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  • 1. OECD in Figures 2008 Demography and health Economy Prices and finance Energy Labour Science and technology Environment Education Public finance International trade and investment 20th ANNIVERSARY OFFER FREE FOR 1 YEAR ( Se e p.93 fo r d e t ai l s)
  • 2. OECD in Figures 2008 20th anniversary edition
  • 3. OECD in Figures 2008 Contents Demography and health 6 Demography 6 Health spending and resources 8 Health status 10 Economy 12 Gross domestic product 12 Economic growth and performance 14 Sectoral contributions to gross value added 16 Business statistics 18 Services: value added 20 Transport 22 Energy 24 Energy: supply 24 Energy: production 26 Energy consumption and electricity generation 28 Labour 30 Employment 30 Part-time and self-employment 32 Unemployment 34 Services: employment 36 Science and technology 38 Research and development (I) 38 Research and development (II) 40 Patents and trade in technology 42 Environment 44 Resources 44 Emissions and pollution 46 CO2 emissions 48 Education 50 Expenditure 50 Performance 52 Public finance 54 Agriculture: support estimates 54 Government sector 56 Taxation 58 Development aid 60 International trade and investment 62 Direct investment 62 Trade 64 Trade in services 66
  • 4. Prices and finance 68 Prices and interest rates 68 Insurance and pensions 70 Financial balance sheets and institutional investment 72 Domestic and foreign finance 74 World map 76 OECD in graphs 77 GDP growth 78 GDP per capita 79 Upwardly mobile 80 Inflation 81 Population growth 82 Migration 83 Public debt 84 Female employment rates 85 Health spending 86 Road fatalities 87 Aid for the environment 88 Climate change 89 Trading partners 90 General notes 91 Glossary 92 The online edition is available at www.oecd.org/infigures Published in English and French OECD Publications 2, rue André-Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France observer@oecd.org www.oecd.org Tel: +33 (0) 1 45 24 82 00 Fax: +33 (0) 1 45 24 99 30 Price: US$ 30 €20 £15 ¥3,200 Free with annual Observer subscription: US$ 90 €69 £47 ¥9,700 ISSN 0029-7054; sales@oecd.org Available at www.oecdbookshop.org © OECD 2008
  • 5. 4 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies. The OECD member countries are: Australia (1971), Austria (1961), Belgium (1961), Canada (1961), Czech Republic (1995), Denmark (1961), Finland (1969), France (1961), Germany (1961), Greece (1961), Hungary (1996), Iceland (1961), Ireland (1961), Italy (1962), Japan (1964), Korea (1996), Luxembourg (1961), Mexico (1994), Netherlands (1961), New Zealand (1973), Norway (1961), Poland (1996), Portugal (1961), Slovak Republic (2000), Spain (1961), Sweden (1961), Switzerland (1961), Turkey (1961), United Kingdom (1961), United States (1961). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD. OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members. This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries. Also available in French under the title: L'OCDE en chiffres 2008
