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  • Today, I would like for you to take a WALK through this presentation with me By the end of this presentation:You will have the knowledge to apply the the principles and ideas of an Organizational INTERNAL RESPONSIBILITY STSTEM , and how you might apply this concept to your own WORKPLACEIt`s about the WorkplaceIt`s about taking action in the Workplace and applying the principles and ideas of the IRSIt`s about learning the skills needed to apply the principles and ides of the IRSIt`s about gaining knowledge on the importance of the IRS and your due diligence
  • Who am I ? Eric LeFortMarried to Barbara (three children) - Oldest son graduate Red Seal Construction Electrical NSCC - Daughter graduate from Holland College Inter - Provincial Designation Dental Hygiene Assistant - Youngest son presently accepted in Metal Fabrication Program at NSCC, Marconi 2011/2012 Calendar yearReside in Whycocomagh for 30 yrs +Graduate from Algonquin College in Forestry / Environmental Science Diploma Program18 yrs + Experiences in Environmental / Forestry Sustainable Development & Management ( DNR)15 yrs + Experiences in OHS 5 yrs + NS OHS Division Regulator 5 yrs + NS WCB Injury/Illness Prevention Consultant 3 yrs + OHS Advisor to Private Industry 1.5 yrs + OHS Program, Faculty School of Trades and Technology, NSCC MarconiProfessional Designations: CRSP Canadian Registered Safety Professional since 2000 CSS Construction Safety Supervisor , NSCSA since 2000
  • Welcome to Walk - Workplace / Action / Learn / Knowledge of the IRSTal
  • Most accident theories take the analysis away from accident investigation and never get to the root cause. More often then none, finger pointing and worker blame is concluded as the cause... But is it really the only cause ?A step by step root cause analysis, can arrive at the true cause, and highlight substandard conditions and substandard behavior or actions ..... Or lack thereof !!!Example: If a worker makes a mistake and causes an accident, we can see how very often there was a prior failure of a supervisor to train, coach, observe, job plan, motivate, and so on.So, if the supervisor can be said to have caused the accident in part, then we can see that frequently the manager did not properly select and train the supervisor, or did not develop programs needed by the supervisor, or did not properly allocate resources or staff the workplace.Where the direct causes of an accident involve unsafe conditions, tools, machines, processes and structures, we can often bypass the worker and supervisor in our causal analysis and see the failure of the mid-level to senior manager to properly apply design standards or allocate resources.Managers cause accidents; they just cause them in different ways than workers and supervisors. It does not matter as to how many layers there are in an organization, we can see a causal connection back to the accident. So we can conclude that Presidents cause accidents. They can fail to lead, to set policy, to ensure a proper delegation of authority, to inspire a proper safety culture, to design a workable organizational structure or to allocate resources.
  • If a worker makes a mistake and causes an accident, we can see how very often there was a prior failure of a supervisor to train, coach, observe, job plan, motivate, and so on.So, if the supervisor can be said to have caused the accident in part, then we can see that frequently the manager did not properly select and train the supervisor, or did not develop programs needed by the supervisor, or did not properly allocate resources or staff the workplace.Where the direct causes of an accident involve unsafe conditions, tools, machines, processes and structures, we can often bypass the worker and supervisor in our causal analysis and see the failure of the mid-level to senior manager to properly apply design standards or allocate resources.Managers cause accidents; they just cause them in different ways than workers and supervisors. However many layers there are in an organization we can see a causal connection back to the accident. Presidents cause accidents. They can fail to lead, to set policy, to ensure a proper delegation of authority, to inspire a proper safety culture, to design a workable organizational structure or to allocate resources.
  • The IRS starts with the board of directors and refers to the delegation of authority and responsibility for work (and health and safety integrated into the work) on down to the operative worker.We can capture the three aspects of any job -- authority, responsibility and accountability -- in Figure 2.In the case of health and safety, authority and responsibility flow down the organization by way of delegation. This does not mean that health and safety is the subject of "buck passing" downward. The health and safety work becomes more detailed and operational as it moves down.
  • The IRS starts with the board of directors and refers to the delegation of authority and responsibility for work (and health and safety integrated into the work) on down to the operative worker.We can capture the three aspects of any job -- authority, responsibility and accountability -- in Figure 2.In the case of health and safety, authority and responsibility flow down the organization by way of delegation. This does not mean that health and safety is the subject of "buck passing" downward. The health and safety work becomes more detailed and operational as it moves down.
