History of CHI

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Presented to students on history of computer science in K.U.Leuven on 7 March 2011.

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History of CHI

  1. 1. History of CHIGeschiedenis van de informaticaLeuven, 7 March 2011Erik Duvalhttp://erikduval.wordpress.com and @ErikDuval 1
  2. 2. http://www.slideshare.net/erik.duval2
  3. 3. HUGE thanks to... http://www.slideshare.net/mrettig/interaction-design-historymarc rettigmarcrettig.com interactionpresented at design history in a teenycarnegiemellonuniversity2 april 2004mrettig@well.com little nutshell version 1.5
  4. 4. when? what?• ... 4
  5. 5. wiring the ENIAC with a new programENIAC1946Mauchly and Eckertstats:3,000 cubic feet30 tons18,000 vacuum tubes70,000 resistors170 kilowatt power req.~1 kilobit memoryapproximateprocessingpower oftoday’s singingbirthday cardbut not a stored-program device Great description here: www.computinghistorymuseum.org/teaching/lectures/pptlectures/7b-eniac.ppt
  6. 6. front panel switchesDEC PDP-8TI 9801960’sThe internalarchitecture of themachine isexposed in thecontrols. You can see thatthe PDP-8 is an octal computer,with its switches in three-bitconfigurations (it takes threebits to count from 0 to 7, for atotal of 8 numbers. Base 8.Octal. Get it?). The TI 980 is ahexadecimal machine, withswitches in groups of four. Usingthe switches, you program themachine one word at a time (aword being, say, twohexadecimal bytes for the TI).
  7. 7. configure switches, run batch, output to tape
  8. 8. batch processing: feed it cards, wait while it runsWhat you used to dopunch a deck of cards; takethe cards to a little window,hand them to the operator; sheputs them in line with everyoneelse’s jobs; when it’s your turnshe puts your cards in thehopper and pushes “RUN”; yourprogram works or it doesn’t; anhour or twelve later, you pick upyour cards and (hopefully)printout at the same littlewindow.What you do nowdouble-click an icon, see whathappens immediately.
  9. 9. preparing punch cardsAn important by-product:confetti . Allthe chaff from all those cardswas just great to throw aroundthe dorm.
  10. 10. preparing punch cardsEach key press punches holes,so there’s no “erase.” Fixing amistake almost always requiredejecting the card and starting itover.In a pinch – say you reallyneeded to fix a card and thepunch was down – a cleveroperator might know enoughabout the card encoding toclose some holes with tape andopen others with a knife. weSo on the one hand,were adaptingto the machines.On the other hand, theworkings of the machines wereexposed, right out where wecould get to them.
  11. 11. punch cardshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg 11
  12. 12. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/IBM_card_punch_029.JPG 12
  13. 13. operator consoleIBM System 3601960’s
  14. 14. at home, it’s still the switches – but what to do with it?MITS Altair 88001975One of the first commerciallyavailable home computers.You ordered it. You built it. Youoperated it through frontpanel switches.
  15. 15. next? 15
  16. 16. Command Line Interface 16
  17. 17. Nog vb? 17
  18. 18. Grafische gebruikersinterface 18
  19. 19. WIMP• Windows Icons Menus, and Pointing devices• Characteristics • intuitive • consistent • forgiving • protective• But not necessarily best for expert! 19
  20. 20. Turing Award 1988 Ivan Sutherland: Sketchpad (1962) 20 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USyoT_Ha_bA
  21. 21. D. Engelbart, Augment• Stanford Research Institute• invented interactive computing (mouse, windows, groupware, ...)• team went to Xerox PARC• http://dougengelbart.org/ 21
  22. 22. D. Engelbart, Augment• demo at 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference • video, microwave transmission, ... • http:// sloan.stanford.edu/ mousesite/ 1968Demo.html • http:// www.youtube.com /watch? v=X4kp9Ciy1nE 22
  23. 23. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4kp9Ciy1nE23
  24. 24. http://cfdj.sys-con.com/read/536976.htm
  25. 25. Fast forward to … now :) ! Text Texthttp://hyperscope.org/ http://flash.kmi.open.ac.uk:8080/fm/fmm.php?code=c785a5-890&room=fm890 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3914718330476864051&q=doug+engelbart 25
  26. 26. http://erikduval.wordpress.com/2010/01/31/happy-85th-carrying-the-torch/
  27. 27. http://collectiveiq.wordpress.com/2010/11/18/40th-anniversary-of-the-patent-on-the-mouse/
  28. 28. XEROX PARC Star (1981) 28
  29. 29. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYvxgNhUwBk 29
  30. 30. a tool for home and small business calculationsvisicalcDan Bricklin1979Finally people had a reason tobuy a home computer(specifically, an Apple II): sothey could use VisiCalc, the firstspreadsheet. THE place to learn about Visicalc: www.bricklin.com/visicalc.htm Download a working version!
  31. 31. Macintosh, 1984 31 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0FtgZNOD44
  32. 32. All 39 pages of advertising that Apple bought in a 1984 issue of newsweek are available here: http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/computerhistory/ads/macnewsweek
  33. 33. Windows 1.0 (1985) 33
  34. 34. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y48rthTbrA8&NR=1 34
  35. 35. beyond then ... 35
  36. 36. http://sharetec.celstec.org/gddf/mace_AR.mov
  37. 37. http://blogs.msdn.com/tom/archive/2009/03/03/future-vision-ux-ideas.aspx 38
  38. 38. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Cf7IL_eZ38 39
  39. 39. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGwvZWyLiBU
  40. 40. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/pattie_maes_demos_the_sixth_sense.html 41
  41. 41. http://www.lce.hut.fi/research/css/bci/42
  42. 42. 43 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCSSBEXBCbY&NR=1
  43. 43. http://dagkrant.kuleuven.be/files/pdf/ck21-nr06.pdf44
  44. 44. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIG47YgndP8 45
  45. 45. 46 http://emotiv.com/
  46. 46. The future has already arrived.Its just not evenly distributed yet. 47
  47. 47. what did you... • like most? • want most? • dislike most? • fear most? • ...? and why... 48
  48. 48. Questions?http://erikduval.wordpress.com/ twitter: @ErikDuval 49

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