  • 6. Demography and health OECD Economy Energy Labour in Figures Science and technology Environment Education Public finance International trade and investment 2008 Prices and finance
  • 7. 6 Demography and health > Demography Age structure* Total area Population* Foreign-born population* As a % of total population Thousand thousands growth rate, per km² Under 15 15-64 65 and over As a % of total population km² 2006/2005 2006 1996 2006 2006 1960 2006 1960 2006 1960 2006 1996 Australia 7 687 20 701 18 311 1.5 3 19.6 30.2 67.5 61.3 13.0 8.5 24.1 23.3 Australia +2 Austria 84 8 282 8 059 0.6 99 15.7 22.0 67.6 65.8 16.7 12.2 14.1 11.2 Austria Belgium 31 10 542 10 157 0.6 346 17.0 23.5 65.8 64.5 17.2 12.0 12.5 9.8 Belgium Canada 9 976 32 649 29 611 1.0 3 17.3 33.7 69.5 58.7 13.2 7.6 19.8 17.4 Canada +2 Czech Republic 79 10 251 10 316 0.3 130 14.6 25.4 71.1 64.9 14.2 9.6 5.5 4.3 Czech Republic Denmark 43 5 435 5 263 0.3 126 18.7 25.2 66.1 64.2 15.3 10.6 6.6 5.1 Denmark Finland 338 5 267 5 125 0.4 16 17.2 30.4 66.6 62.3 16.3 7.3 3.6 2.1 Finland +3 France 549 61 353 58 026 0.6 112 18.4 26.4 65.2 62.0 16.4 11.6 8.3 7.3 France -3 Germany 357 82 368 81 895 - 0.1 231 13.7 21.3 66.6 67.8 19.7 10.8 12.9 11.9 Germany +2 Greece* 132 11 149 10 709 0.4 84 14.3 26.1 67.1 65.8 18.5 8.1 5.3 2.8 Greece* Hungary 93 10 071 10 311 - 0.2 108 15.3 25.3 68.8 65.6 15.9 9.0 3.4 2.8 Hungary Iceland 103 304 269 2.9 3 21.5 34.8 66.9 57.1 11.6 8.1 .. .. Iceland Ireland 70 4 233 3 626 2.4 60 20.4 30.5 68.6 58.6 10.9 10.9 14.4 6.9 Ireland Italy* 301 58 435 56 826 0.5 194 14.2 23.4 66.3 67.6 19.6 9.0 5.0 2.0 Italy* Japan* 378 127 770 125 859 0.0 338 13.6 30.2 65.5 64.1 20.8 5.7 1.6 1.1 Japan* Korea* 100 48 297 45 525 0.3 484 18.6 42.3 71.9 54.8 9.5 2.9 1.4 0.3 Korea* Luxembourg 3 469 416 1.7 180 18.4 21.4 67.5 67.9 14.1 10.8 34.8 31.5 Luxembourg -1 -1 Mexico 1 996 104 874 93 130 0.9 53 30.7 .. 64.0 .. 5.3 .. 0.4 0.4 Mexico Netherlands 41 16 346 15 531 0.2 401 18.2 30.0 67.4 61.0 14.4 9.0 10.6 9.2 Netherlands New Zealand 269 4 185 3 732 1.2 16 21.2 32.9 66.5 58.5 12.2 8.7 21.2 16.2 New Zealand
  • 8. Norway 324 4 661 4 381 0.8 14 19.4 25.9 65.9 63.2 14.7 10.9 8.7 5.6 Norway -4 Poland 313 38 132 38 289 - 0.1 122 16.0 33.5 70.6 60.8 13.4 5.8 1.6 .. Poland Portugal 92 10 586 9 866 0.2 115 15.5 .. 67.2 .. 17.3 .. 6.1 5.4 Portugal Slovak Republic 49 5 391 5 374 0.1 110 16.4 31.6 71.8 61.5 11.8 6.9 5.6 .. Slovak Republic +1 Spain 505 44 068 39 479 1.5 87 14.5 27.3 68.8 64.5 16.7 8.2 11.9 3.0 Spain Sweden 450 9 081 8 841 0.6 20 17.1 22.4 65.5 65.9 17.3 11.8 12.9 10.7 Sweden Switzerland 41 7 484 7 072 0.6 181 15.9 23.2 68.0 66.1 16.1 10.7 24.1 21.3 Switzerland +4 Turkey 781 72 974 62 909 1.3 93 28.1 41.2 66.0 55.1 6.0 3.7 .. 