dot pattern to allow the use of scanning receivers on board ships. When used, ascanning receiver should be set to scan only the desired DSC distress frequencies, i.e. selected from the one MFfrequency and the five HF frequencies.3.4.21 It is important to ensure that, where a scanning receiver is used, all selected frequencies are scannedwithin 2 seconds, and the dwell time on each frequency should be adequate to allow detection of the dot pattern.The scan should only stop on detection of a 100-baud dot pattern. It is advisable that coast stations are able toreceive more than one DSC distress-related call simultaneously on different frequencies, and scanning receiversshould therefore not be used at coast stations.DSC shipborne equipment3.4.22 Figure 12 shows an example of a DSC control unit which, together with suitable VHF or MF/HF radioequipment, provides a complete shipborne radio system for automatic or manual operation within the DSCsystem for use in the maritime mobile services. Figure 12 – Example of a DSC control unit3.4.23 The unit consists of a modem and a signal coder/decoder for producing DSC signals; it also contains acentral processor unit for creating the different call formats, etc.3.4.24 In addition, the unit includes an interface sub-unit, enabling automatic channel control of the connectedVHF radio equipment, hard-copy printing of messages, and data collection from, for example, the navigationalequipment on board the ship.3.4.25 The unit also contains an audio alarm, giving an acoustic alarm when a DSC message is received.3.4.26 The information contained in the received DSC message is decoded and displayed on the front panelLCD display. This information may be stored in an internal memory.* Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, paragraph 3.3.2 (see annex 3-2-8).
  34. 34. Page 28 GMDSS Handbook – Part 33.4.27 When receiving DSC messages other than a distress, urgency or safety call, the control unit provides foran automatic transmission acknowledging the call received.3.4.28 Transmission of a distress call by VHF DSC from the ship in distress can be initiated by simply pushingthe distress button on the front panel of the control unit. The control unit also provides a function for includingadditional information concerning the distress situation in the distress message. Once initiated, the distress call isautomatically repeated at intervals of about 4 minutes* until acknowledged by another station or interruptedmanually.3.4.29 By using the keypad on the front panel of the control unit, the operator can compose different types ofDSC message. In the case of VHF, the operator may, for individual DSC messages to a coast station, include inthe message the telephone number of the land subscriber, thus providing for the use of semi-automatic VHFsystems expected to be implemented at coast stations in the future.3.4.30 The control unit includes an internal register, enabling the operator to store, for example, identitynumbers of the coast stations with which the ship often operates. Also, telephone numbers of land subscribersmay be stored in the register. These facilities make it possible for the operator to use abbreviated forms whencomposing DSC messages to coast stations.3.5 Search and rescue radar transponders (SARTs)Introduction3.5.1 Search and rescue radar transponders (SARTs) are the main means in the GMDSS for locating ships indistress or their survival craft, and their carriage on board ships is mandatory (regulations III/6.22 and IV/7.1.3).The SART operates in the 9 GHz frequency band and generates a series of response signals on being interrogatedby any ordinary 9 GHz shipborne radar or suitable airborne radar. No modification is needed to a ship’s radarequipment for detecting SART signals. SARTs can be either portable, for use on board ship or carrying into anysurvival craft, installed on the ship and in each survival craft, or so as to operate after floating free from the sinkingship (figure 13). They may also be incorporated into a float-free satellite EPIRB. Technical details of SARTs aregiven in annexes 3-6-1 and 3-6-8.Operational and technical characteristics3.5.2 The SART can be activated manually or automatically when placed into the water so that it will thereafterrespond when interrogated.3.5.3 When activated in a distress situation, the SART responds to radar interrogation by transmitting a swept-frequency signal which generates a line of blip code (figure 14) on a radar screen outward from the SART’sposition along its line of bearing.{ This unique radar signal is easily recognized on the radar screen and the rescuevessel (and aircraft, if equipped with suitable radar) can detect the survivors even in poor visibility or at night.3.5.4 The SART provides a visual or audible indication of its correct operation and will also inform survivorswhen it is interrogated by a radar.3.5.5 The SART will have sufficient battery capacity to operate in the stand-by condition for 96 hours and willbe able to operate under ambient temperatures of –208C to +558C.3.5.6 The vertical polar diagram of the antenna and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the device will permitthe SART to respond to radars under heavy swell conditions. SART transmission is substantially omnidirectionalin the horizontal plane.3.6 Equipment performance standardsIn order to ensure proper operation, radio equipment carried in the GMDSS is required to be type-approved byAdministrations in accordance with the performance standards developed by IMO (regulation IV/14). Thesestandards, in addition to requiring the radio equipment to comply with the relevant ITU-R recommendations,define various operational requirements to be met.* See Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, paragraphs 3.1.3.1 and 3.1.3.2 (see annex 3-2-8).{ See annex 3-6-7.