  • Organization structure looking at the role of thePresidentVice PresidentSuperIntendentMine ManagerSupervisorWorker
  • Later in the roles of the "worker auditor" and the health and safety committee were described as ways of ensuring that the IRS worked well.
  • Irs presentation4

    1. 1. W. A. L. K.<br />Internal Responsibility System<br />Workplace - Action - Learn - Knowledge<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />Eric LeFort<br /> Married with three Children<br /> 30 yrs + Reside in Whycocomagh NS<br /> Graduate Algonquin College<br /> 15 years + Experiences in OHS<br /> 5 yrs + NS OHS Division Regulator<br /> 5 yrs + NS WCB Consultant<br /> 3 yrs + OHS Advisor in Industry<br /> 1.5 yrs + OHS Faculty Program, NSCC Marconi<br /> CRSP, CSS Designation<br /> NSCC CCEDP Candidate <br />7/7/21<br />
    3. 3. Agenda<br />Accident Theory Model<br />5 steps Accident Analysis<br />Effective Theory Model of IRS <br />Defining IRS<br />First for IRS in legislation<br />Everyone's Responsibility<br />Wrap Up <br />7/7/21<br />Welcome<br />
    4. 4. Where does the “IRS” Come from? <br />Though the ideacomes from the<br />Accident Model Theory, “The Ham <br />Royal Commission into Safety in the<br />Mines In Ontario”, which discussed<br />the IRS in its 1976 report, made this <br />idea much clearer and easier to<br />understand as it applies to OHS. <br />1<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    5. 5. Accident Theory Model<br />.<br />If thepeoplein a managed system areidentified,andas you work through the accident analysis, you can see the structure of the IRS forming. <br />* In this example we have a domino model that encompasses all the direct players of the IRS.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />W. H. Heinrich's Domino Theory <br />2<br />Most modern accident theories take the analysis away from the direct causes of accidents and exposures to the root problems in the management system.<br />
    6. 6. People and the IRS<br />If the people in a managed system areidentified,asyou work through the accident analysis, you can see the structure of the IRS forming. <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />3<br />5 Step Accident Causation Analysis<br />IRS<br />
    7. 7. Steps in cause analysis <br />1. Analyze the injury event to identify and describe the direct cause of injury. <br />Example: <br />Laceration to right forearm resulting from contact with rotating saw blade. <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />4<br /> Step 1 - Accident Causation Analysis<br />1<br />IRS<br />
    8. 8. Steps in cause analysis <br />2. Analyze events occurring just prior to the injury event to identify those conditions and behaviors that caused the injury (primary surface causes) for the accident. <br />Example:<br />Event x Unguarded saw blade. (condition or behavior? )<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />5<br /> Step 2 - Accident Causation Analysis<br />2<br />IRS<br />
    9. 9. Steps in cause analysis <br />3. Analyze conditions and behaviors to determine other specific conditions and behaviors (contributing surface causes) that contributed to the accident.<br />Example: <br />Supervisor not performing weekly area safety inspection. (condition or behavior? )<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />6<br />Step 3 - Accident Causation Analysis<br />3<br />IRS<br />3<br />
    10. 10. Steps in cause analysis <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />7<br />Step 4 - Accident Causation Analysis<br />4. Analyze each contributing condition and behavior to determine if weaknesses in carrying out safety policies, programs, plan, processes, procedures and practices exist<br />Examples: <br />Safety inspections are being conducted inconsistently. (condition or behavior? )<br />4<br />IRS<br />
    11. 11. Steps in cause analysis <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />8<br />Step 5 - Accident Causation Analysis<br />5. Determine implementation flaws to determine the underlying design weaknesses. <br />Example: <br />Inspection policy does not clearly specify responsibility by name or position. (Condition or behavior?) <br />IRS<br />5Leadership<br />
    12. 12. Would you agree with this theory?<br />W. H. Heinrich's Domino Theory <br /> "The occurrence of an injury invariably results from a completed sequence of factors, the last one of these being the accident itself. The accident in turn is invariably caused or permitted directly by the unsafe act of a person and/or a mechanical or physical hazard." (W.H. Heinrich) <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />9<br />
    13. 13. 7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />Quiz yourselves on the Accident theory <br />W. H. Heinrich's Domino Theory <br />10<br />Who can cause an accident? <br />Who can take steps to prevent accidents? <br />Who should be taking steps to prevent accidents and exposures? <br />Who should be responsible for health and safety in the organization?<br />
    14. 14. Did you get it right?<br />Who can cause an accident? Anyone<br />Who can take steps to prevent accidents? Anyone<br />Who should be taking steps to prevent accidents and exposures? Everyone <br />Who should be responsible for health and safety in the organization? Everyone<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />11<br />