1.9 Turkey United Kingdom 245 60 587 58 164 0.6 247 17.7 23.3 66.3 64.9 16.0 11.7 10.1 7.1 United Kingdom United States 9 376 299 398 269 394 1.0 32 20.3 31.0 67.3 59.7 12.4 9.2 13.0 10.3 United States G7 21 182 722 561 679 776 0.6 34 17.4 27.9 66.6 63.0 16.0 9.0 .. .. G7 EU15 3 240 388 200 371 983 0.5 120 15.9 23.6 66.6 63.2 17.5 10.1 .. .. EU15 OECD total 34 804 1 175 344 1 096 466 0.7 34 19.1 28.6 66.9 61.6 14.0 8.5 .. .. OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467237886314 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Labour Force Statistics: 1986-2006, OECD, Paris, 2007; .. Not available or not applicable. International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI, 2008 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2008. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 7
  • 9. 8 Demography and health > Health spending and resources Average Pharmaceutical Total expenditure Public expenditure* Health expenditure Acute care beds* Practising physicians* MRI scanner units annual expenditure % of GDP % of total expenditure growth rate Per capita USD PPP % of total expenditure per 1 000 population per 1 000 population per million population 2006 1995 2006 1995 2000-06 2006 1995 2006 1995 2006 1995 2006 1995 2006 1995 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Australia 8.8 7.4 67.0 65.8 4.5 2 999 1 611 14.2 12.1 3.5 4.1 2.8 2.5 4.9 2.9 Australia +1 Austria 10.1 9.7 76.2 72.6 2.0 3 606 2 259 12.4 9.2 6.1 6.8 3.6 2.7 16.8 7.4 Austria Belgium 10.4 8.2 69.1 71.1 5.0 3 488 1 854 16.8 16.7 4.3 5.0 4.0 3.5 7.1 3.3 Belgium -1 Canada 10.0 9.0 70.4 71.4 4.7 3 678 2 057 17.4 13.8 2.8 4.1 2.1 2.1 6.2 1.4 Canada Czech Republic 6.8 7.0 87.9 90.9 4.7 1 490 899 23.4 25.1 5.4 7.0 3.6 3.0 3.8 1.0 Czech Republic -1 -2 -2 Denmark 9.5 8.1 79.9 79.7 4.1 3 349 1 871 8.5 9.1 3.1 3.9 3.6 3.1 10.2 .. Denmark Finland 8.2 7.7 76.0 74.1 5.6 2 668 1 440 14.6 13.0 3.1 4.0 2.7 2.4 15.2 4.3 Finland France 11.1 9.9 79.7 78.6 4.2 3 449 1 997 16.4 16.0 3.7 4.6 3.4 3.2 5.3 2.1 France Germany 10.6 10.1 76.9 81.6 1.4 3 371 2 275 14.8 12.9 6.2 7.5 3.5 3.1 7.7 2.3 Germany -1 -1 -1 +2 Greece* 9.1 8.6 61.6 52.0 7.2 2 483 1 264 17.6 15.7 3.9 3.9 5.0 3.9 13.2 1.9 Greece* Hungary 8.3 7.3 70.9 84.0 7.3 1 504 660 31.0 25.0 5.5 6.5 3.0 3.0 2.6 1.0 Hungary Iceland 9.1 8.2 82.0 83.9 3.6 3 340 1 910 13.1 13.4 .. 3.8 3.7 3.0 19.7 7.5 Iceland -1 Ireland 7.5 6.7 78.3 71.9 8.8 3 082 1 204 .. .. 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.1 9.7 .. Ireland -1 -1 Italy 9.0 7.3 77.2 70.8 2.8 2 614 1 538 20.0 20.7 3.3 5.6 3.7 3.9 15.0 2.6 Italy -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 Japan 8.2 6.9 82.7 83.0 2.5 2 474 1 551 19.8 22.3 8.2 12.0 2.1 1.8 40.1 18.8 Japan
