Measuring and Marketing EcosystemServices, Functions, and Values in Oregon                                           Eric ...
Half Mile Lane
Half Mile Lane
Half Mile Lane
Half Mile Lane
“We value what weprice, but natures servicesare, mostly, not traded inany markets and notpriced....We cannot managewhat we...
“We value what we price,but natures services are,mostly, not traded in anymarkets and notpriced....We cannotmanage what we...
Value: “The importance or worth of awetland function to societal needs. Thisincludes public attitudes and the wetland’sopp...
Value: “The importance or worth of awetland function to societal needs. Thisincludes public attitudes and the wetland’sopp...
Half Mile Lane
Half Mile Lane
? ?         ?HML                        ?             Suburban                                ? ?   Portland ?     = Exist...
THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket
3 moments of value’s measureAssessment – use online mapping toolsRegulatoryMarket
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory – approve/modify/deny bankMarket
http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/CAPS/pestInfo/reedCanaryGrass.htm
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket – deploy trading ratios
“And we now have because of GIStools and various resource censusingtools that we have, we can look at allthese overlays an...
+ --   + +++ --  - --        -   +- + - +     --          - -
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket
3 moments of value’s measureAssessment – use online mapping toolsRegulatoryMarket
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory – approve/modify/deny bankMarket
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket – deploy trading ratios
3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory       Market constraints?Market
3 moments of value’s measureAssessment      [Mapping priorities] is nice to tell                local regulators this is t...
Spatial logics
Also, keep paying attention to change overtime,       within specific historical-geographcial       contexts to see themom...
Short-term | Long-term
Acknowledgments  NSF Award BCS-12138277 (PIs: Martin  Doyle, Rebecca Lave, Morgan Robertson), University  of Kentucky (UK)...
Measuring and Market Ecosystem Services, Functions, and Values in Oregon
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Measuring and Market Ecosystem Services, Functions, and Values in Oregon

