The Law & The Prophets/Profits Rhys Jones, Adrian Bowyer & Erik de Bruijn
RepRap The Replicating Rapid Prototyper
<ul><li>Open-Source </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements posted back onto the Web </li></...
Future Development <ul><li>Lack of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>140 Upgrades since release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Min...
Future Development <ul><li>New Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased replication count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manu...
Multi-Materials <ul><li>Enables graded, directional or functional properties </li></ul><ul><li>PCB's – Direct extrusion of...
I Am The Law Personal Manufacturing and  The Long Arm (European version...)
Relevant Laws <ul><li>Trademarks and passing-off </li></ul><ul><li>Unregistered and registered design </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
Trademarks and  Passing Off <ul><li>If make something including a trademark, or </li></ul><ul><li>If you try to pass it of...
(Un)Registered Design <ul><li>Components only protected if they can be seen </li></ul><ul><li>No protection for technical ...
Copyright <ul><li>Surface images and figurines </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes industrial prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Design d...
Patent <ul><li>20-year term </li></ul><ul><li>Private use not-for-gain is exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental use is exe...
The Law <ul><li>You can't infringe trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>You can't forge (pass off) </li></ul><ul><li>You can't mak...
Revolutionizing fabrication together!
RepRap's basic elements <ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Fabrication </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Of democratization of personal fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>through self-replication machines </li></ul>Impact Im...
Impact “ Freedom to copy  software  is an important right because it is easy now – any computer can do it. “ Freedom to co...
It is important “ Easy, anyone can do it” 1. Any computer can copy software 2. Anyone has a computer FOR SOFTWARE:
It is important “ Easy, anyone can do it” 1. Any  fabricator  can copy hardware 2. Anyone has a fabricator FOR HARDWARE: <...
Is hardware hard to copy? <ul><li>Not inherently, we just need sophisticated tools. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not perceived ...
Community growth
Community growth ~ 10 x 2004 2010 2006 2008
Community growth ~ 10 x (log scale) 2004 2010 2006 2008 Moore's Law
Numbers <ul><li>Back of a napkin calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>SS * Mpp / FoP * M growth  ^ Months = no. of RepRap </li><...
Numbers (cont'd) <ul><li>The population is expected to be roughly 10 times bigger than the sample.  But even if it's 5 or ...
What is driving this exponential growth? What does this exponential growth drive?
10.000 amateurs? What would happen?
Toys (for all ages)
Content or innovations? Robot modules or even complete robots Micro 'factories' and complete 3D printers Personal 3D Printer
Parts for self assembling systems that can be 3D printed Content or innovations?
Open Source Fusion powered by  3D printed parts
Conclusions <ul><li>PF is a critical collaboration platform for open hardware </li></ul><ul><li>We will have PF in our hom...
For more information <ul><li>Adrian Bowyer <A.Bowyer@bath.ac.uk> </li></ul><ul><li>Rhys Jones <r.o.jones@bath.ac.uk> </li>...
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RepRap @ FAB6 International Conference, Amsterdam

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RepRap is an open source 3D printer developed by a community of volunteers. In this talk Rhys Jones shows some of the latest technical developments, Adrian Bowyer, instigator of the project talks about the legal implications. Erik de Bruijn finalizes the talk with an estimation of the project's enormous growth, doubling every 6 months. This shows that personal fabrication is likely to become a reality much more quickly than most observers had dared to suggest.

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  • Because I&apos;ve got so much time (5 minutes), I&apos;m going to cover all of these topics, which is not that hard at all, because it&apos;s quite a cohesive set of elements.
  • For hardware, if the same conditions were satisfied, the four freedoms would be equally important. 0 = use 1 = study 2 = distribute 3 = improve
  • A computer is quite a sophisticated tool and took considerable effort to develop.
  • Natural system often exhibit a type of growth that is non-linear and very frequently exponential. If you want to understand the growth of, say, a forest you could do a longitudinal study, but then you&apos;d have to be there right from the start. To understand growth after the fact, researchers look at the rings in the cross section that tell you how long it has been around. Similarly, we asked the RepRap community members for how long ago they had joined.
  • To our amazement, more than half of the respondents had joined in the latest six months. And this doubling of the community is consistent over time.
  • Comparing Mendel&apos;s Law ;) and Moore&apos;s Law is comparing apples and oranges, or 3D printers and transistors. Still, the technologies are both transformative.
  • To a large degree, this growth rate increases the amount of people experimenting with the technology. The user-bases that improves their tools scales up, so various parameters such as cost, capabilities and quality. But in addition to powering itself and creating rapid diffusion this diffusion enables other open hardware.
  • There will be toys, lots of toys. But what someone considers a toy varies a lot. There&apos;s a whole variety of things people loves. From dolls to robots, from erector sets to snap together circuits. Amateurs do different things with it and will experiment more.
  • It usually is a blend of art, science or contains things that are just useful to print instead of going to the store.
  • It usually is a blend of art, science or contains things that are just useful to print instead of going to the store.
  • RepRap @ FAB6 International Conference, Amsterdam

