Jean Piaget (1896-1980) ◦ Profoundly influenced the constructivist movement ◦ Believed children were active learners ◦ Children constructed new knowledge as they moved through different cognitive stages. ◦ Four cognitive stages Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Jerome Bruner (1915-?) ◦ Proposed learning is an active process ◦ Learners construct new ideas or concepts based on current or past knowledge ◦ Technology offers many strategies ◦ Teacher’s role should be to encourage students through exploration and inquiry
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) ◦ Developed social cognition ◦ Theorized that learning took place within the context of a child’s social development and culture ◦ He proposed that children have a zone of proximal development ◦ Teachers should discover the level of each child’s social development and build learning experiences from this point
John Dewey (1859-1952) ◦ Encouraged educators to reflect on their strategies and create activities that combine concrete and practical relevance to students’ lives ◦ Believed education was a social process ◦ Viewed learning as student-directed with a teacher serving as a guide for resources ◦ Believed in progressive education or educating the whole child, physically, mentally, and socially
“Constructivism is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.”1 Students learn by doing. The students learn HOW to learn. “Teachers help students to construct knowledge rather than to reproduce a series of facts.”2
With Technology ◦ Can recommend the use of computers for research. Without Technology ◦ Encourage students to use real-world examples ◦ Understands students conceptions and guides the student with activities to address them and build on them.
With technology ◦ Use a computer to write up findings from a lab. ◦ Use electronic flashcards ◦ Create spreadsheets to show data collected Without technology ◦ Build models out of clay or other artistic equipment
Since I’m planning onbeing a mathteacher, couldincorporate theconstructivist theory intomy class by having thestudents use asmartboard to includetechnology. I could alsohave students set uptheir own exampleproblems and quiz eachother.
1. http://www.learning- theories.com/constructivism.html2. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2 class/constructivism/index.html Sources for images ◦ Google