    15. 15. Anything else which may influence the effectiveness of the IRS?<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />12<br />
    16. 16. Human Resources Theory<br />The human resources literature usually refers to "productivity" or "quality", but if you substitute the phrase "health and safety", we can see that the human element is by far the most important element of health and safety management.<br />13<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    17. 17. Management & Staff Engagement<br />It is absolutely clear that for an organization to perform optimally, it is the hearts and minds of the individualpeople throughout the organization that have to be engaged.<br />14<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    18. 18. I.R.S. Defined<br /> I - Internal <br /> R - Responsibility<br /> S - System<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />15<br />It Is Not Rocket Science<br />
    19. 19. The IRS as a Structure <br />Commissions and acts aside, the IRS can be seen to arise from an understanding of how organizations work best.<br />The simple corporate model, shown on the the following Figure ,illustrates the flow of legitimate authority from the legal charter through to the operations people.<br />16<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    20. 20. Organizations and the IRS<br />There is, as we all know, enormous variation in workplaces and organizations. <br />To varying degrees, every organization has an IRS, no matter how stunted or deformed. <br />The process is to assess yourcurrent situation -- the health ofyour IRS -- and then move forward with improvements, with the true model of the IRS in mind. <br />17<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />Company Legal Charter <br />
    21. 21. IRS is an Important Set of Ideas<br />The IRS is such an important set of ideas that it is properly the responsibilityof the most senior people to see to it that the IRS is optimized. <br />Monitoring and fixing the IRS should be of high priority. <br />However, goodleadershipis the most important idea of all.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />18<br />
    22. 22. IRS and OHSDr. Peter Strahlendorf<br />“The internal responsibility system, or IRS, is a system in which every individual is responsible for health and safety. It can be thought of as an organizational chart, with a clear set of statements about responsibility and authority for health and safety for each person within an organization -- no exceptions” . <br />19<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    23. 23. Got the correct understanding of the idea? <br />Should we conclude that the IRS is based on the law?<br />Should health and safety law be evaluated as to whether and to what degree it advances the IRS concept?<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />20<br />
    24. 24. IRS or Not!<br />Whether they call it the IRS or not, the best performers have found that a system of universal,but personal, responsibilityis the most effective way to drive risk down. <br />The power of the IRS is that it captures the creativity, leadership, experience and knowledge of everyone in the organization. <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />21<br />Why Re-Invent The Wheel?<br />
    25. 25. Break Down - Plain Language Meaning of I.R.S<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />22<br />
    26. 26. The Internal<br />The “Internal" in the phrase “Internal Responsibility System" has more than one meaning. <br />First, the primary responsibility for health and safety is internal tothe workplace.<br />The second meaning of “Internal" is that responsibility for health and safety is internal tothe work, internal to the job.<br />23<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    27. 27. Responsibility<br />Refers to the personal duties of each person in the workplace.<br />These responsibilities exist on several levels. <br />There are responsibilities for each person spelled out in most health and safety legislation -- worker duties, supervisor duties, employer duties and so on. <br />There are responsibilities associated with each person's job description -- he or she is responsible for doing the job in such a way as to achieve a good outcome. <br />And there is the moral responsibility that each of us has to do the right thing. <br />A person who discharges all these duties is "taking responsibility" and, overwhelmingly, the most important element of the IRS is that everyone has personal responsibility. <br />24<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    28. 28. System<br />Are the individual people.<br />The parts work together in relationships to further the purpose of the whole entity -- the system. <br />The purpose of the system is to drive risk down and keep up the pressure so that we can go for increasing lengths of time with zero injuries and illnesses. <br />As a true "system", the IRS comes with built-in self-monitoring devicesthat can readjust the system when part of it fails.<br />Work refusals, health and safety reps, and health and safety committees are among the more obvious self-correcting feedback loops.<br />As all parts of the system are inter-related and interdependent, damage to one part can affect another part in ways that may be indirect, butwhich can be very serious.<br />25<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    29. 29. Courts Definition<br />Adopted<br />Recommendations of the 1974 - 1976 Ontario “Ham Royal Commission”.<br />Report and inquiry of IRS / OHS “Responsibilities in a Mining Organization”. <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />26<br />