    1. 1. The Law & The Prophets/Profits Rhys Jones, Adrian Bowyer & Erik de Bruijn
    2. 2. RepRap The Replicating Rapid Prototyper
    3. 3. <ul><li>Open-Source </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements posted back onto the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Old Machines can produce new designs </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding – Faster, cheaper more reliable, accurate, higher replication rates </li></ul>Evolution
    4. 4. Future Development <ul><li>Lack of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>140 Upgrades since release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini Mendel, Sarrus Linkage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials -Currently Thermoplastics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLA, ABS, HDPE, LDPE… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Material Properties </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Future Development <ul><li>New Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased replication count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacture more functional parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most versatile category of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramics </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Multi-Materials <ul><li>Enables graded, directional or functional properties </li></ul><ul><li>PCB's – Direct extrusion of Solder / Silver Loading of Pastes </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial reductions in part count </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to assemble </li></ul><ul><li>Tweezers </li></ul>
    7. 7. I Am The Law Personal Manufacturing and The Long Arm (European version...)
    8. 8. Relevant Laws <ul><li>Trademarks and passing-off </li></ul><ul><li>Unregistered and registered design </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul>
    9. 9. Trademarks and Passing Off <ul><li>If make something including a trademark, or </li></ul><ul><li>If you try to pass it off </li></ul><ul><li>You are a bad person. </li></ul>
    10. 10. (Un)Registered Design <ul><li>Components only protected if they can be seen </li></ul><ul><li>No protection for technical function </li></ul><ul><li>The “must fit” exception </li></ul><ul><li>The “restore appearance” exception </li></ul>
    11. 11. Copyright <ul><li>Surface images and figurines </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes industrial prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Design documents copyright, but... </li></ul><ul><li>… using them is not an infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Star Wars knitting patterns </li></ul><ul><li>25 year limit after first industrial use </li></ul>`...“ sculpture” includes a cast or model made for purposes of sculpture...' [s.4 CDPA 1988]
    12. 12. Patent <ul><li>20-year term </li></ul><ul><li>Private use not-for-gain is exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental use is exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Public use (e.g. in a school) infringes </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying the means infringes </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Law <ul><li>You can't infringe trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>You can't forge (pass off) </li></ul><ul><li>You can't make copyright figurines </li></ul><ul><li>You can't include copyright artwork </li></ul><ul><li>You can't sell patented items </li></ul><ul><li>You can pretty much do anything else... </li></ul>S Bradshaw, A Bowyer and P Haufe, &quot;The Intellectual Property Implications of Low-Cost 3D Printing&quot;, (2010) 7:1 SCRIPTed 5, http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/script-ed/vol7-1/bradshaw.asp
    14. 14. Revolutionizing fabrication together!
    15. 15. RepRap's basic elements <ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>“ Platform technology” </li></ul><ul><li>Self-replicating </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Of democratization of personal fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>through self-replication machines </li></ul>Impact Image by Shane Willis
    17. 17. Impact “ Freedom to copy software is an important right because it is easy now – any computer can do it. “ Freedom to copy hardware is not as important, because copying hardware is hard to do.” – Richard Stallman on Linux Today, 1999
    18. 18. It is important “ Easy, anyone can do it” 1. Any computer can copy software 2. Anyone has a computer FOR SOFTWARE:
    19. 19. It is important “ Easy, anyone can do it” 1. Any fabricator can copy hardware 2. Anyone has a fabricator FOR HARDWARE: <ul><li>Driven by: </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of applications </li></ul><ul><li>Word-of-mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Is hardware hard to copy? <ul><li>Not inherently, we just need sophisticated tools. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not perceived as hard to copy! </li></ul><ul><li>In the RepRap community, MORE hardware than software innovations are “copied”. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Community growth
    22. 22. Community growth ~ 10 x 2004 2010 2006 2008
    23. 23. Community growth ~ 10 x (log scale) 2004 2010 2006 2008 Moore's Law
    24. 24. Numbers <ul><li>Back of a napkin calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>SS * Mpp / FoP * M growth ^ Months = no. of RepRap </li></ul>* Sampled in March 2010. Low estimate High estimate Operators in sample* (SS) 386 386 Machines per operator (Mpp) 1.5 2 Machines in sample 579 772 Sampled fraction of pop. (FoP) 0.25 0.1 RepRaps in March 2316 7720 Monthly growth (M growth ) 1.122 1.122 RepRaps in August 2010 4,127 13,755 RepRaps in Jan 2011 7,353 24,509
    25. 25. Numbers (cont'd) <ul><li>The population is expected to be roughly 10 times bigger than the sample. But even if it's 5 or 20 times bigger, we're only off by 6 months! </li></ul><ul><li>Note that: On the left in the log scale graph, results are easily distorted. </li></ul><ul><li>The average operators has 1.5 distinct types of 3D printer. Number of RepRaps out there is roughly 3800 (e.g. 1 Mendel and 2 Darwins count as 2 distinct machines) </li></ul>
    26. 26. What is driving this exponential growth? What does this exponential growth drive?
    27. 27. 10.000 amateurs? What would happen?
    28. 28. Toys (for all ages)
    29. 29. Content or innovations? Robot modules or even complete robots Micro 'factories' and complete 3D printers Personal 3D Printer
    30. 30. Parts for self assembling systems that can be 3D printed Content or innovations?
    31. 31. Open Source Fusion powered by  3D printed parts
    32. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>PF is a critical collaboration platform for open hardware </li></ul><ul><li>We will have PF in our homes </li></ul><ul><li>More and more, WE will be the CREATORS of our futures </li></ul><ul><li>The economics of physical goods will change very radically </li></ul>
    33. 33. For more information <ul><li>Adrian Bowyer <A.Bowyer@bath.ac.uk> </li></ul><ul><li>Rhys Jones <r.o.jones@bath.ac.uk> </li></ul><ul><li>Erik de Bruijn < [email_address] > </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.RepRap.org </li></ul><ul><li>Erik's survey and quantitative study done in conjunction with: </li></ul><ul><li>Eric von Hippel, MIT Sloan School of Management </li></ul><ul><li>J.J.O. de Jong, Erasmus University / EIM </li></ul>
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