  35. 35. GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 Page 29 Figure 13 – Search and rescue radar transponders Figure 14 – SART blip code on a radar screen3.7 Maritime safety information (MSI) systemIntroduction3.7.1 The World-Wide Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS) was established by IMO and IHO for thepurpose of co-ordinating the transmission of navigational warnings to ships in co-ordinated geographical areas(NAVAREAs*). In the GMDSS, the WWNWS was included in the systems developed for the promulgation ofmaritime safety information (MSI).3.7.2 Radio systems to be used internationally for the promulgation of MSI in the GMDSS and for whichrequirements have been included in SOLAS chapter IV{ are: . the International NAVTEX system; . the International SafetyNET system; and* See annex 4-1 (WWNWS).{ See annex 2-13. See also annexes 3-5-3, -4 and -6.
  36. 36. Page 30 GMDSS Handbook – Part 3 . HF narrow-band direct-printing (NBDP), which may be used to augment these systems (under de- velopment)*3.7.3 The HF Morse telegraphy system which is currently used for broadcasts of NAVAREA warnings will besuperseded by the above automated systems during the implementation period of the GMDSS.3.7.4 Annex 4 gives more details of the co-ordination of various MSI systems.The International NAVTEX system3.7.5 This system is an international direct-printing service for promulgation of MSI in the English language,pertaining to coastal waters up to about 400 nautical miles offshore. Unlike NAVAREA warnings, which aretailored for international sea commerce on or near main shipping lanes, NAVTEX carries information relevant toall sizes and types of vessels within a region established for this service. It also carries routine meteorologicalforecasts and warnings and other urgent safety information to ships. A selective message-rejection feature of thereceiver allows the mariner to receive only that safety information pertinent to his requirements.3.7.6 Procedures to be followed by Administrations and the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau for co-ordi-nation of the planned used of the frequency 518 kHz in the International NAVTEX system are contained in RRArticle 14A.3.7.7 The existing NAVAREAs are used as regions for planning and co-ordination of the InternationalNAVTEX service. To assist such planning and advise IMO on the progress and on solutions to problems ofsystem expansion, IMO has established the NAVTEX Co-ordinating Panel, which reports to the IMO Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue (COMSAR). The List of NAVTEX services isgiven in annex 5 (the GMDSS Master Plan).3.7.8 NAVTEX is a single-frequency broadcast system; the frequency 518 kHz is used for this purpose.{Mutual interference will be avoided by limiting the transmitter power to that necessary for coverage of theassigned area and by co-ordinating the broadcast schedules. MSI on the International NAVTEX service isbroadcast in English. A dedicated receiver/processor (figure 15) is used for the reception of NAVTEX broadcasts.Details of the system are contained in the NAVTEX Manual, given in annex 4-2. For the technical characteristicsof NAVTEX receivers, see annexes 3-5-1 and 3-5-5. Figure 15 – Example of a NAVTEX receiver* See annex 3-5-4.{ See RR Art. 14A. N2969 and N2970 (annexes 9-1 and 9-3).
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.