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Genetically modified organism
 

Genetically modified organism

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    Genetically modified organism Genetically modified organism Presentation Transcript

    • Prepared by: Erika R. Trinidad
      BSED-1C
      Genetically Modified Organism
    • One of the most problem we experience is a food shortage because of over population. How can we solve this crisis in our lives that is a big question that comes in our mind. How? What will we do?
      That’s why Genetically Modified Organism(GMO) create , a technology designed to augment food shortage.
    • What is Genetically Modified Organism(GMO)?
      A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques, generally known as recombinant DNA technology, use DNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes.
      Genetically engineered organisms such as crops are given traits such as bigger seeds or better resistance to pests. This helps farmers able to produce more crops, which in turn helps feed more people. With animals, they might give it genes to grow fatter or produce more milk.
    • Current use of GMO
      Agricultural plant is one of the most frequently cited example of genetically modified organisms(GMOs).
      Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced need for pesticides enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the worlds growing population. Advances have also been made in developing crops that mature faster and tolerate aluminum, boron, salt, drought, frost, and other environmental stressor, allowing plants to grow in conditions where they might not otherwise flourish. A number of animals have also been genetically engineered to increase yield and decrease susceptibility to disease. For example salmon have been engineered to grow larger and mature faster , and cattle have been enhanced to exhibit resistance to mad cow disease.
    • Genetically modified organisms are beneficial and safe because ...
      ... genetically engineered bacteria are used for waste treatment and cleaning the environment.
      ... genetically engineered bacteria, plants, or animals can produce hormones and antibiotic.
      ... crops are herbicide and pest resistance, yet ...
      ... no one has been poisoned by a genetically modified plant ...
      ... there are no known hybrids between native plants and genetically modified plants that have become super weeds and destroyed natural habitats.
      ... genetic engineering also provides industrial improvement of enzymes used in fermentation of bread, wine, beer, or cheese or for specialized production steps in drug development and synthesis.
      Other applications include the production and improvement of detergents, fats, oils, starch, fruit juices, cellulose and paper products.
    • 4 Example of Genetically Modified Crops
      Genetically modified crops (often abbreviated as GMOs) are simply crops, whose genetic material has been modified. 
      Pesticide resistant rape plantsScientists have transferred a gene to the rape plant which enables the plant to resist a certain pesticide. When the farmer sprays his genetically modified rape crop with pesticides, he or she can destroy most of the pests without killing the rape plants.
      Advantages:
      • The farmer can grow a larger crop because it is easier to fight pests.
      • In some cases the farmer can use a more environmentally friendly crop spray.
      • The farmer can also protect the environment by using less crop spray.
    • Advantages:
      • The farmer no longer has to use insecticide to kill insects, so the surrounding environment is no longer exposed to large amounts of harmful insecticide.
      • The farmer no longer needs to walk around with a drum of toxic spray wearing a mask and protective clothing.
    • Cotton and potatoes are other examples of plants that scientists have , genetically modified to produce insecticide.
      Golden rice
      Golden rice is genetically modified rice that now contains a large amount of A-vitamins. Or more correctly, the rice contains the element beta-carotene which is converted in the body into Vitamin-A. So when you eat golden rice, you get more vitamin A.
      Beta-carotene gives carrots their orange colour and is the reason why genetically modified rice is golden. For the golden rice to make beta-carotene three new genes are implanted: two from daffodils and the third from a bacterium.
    • Advantages:
      • The rice can be considered a particular advantage to poor people in underdeveloped countries. They eat only an extremely limited diet lacking in the essential bodily vitamins. The consequences of this restricted diet causes many people to die or become blind. This is particularly true in areas of Asia, where most of the population live on rice from morning to evening.
    • Long-lasting tomatoesLong-lasting, genetically modified tomatoes came on to the market in 1994 and were the first genetically modified food available to consumers. The genetically modified tomato produces less of the substance that causes tomatoes to rot, so remains firm and fresh for a long time.
      Advantages:
      • Because the GM tomatoes can remain fresh longer they can be allowed to ripen in the sun before picking - resulting in a better tasting tomato.
      • GM tomatoes can tolerate a lengthier transport time. This means that market gardens can avoid picking tomatoes while they are green in order that they will tolerate the transport.
      • The producers also have the advantage that all the tomatoes can be harvested simultaneously.
    • END