1,639 views

Published on

Presentation at 2013 AAGs in Blue/Green economies session.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,639
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,234
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Today I want to tell you about the social relations and spatial logics motivating environmental regulators, conservationists, and eco-entrepreneurs in Oregon plan as they choose, and evaluate where in the landscape to do wetland and stream restoration for a cap and trade-type market. I’ll show how the state’s and conservationists’ efforts to map what priority locations for restoration and to point out these places to entrepreneurs are market-constraining, but perhaps only in the short-term. The takeaway here is that many of the new or revamped markets in ecosystem services we are seeing may not be about as commodification and commercialization so much as other, state-strengthening goals.
  • Let’s start here. Welcome to the Half Mile Lane site in exurban Portland, Oregon. It provides a number of ECS.
  • The wetland you see stores and delays water, which mitigates flood impacts for downstream homes.
  • The stream provides habitat for salmon that migrate into the foothills of the Coast Range.
  • A couple of years ago, state environmental agencies and conservationists undertook ecological restoration on the site, turning old farmland and a straightened ditch into a productive wetland and stream. This work was done for a market where developers purchase offsets for impacts to wetlands and streams. HML is also a demonstration project for what regulators and conservationists see as stronger metrics for the market, both of what counts as successful restoration, as well as what locations in the watershed are worthwhile to do restoration projects.
  • As TEEB leader PavanSukhdev explains to us, these markets are supposed to be about valuing nature.
  • For him – and we hear this quote a lot - “we cannot manage what we do not measure,” which means measuring the nature’s benefits and doing so as a $ price. As many have argued, this commodifies nature.
  • But lestyou think the focus on “value” is the domain solely ofpundits like Sukhdev, consider what how the Oregon DSL – one of the environmental agencies – defines it. For DSL, it means the opportunity to provide an ecological function.
  • Importantly, this opportunity is location-based; it’s spatial.
  • HML has the opportunity to mitigate flood impacts, because it is upstream of homes
  • and downstream of logging and mining operations that increase runoff.
  • So the question is: how do Oregon’s market actors measure the value of ecosystem services? Put more concretely - where in the landscape do they plan andchoose to do restoration for the market and why? Sukhdev makes the challenge of resource protection sounds so easy when he says that all that needs to be done to prevent environmental degradation is to “put a value on” nature. But the task of valuation has not been so effortless in Oregon.In the rest of this talk I want to walk you through the assessment of restoration sites in Oregon’s market, and how they become valued as places to do restoration. There are three moments to this, but they are moments that put the interests of regs and cons against the interests of entrepreneurs. I want to demonstrate an at least short-term strength of state agencies contra entrepreneurs in constraining a kind of accumulation by restoration. New ventures in market governance may not deepen ecosystem commodification and commercialization as much as they throw up roadblocks. While these may only be short-term constraints, we should pay attention to them as potential moments where the market collapses under its own contradictions.
  • I first want to take a second to make sure we’re on the same page about how these markets work. In US markets for wetland and stream ecosystems, state and federal environmental regulatory agencies – ACOE, EPA, in conjunction with state agencies like DSL - allow developers to make up for resource degradation by compensating entrepreneurs (or, “mitigation bankers”) who speculatively restore ecosystems. A good example: On January 25, 2012, the Oregon Department of State Lands (DSL) authorized the trade of four salmon habitat credits to the Tualatin Hills Parks and Recreation Department (THPRD).
  • DSL did not sell the Half Mile Lane (HML) property itself, where it had restored salmon habitat. Instead, it dealt THPRD credits. These credits are a measure of both the quality and quantity of habitat created after DSL replaced a culvert and performed other stream and wetland restoration work at HML.
  • THPRD wanted these credits so it could tell environmental regulators like DSL that it had adequately compensated for a trail bridge it is building that will degrade habitat elsewhere in the watershed. Note that in this case a state agency, DSL, was the one selling credits, but more often it is a private entrepreneur.
  • But either way, the idea is to ensure some kind/degree of ecological equivalence, and this is the art and science of assessment.
  • These kinds of trade demand an assessment of the value of the ecosystem services in question.
  • First, in the assessment moment, ecologically-trained consultants to restoration bankers work in the office with several online mapping to gage how ecological processes occur across the landscape and affect the site where bankers have chosen to do restoration.
  • Here’s one of the key mapping utilities consultants use, called Oregon Explorer. Hydric soils are the orange/yellow, but we also see the 100 year floodplain downstream of the site. It’s bringing a lot of data from beyond the boundaries of the site together, and showing it to the user in one frame. Consultants have to answer questions about landscape context by using OE to, for instance, draw a 2 mile radius circle around the site to see how many other similar habitats the site is connected to in the area, or what sources of ecological stress are nearby, like the quarry. The key point here is that the value score of a banker’s site is relational to the site’s surroundings – but these are things which the banker has no or little control over.
  • Agency staff judge the offsite stressors and risks consultants find in their assessment in the regulatory moment when they approve or deny an entrepreneur’s choice of where to do restoration that they outline in what’s called a bank instrument, or prospectus.
  • For instance, regulators often focus on reed canary grass, an invasive species that can spread rapidly on a restoration site from without and foil a project. They question whether a site and its landscape surroundings will, in the end, prove valuable if there is too much RCG around. Environmental agencies can in this moment modify a banker’s proposal to work on a certain piece of ground that is particularly susceptible to weeds by asking them to put more money into a long-term management.
  • Finally, there is a market moment to value’s measure. What non-profit conservationists want to see happen in the market is that when a banker brings a site to the market, to get their credits to sell, the amount they get depends in large part on the location of their project.
  • These are “priority areas” - habitat sites mapped by state environmental agencies, and collated by TNC.
  • The idea is that bankers would get the full amount if they were doing restoration in a priority area and less if they were not. The problem is that if a banker had to do work in a priority area lest they not get as many credits as they expected, they’d be incentivized to work on land they wouldn’t necessarily normally restore. All else equal, they want to work on sites where they can get the most credit bang for their restoration buck. But having to work in priority areas could mean they have to work on sites with higher land prices, which would cut into their profits.To be clear: this isn’t how the market currently works, but regulators are using GIS to see whether bankers are siting in priority areas and conservationists are pushing for this trading ratio protocol to be adopted. It is still part of the discussion on the ground in Oregon, about what should/might happen.
  • In general, then, through all three moments, how state agencies in Oregon - with help from the conservationists who have helped map priority areas and author market protocols - how they assess ecosystem service value in site selection proves constraining entrepreneurs.
  • Assessment – the landscape context they have to look at weighs bankers down
  • Regulatory – bankers have to put more capital into long-term management
  • Market – they will not get full credit, have to work in different places
  • Bankers are rather unhappy about this valorization of restoration – and question regulators’ authority to do it. It’s come to the point where bankers may take state agencies to court on the issue and stop doing more restoration for the market. And so what we see is not the state rolling out the conditions for market success, but genuine market constraints.
  • I do want to caution that this only holds for the current political moment. In the long-term, what we might see is bankers getting used to regulators’ expectations about where it is valuable to do restoration. Indeed, the way state agencies have mapped out priorities might only serve as aids to new bankers, making it easier for bankers to find sites. This would facilitate the commodification and commercialization of restoration and provide more opportunities for developers to just buy credits for their resource impacts.
  • And so to wrap up, what I think this case does for us is two-fold. First, it reminds us to pay attention to the spatial logics of these markets, asking what sort of notions of spatial efficiency and prioritization constitute these markets?
  • It also suggests a need to keep paying attention to change over time, within specific historical-geographcial contexts to see the moments where neoliberal conservation confronts its own contradictions.
  • In the short-term, we might see moves by the state and conservationists to implement new measures of restoration success not as a deepening of commodification and commercialization, but as having the effect of slowing the market.In the long-run, it might only enhance capitalist investment in restoration in particular places, facilitating the market, in what several scholars have named as the variegation of neoliberal natures or neoliberal conservation.Either way, demarcating the difference between the two can tell us a lot how about market-oriented conservation projects succeed and fail, and to what effect.
  • Measuring and Market Ecosystem Services, Functions, and Values in Oregon