  • 10. Korea 6.4 3.9 55.1 38.1 10.7 1 480 502 25.8 29.8 6.8 3.8 1.7 1.1 13.6 3.9 Korea -1 Luxembourg* 7.3 5.6 90.9 92.4 8.0 4 303 1 911 8.4 12.0 4.6 .. 2.8 2.2 10.9 2.4 Luxembourg* Mexico 6.6 5.6 44.2 42.1 5.2 794 386 22.9 .. 1.0 1.1 1.9 1.7 1.4 .. Mexico +3 -1 Netherlands* 9.3 8.3 81.7 71.0 4.1 3 391 1 799 .. 11.0 3.0 3.4 3.8 2.9 6.6 3.9 Netherlands* -3 +1 New Zealand 9.3 7.2 77.8 77.2 6.7 2 448 1 244 12.4 14.8 .. .. 2.3 2.0 3.7 2.7 New Zealand Norway 8.7 7.9 83.6 84.2 2.8 4 520 1 863 8.5 9.0 3.0 3.3 3.7 2.8 .. .. Norway Poland 6.2 5.5 69.9 72.9 5.6 910 411 27.2 .. 4.7 5.8 2.2 2.3 1.9 .. Poland -1 -1 +2 Portugal* 10.2 7.8 70.6 62.6 3.3 2 120 1 036 21.3 23.6 3.0 3.3 3.4 2.9 5.8 2.8 Portugal* -1 +2 -1 +2 -1 -1 +2 -1 +1 -2 Slovak Republic 7.1 5.7 74.4 91.7 10.2 1 130 564 31.9 .. 4.9 6.3 3.1 .. 4.5 .. Slovak Republic -1 Spain 8.4 7.4 71.2 72.2 6.0 2 458 1 193 21.7 19.2 2.5 3.5 3.6 2.5 8.8 2.7 Spain -1 Sweden 9.2 8.0 81.7 86.6 4.7 3 202 1 746 13.3 12.3 2.2 3.0 3.5 2.9 .. 6.8 Sweden -1 +2 Switzerland 11.3 9.7 60.3 53.8 3.2 4 311 2 598 10.5 10.0 3.5 5.5 3.8 3.2 14.0 12.4 Switzerland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 Turkey 5.7 3.4 71.4 70.3 7.6 591 173 .. 31.6 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.1 3.5 0.6 Turkey United Kingdom* 8.4 6.9 87.3 83.9 5.1 2 760 1 350 .. 15.3 2.2 4.1 2.5 1.8 5.6 .. United Kingdom* United States 15.3 13.3 45.8 45.3 5.0 6 714 3 656 12.6 8.9 2.7 3.4 2.4 2.2 26.5 12.3 United States OECD average 8.9 7.6 73.0 72.9 5.2 2 824 1 494 17.6 16.3 3.9 4.7 3.1 2.6 10.2 4.7 OECD average 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467300445456 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: OECD Health Data 2008, OECD, Paris, June 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 9
  • 11. Demography and health > Health status 10 Life expectancy at birth Fertility rate Infant mortality Tobacco consumption Obesity* Number of years Children per % of adults with BMI>30 1 woman per 1 000 live births % of adults smoking daily 2006 1995 kg/m² 15-49 Women Men Total Women Men Total 2006 2006 1995 2006 1995 2006 1995 -2 Australia* 83.5 78.7 81.1 80.8 75.0 77.9 1.81 4.7 5.7 17.7 24.1 .. 19.8 Australia* +2 Austria 82.7 77.1 79.9 79.9 73.3 76.6 1.41 3.6 5.4 23.2 24.3 12.4 .. Austria -1 -2 +2 Belgium 82.3 76.6 79.5 80.4 73.5 77.0 1.80 3.7 5.9 22.0 28.5 12.7 11.1 Belgium -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Canada 82.7 78.0 80.4 81.1 75.1 78.1 1.54 5.4 6.1 17.3 25.5 18.0 12.1 Canada -1 +1 -1 +1 Czech Republic* 79.9 73.5 76.7 76.8 69.7 73.3 1.33 3.3 7.7 24.3 26.2 17.0 11.3 Czech Republic* -2 -1 -1 Denmark 80.7 76.1 78.4 77.9 72.7 75.3 1.85 3.8 5.1 26.0 35.5 11.4 7.6 Denmark Finland 83.1 75.9 79.5 80.4 72.8 76.6 1.84 2.8 3.9 21.4 24.0 14.3 10.4 Finland France 84.4 77.3 80.9 81.8 73.9 77.9 1.98 3.8 4.9 25.0 29.0 10.5 7.0 France -1 -1 Germany 82.4 77.2 79.8 79.9 73.3 76.6 1.33 3.8 5.3 23.2 24.3 13.6 .. Germany -2 -1 -3 Greece 82.0 77.1 79.6 80.3 75.0 77.7 1.41 3.7 8.1 38.6 37.0 21.9 .. Greece -3 -1 -3 Hungary 77.4 69.0 73.2 74.5 65.3 69.9 1.35 5.7 10.7 30.4 35.5 18.8 .. Hungary Iceland 83.0 79.4 81.2 80.0 75.9 78.0 2.07 1.4 6.0 19.3 26.8 .. .. Iceland -1 +3 Ireland 82.1 77.3 79.7 78.3 72.8 75.6 1.90 3.7 6.4 .. 28.0 .. 