    30. 30. “Ham Royal Commission” Report defines IRS <br />Table setting out the<br />organizational structure<br />of a mining company.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />27<br />
    31. 31. Organization Structure<br />Beside each layer of the structure was stated<br />Person's Role in Health and Safety<br /> President<br /> Vice-president<br /> Mine Manager <br /> Superintendent <br /> Supervisor <br /> Worker <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />28<br />
    32. 32. Emphasis<br />Roles of the “worker auditor” commonly known as the “employee representative” and the health and safety committee were described as ways of ensuring that the IRS worked well within a any given organization.<br />Therights and responsibilities of the “worker” or employees were also discussed.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />29<br />
    33. 33. OHS Act of Ontario - 1979<br />The Ontario health and safety legislation that came into effect in 1979 was based on Ham's vision of the IRS and how it could be monitored and fixed.<br />It is highly unlikely that we would be using the phrase "internal responsibility system" today were it not for the Ham Royal Commission. <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />30<br />
    34. 34. Where did this idea originally come from? <br /> A requirement for a company to spell out its "organizational arrangements" -spelling out who was to be responsible for what aspects of health and safety in the organization.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />31<br />
    35. 35. British legislation of 1974<br />Does the phrase on the previous slide come close to the meaning of the IRS as you know it?<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />32<br />
    36. 36. IRS Define “ Ontario MOL Study 2001”<br />“The IRS is a system, within an organization, where everyone has direct responsibility for health and safety as an essential part of his or her job.”<br />“An individual does health and safety in a way that is compatible with the kind of work that person does.” <br />Nothing left to chance !!! <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />33<br />
    37. 37. Westray Mine Inquiry<br />After the Westray Mine Explosion of 1992, which killed 26 Coal Miners, Nova Scotia re-wrote its OHS Act and based it on the IRS model as developed in the Ontario mining industry.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />34<br />
    38. 38. “Legal IRS” or “ Pre-Legal IRS”<br />When an act refers expressly to the IRS, as is the case in Nova Scotia, we would distinguish between the the "legal IRS" and the "pre-legal IRS".<br />Nova Scotia deserves much credit for being the first to have the nerve to put such a rich and subtle concept into their legislation in black and white terms.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />35<br />NS OHS Act 1996 <br />
    39. 39. IRS Defined “The NS OHS Act”<br />s. 2 The foundation of this Act is the Internal Responsibility System which; <br /> is based on the principle that<br /> (i) employers, contractors, constructors, employees and self-employed persons at a workplace, and<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />36<br />
    40. 40. NS IRS Definition Continued …<br /> the owner of a workplace, a supplier of goods or provider of an occupational health or safety service to a workplace or an architect or professional engineer, all of whom can affect the health and safety of persons at the workplace, share the responsibility for the Health and Safety of persons at the workplace;<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />37<br />
    41. 41. NS IRS Definition Continued <br />(b) assumes that the primary responsibility for creating and maintaining a safe and healthy workplaceshould be that of each of these parties, to the extent of each party's authority and ability to do so;<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />38<br />
    42. 42. NS IRS Definition Continued<br />(c) includes a frameworkforparticipation, transfer of information and refusal of unsafe work, all of which are necessary for the parties to carry out their responsibilities pursuant to this Act and the regulations; and <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />39<br />Right to Know<br /> Right to Participate<br />Right to Refuse<br />Right to complain<br />
    43. 43. NS IRS Definition Continued <br />is supplemented by the role of the Occupational health and Safety Division of the Department of Labour, which is not to assume responsibility for creating and maintaining safe and healthy workplaces, but to establish and clarifythe responsibilitiesof the parties under the law, and to support them in carrying out their responsibilities and to intervene appropriately when those responsibilities are not carried out.<br /> OHS Division Regulator<br />Support providing clarity<br />7/7/21 40<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />
    44. 44. Something to Think about<br />What element does every job in every single workplace have?<br />1. Responsibility to perform certain tasks.<br />2. Authority to do certain things.<br />3. Accountability for the outcome.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />41<br />
    45. 45. Health and Safety<br />Add "health and safety" to each element and you have a world-class system that intergrades seamlessly into the chain of command.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />42<br />
    46. 46. Review<br />IRS<br />Everyone's Responsibility<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />43<br />
    47. 47. James Ham<br />James Ham got it right in 1976:<br />1. OHS should be integrated into production; it’s not a separate function.<br />2. Everyone should be doing OHS directly as part of his or her job.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />44<br />
    48. 48. The IRS means that …<br />1. Responsibility for identifying hazards and solving OHS problems is _________ to the workplace. <br /> Primary responsibility for OHS is not _________. <br />ie; on the shoulders of the NS OHS Division.<br />Key “Internal” “External”<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />45<br />
    49. 49. The IRS means that …<br />2. OHS should not be an adversarial matter between ________ and employers.<br />3. Everyone has an _________ in avoiding workplace injury and illness.<br />Key “ Worker” “Interest”<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />46<br />
    50. 50. The IRS means that …<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />47<br />4. Everyone in the workplace has _________ duties and rights regarding OHS.<br />5. Everyone is legally _________ as an individual, to participate in identifying hazards and in seeking to eliminate or control them.<br />Key “Legal” “Required” <br />
    51. 51. The IRS means that …<br />6. Everyone is an "internal auditor" to see that the Act and regulations are _________ with.<br />7. The NS OHS Division Officer's job is not to be at __________ elbow to advise and to give commands.<br />Key “Complied” “Everyone's” <br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />48<br />
    52. 52. The IRS means that …<br />8. The Officer (External Responsibility System) only _____ in when the Internal Responsibility System is clearly not working , this when ______ are not taking their rights and responsibilities seriously.<br />Key “Steps” “People”<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />49<br />
    53. 53. Wrong IRS Description<br />“The IRS is a partnership between labour, industry and government to ensure a safe and healthy workplace.”<br />Refers to a tripartite policy-making process (e.g. the development of WHMIS)<br /> but not the IRS.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />50<br />
    54. 54. Wrong IRS Description<br />“The company/employer is responsible for OHS, not the government.”<br />Fails to raise the “corporate veil” and identify all individuals as personally responsible.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />51<br />
    55. 55. Wrong IRS Description<br />Labourand management co-manage OHS through the Committee. The Committee is the “IRS.”<br />The “labour relations” version of the IRS.<br />Missing personal contribution of individuals.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />52<br />
    56. 56. Wrong IRS Description<br />“IRS” is a set of three rights:<br />1. To know about hazards<br />2. To refuse unsafe work<br />3. To participate (through committee)<br />Missing the main element - personal duties of everyone<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />53<br />
    57. 57. Internal to the Job Description of Everyone<br />Everyone, no exception<br />Staff and line employees<br />Workers, supervisors, managers, officers and directors<br />Personal, individual responsibility<br />Do the kind of OHS work that fits with authority and control<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />54<br />
    58. 58. Internal to Routine Decision-Making<br />OHS not an add-on, or an afterthought<br />OHS not a separate function<br />As you do your ordinary work you think about risk, hazards, controls and adjust your work accordingly<br />Easy to see with workers and supervisors<br />Hard to see with mid to senior managers and with staff positions<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />55<br />
    59. 59. IRS and Due Diligence <br />“Take every measure reasonable in the circumstances to improve processes you are involved in.”<br />For world class OHS performance, we must incorporate quality principles into OHS decision-making.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />56<br />
    60. 60. Proactive vs Reactive<br />A well functioning IRS System goes a long way to establishing DueDiligence and Ensuring for Total Quality within and Organization.<br />7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />57<br />
    61. 61. 7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />58<br />
    62. 62. 7/7/21<br />Eric LeFort , CRSP<br />59<br />
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