    1. 1. Measuring and Marketing EcosystemServices, Functions, and Values in Oregon Eric Nost Department of Geography Political Ecology Working Group University of Kentucky eric.nost@uky.edu @ericnost
    2. 2. Half Mile Lane
    3. 3. Half Mile Lane
    4. 4. Half Mile Lane
    5. 5. Half Mile Lane
    6. 6. “We value what weprice, but natures servicesare, mostly, not traded inany markets and notpriced....We cannot managewhat we do not measureand we are not measuringeither the value of naturesbenefits or the costs of theirloss.”-Pavan Sukhdev (2010)
    7. 7. “We value what we price,but natures services are,mostly, not traded in anymarkets and notpriced....We cannotmanage what we do notmeasure and we are notmeasuring either the valueof natures benefits or thecosts of their loss.”-Pavan Sukhdev (2010)
    8. 8. Value: “The importance or worth of awetland function to societal needs. Thisincludes public attitudes and the wetland’sopportunity to provide a given functionbased on its location.”-OR Dept. of State Lands, 2012
    9. 9. Value: “The importance or worth of awetland function to societal needs. Thisincludes public attitudes and the wetland’sopportunity to provide a given functionbased on its location.”-OR Dept. of State Lands, 2012
    10. 10. Half Mile Lane
    11. 11. Half Mile Lane
    12. 12. ? ? ?HML ? Suburban ? ? Portland ? = Existing banks
    13. 13. THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
    14. 14. THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
    15. 15. THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
    16. 16. THPRD future trail siteHalf Mile Lane
    17. 17. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket
    18. 18. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessment – use online mapping toolsRegulatoryMarket
    19. 19. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory – approve/modify/deny bankMarket
    20. 20. http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/CAPS/pestInfo/reedCanaryGrass.htm
    21. 21. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket – deploy trading ratios
    22. 22. “And we now have because of GIStools and various resource censusingtools that we have, we can look at allthese overlays and determine whereall these priorities are.”OR regulator, 7-6-12
    23. 23. + -- + +++ -- - -- - +- + - + -- - -
    24. 24. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket
    25. 25. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessment – use online mapping toolsRegulatoryMarket
    26. 26. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory – approve/modify/deny bankMarket
    27. 27. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatoryMarket – deploy trading ratios
    28. 28. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessmentRegulatory Market constraints?Market
    29. 29. 3 moments of value’s measureAssessment [Mapping priorities] is nice to tell local regulators this is the mouth of some important water, you know.Regulatory Or for people who are looking into starting new banks that don’t have a lot of background… OR consultant, 7-30-12Market
    30. 30. Spatial logics
    31. 31. Also, keep paying attention to change overtime, within specific historical-geographcial contexts to see themoments where neoliberal conservationconfronts its own contradictions.
    32. 32. Short-term | Long-term
    33. 33. Acknowledgments NSF Award BCS-12138277 (PIs: Martin Doyle, Rebecca Lave, Morgan Robertson), University of Kentucky (UK) Barnhardt-Withington Award UK graduate students, Eric Carter, Anna Secor, Matt WilsonContact eric.nost@uky.edu @ericnost

    ×