10.0 Ireland -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 Italy 83.8 77.9 80.9 81.6 75.1 78.4 1.35 3.9 6.2 23.0 25.6 10.2 7.0 Italy -1 Japan 85.8 79.0 82.4 82.9 76.4 79.6 1.32 2.6 4.3 26.3 37.0 3.9 2.6 Japan +1 -1 -1 +3 Korea 82.4 75.7 79.1 77.4 69.6 73.5 1.13 .. 7.7 25.3 35.2 3.5 2.2 Korea -3 -1 +2 Luxembourg 81.9 76.8 79.4 80.6 73.0 76.8 1.64 2.5 5.5 21.0 33.0 18.6 14.9 Luxembourg -2 Mexico 78.1 73.2 75.7 75.3 70.0 72.7 2.17 18.1 27.6 .. 25.1 30.0 .. Mexico Netherlands 81.9 77.6 79.8 80.4 74.6 77.5 1.72 4.4 5.5 31.0 36.0 11.3 6.9 Netherlands -3 +2 New Zealand* 81.9 77.9 79.9 79.7 74.4 77.1 2.01 5.2 6.7 20.7 27.0 20.9 17.0 New Zealand*
  • 12. -1 Norway 82.9 78.2 80.6 80.9 74.8 77.9 1.90 3.2 4.0 24.0 33.0 9.0 5.0 Norway -2 +1 -2 +1 Poland 79.6 70.9 75.3 76.4 67.6 72.0 1.27 6.0 13.6 26.3 31.5 12.5 11.4 Poland -1 +1 +1 Portugal 82.3 75.5 78.9 79.0 71.7 75.4 1.36 3.3 7.5 17.0 19.5 .. 11.5 Portugal -1 -2 Slovak Republic 78.2 70.4 74.3 76.3 68.4 72.4 1.24 6.6 11.0 25.0 .. 17.6 18.9 Slovak Republic Spain 84.4 77.7 81.1 81.8 74.4 78.1 1.38 3.8 5.5 26.4 33.7 14.9 10.3 Spain -1 -1 +2 Sweden 82.9 78.7 80.8 81.4 76.2 78.8 1.85 2.8 4.1 15.9 22.8 10.7 7.9 Sweden +2 +2 Switzerland 84.2 79.2 81.7 81.9 75.4 78.7 1.44 4.4 5.0 .. 28.9 .. 6.8 Switzerland -3 -3 Turkey 74.0 69.1 71.6 70.2 65.6 67.9 2.18 22.6 43.0 32.1 47.4 12.0 .. Turkey -1 -1 -1 -1 United Kingdom* 81.1 77.1 79.1 79.3 74.0 76.7 1.84 5.0 6.2 22.0 27.0 24.0 16.0 United Kingdom* -1 -1 -1 -1 United States* 80.4 75.2 77.8 78.9 72.5 75.7 2.10 6.9 7.6 16.7 20.0 34.3 .. United States* OECD average 81.7 76.1 78.9 79.2 72.7 76.0 1.65 5.2 8.4 23.7 29.4 15.4 10.4 OECD average 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467310041335 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: 1. In the United States, Canada, Japan and some Nordic countries, very premature babies with a low OECD Health Data 2008, OECD, Paris, June 2008. chance of survival are registered as live births which may not be the case in other countries. For the 22 European countries, the Eurostat NewChronos database is the main data source. .. Not available or not applicable. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 11
  • 13. 12 Economy > Gross domestic product, 2007 Total Per capita at current market prices at current market prices Purchasing power Using current PPPs* Using current Using current PPPs* parities Using current exchange rates, billion exchange rates, USD Billion USD % of OECD total USD USD OECD = 100 Australia 761.3 2.0 908.9 36 100 112 43 100 1.43 Australia Austria 313.9 0.8 373.3 37 700 117 44 900 0.869 Austria Belgium 371.7 1.0 452.8 35 000 109 42 700 0.890 Belgium Canada 1 259.4 3.3 1 425.6 38 200 118 43 200 1.22 Canada Czech Republic 246.6 0.6 175.3 23 900 74 17 000 14.4 Czech Republic Denmark 199.1 0.5 311.6 36 500 113 57 100 8.52 Denmark Finland 186.7 0.5 244.7 35 300 109 46 300 0.957 Finland France 2 080.3 5.4 2 589.8 32 700 101 40 700 0.910 France Germany 2 768.5 7.2 3 317.4 33 700 104 40 300 0.875 Germany Greece 324.1 0.8 313.4 29 000 90 28 000 0.706 Greece Hungary 189.3 0.5 138.2 18 800 58 13 700 134 Hungary Iceland 11.8 0.0 20.0 37 700 117 63 800 108.5 Iceland Ireland 185.1 0.5 254.3 42 400 131 58 300 1.00 Ireland Italy 1 767.9 4.6 2 101.6 29 800 92 35 400 0.869 Italy
  • 14. Japan 4 273.5 11.2 4 378.8 33 500 104 34 300 121 Japan Korea 1 203.0 3.1 969.8 24 800 77 20 000 749 Korea Luxembourg 39.3 0.1 49.5 81 800 254 103 000 0.920 Luxembourg Mexico 1 350.2 3.5 892.6 12 800 40 8 400 7.22 Mexico Netherlands 633.0 1.7 765.8 38 700 120 46 800 0.884 Netherlands New Zealand 113.3 0.3 128.4 27 100 84 30 700 1.54 New Zealand Norway 260.0 0.7 390.5 55 300 171 83 100 8.80 Norway Poland 608.5 1.6 420.1 16 000 49 11 000 1.91 Poland Portugal 231.2 0.6 223.0 21 800 67 21 000 0.705 Portugal Slovak Republic 107.1 0.3 73.9 19 900 61 13 700 17.0 Slovak Republic Spain 1 377.8 3.6 1 436.9 30 700 95 32 000 0.762 Spain Sweden 334.1 0.9 454.8 36 600 113 49 800 9.20 Sweden Switzerland 303.7 0.8 423.4 39 900 124 55 600 1.67 Switzerland Turkey 893.7 2.3 657.1 12 100 37 8 900 0.958 Turkey United Kingdom 2 111.9 5.5 2 770.9 34 600 107 45 500 0.656 United Kingdom United States 13 776.5 36.0 13 776.5 45 500 141 45 500 1.00 United States G7 28 038.0 73.2 30 360.6 38 400 119 41 600 .. G7 Euro area* 10 279.5 26.9 12 122.4 32 400 100 38 200 0.862 Euro area* OECD total 38 282.5 100.0 40 438.8 32 300 100 34 100 .. OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467350026020 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. 13
  • 15. 14 Economy > Economic growth and performance GDP growth GDP growth by component External balance Net national (goods and saving Volume % change 2006-2007 services) Average annual % volume change Gross fixed capital formation Private final Government final % of GDP at % of GDP at consumption consumption Housing and other current prices, current prices, 1997-2007 2006-2007 2005-2006 expenditure expenditure Total 2007 2007 construction -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 Australia 3.6 4.5 3.2 3.6 4.5 4.8 6.3 - 1.1 6.4 Australia Austria 2.5 3.1 3.4 1.0 1.8 4.7 2.8 5.9 11.8 Austria Belgium 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.1 5.9 .. 2.9 9.9 Belgium -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Canada 3.3 2.7 2.8 4.2 3.3 7.2 6.0 2.6 11.5 Canada -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Czech Republic 3.6 6.6 6.8 5.4 - 0.7 6.5 .. 3.5 6.4 Czech Republic -1 Denmark 2.0 1.8 3.9 2.5 1.7 6.1 12.9 1.1 8.0 Denmark -1 Finland 3.6 4.5 4.9 3.2 1.3 8.5 4.6 5.1 13.6 Finland -1 France 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.4 4.9 2.3 - 1.9 6.0 France Germany 1.5 2.5 2.9 - 0.5 2.2 5.0 2.2 7.0 10.9 Germany Greece 4.1 4.0 4.2 3.2 10.3 4.4 1.9 - 13.2 - 1.5 Greece -1 Hungary 4.1 1.3 3.9 - 0.3 - 6.2 0.1 .. 2.3 2.8 Hungary -2 Iceland 4.4 3.8 4.4 4.2 3.3 - 14.9 14.0 - 10.6 - 1.2 Iceland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Ireland 6.7 6.0 5.7 5.7 5.5 3.1 5.8 10.7 13.1 Ireland -1 Italy 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.2 2.1 - 0.3 4.0 Italy -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Japan 1.2 2.1 2.4 2.0 - 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.2 5.8 Japan Korea 4.3 5.0 5.1 4.5 5.8 4.0 1.2 0.8 17.0 Korea Luxembourg 5.2 4.5 6.1 2.0 2.4 15.2 1.3 30.6 .. Luxembourg -1 -1 -1 -3 -1 -3 Mexico 3.2 3.2 4.8 5.0 6.0 10.0 5.9 - 1.3 11.0 Mexico Netherlands 2.5 3.5 3.0 2.1 2.7 5.1 6.0 8.0 13.7 Netherlands
  • 16. -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 New Zealand 3.2 3.1 1.6 2.6 4.4 - 2.3 - 2.4 - 1.4 0.8 New Zealand -1 Norway 2.5 3.7 2.5 6.4 3.6 9.3 8.2 15.7 25.6 Norway -1 Poland 4.2 6.5 6.2 5.2 0.7 20.4 13.7 - 1.7 5.3 Poland -1 Portugal 2.0 1.8 1.3 1.3 - 0.1 3.0 - 5.9 - 7.2 - 4.5 Portugal -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Slovak Republic 4.6 10.4 8.3 6.1 4.1 7.3 - 1.7 - 4.6 1.6 Slovak Republic Spain 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.2 5.1 5.9 4.1 - 6.5 5.4 Spain Sweden 3.2 2.7 4.1 3.1 1.1 8.0 6.6 7.6 15.9 Sweden -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 Switzerland 2.1 3.1 3.5 1.6 - 0.9 4.7 3.5 7.7 18.9 Switzerland Turkey 4.0 4.5 6.9 4.6 2.8 3.3 .. - 5.0 .. Turkey -1 United Kingdom 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.2 1.9 6.0 7.8 - 3.7 3.1 United Kingdom -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 United States 2.9 2.0 2.9 3.1 1.6 2.4 - 0.2 - 5.8 1.9 United States -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 G7 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.5 1.1 3.1 1.3 - 2.3 4.1 G7 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 Euro area 2.2 2.6 2.8 1.8 1.9 5.2 .. 1.1 .. Euro area -1 -1 -1 OECD total 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.7 1.7 3.9 .. - 1.5 -1 .. OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467354085611 1. Includes only the 12 OECD member countries of the Euro area. Sources: National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 15
  • 17. 16 Economy > Sectoral contributions to gross value added1 Agriculture Industry Services % of value added % of value added % of value added Total Manufacturing 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 Australia 2.3 3.7 28.7 27.6 11.2 14.2 69.0 68.8 Australia Austria 1.7 2.4 30.2 30.8 20.1 19.5 68.2 66.8 Austria Belgium 0.9 1.6 24.2 28.0 16.9 20.0 74.9 70.4 Belgium -2 -2 -2 -2 Canada 2.2 3.0 31.7 30.9 16.2 18.0 66.1 66.1 Canada Czech Republic 2.6 4.7 38.2 41.8 26.3 26.3 59.2 53.5 Czech Republic -1 Denmark 1.6 3.4 26.0 25.4 14.2 16.5 72.5 71.2 Denmark Finland 2.5 4.0 32.4 32.0 23.7 24.3 65.1 64.0 Finland France 2.1 3.3 20.7 24.1 12.6 16.0 77.3 73.1 France Germany 0.9 1.3 29.4 31.2 22.7 22.2 69.8 67.4 Germany +4 Greece 3.7 8.2 24.3 21.3 13.2 11.1 72.0 70.2 Greece +4 Hungary 4.1 8.3 30.1 29.8 22.5 23.5 65.8 62.5 Hungary -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 Iceland2 5.8 10.8 23.7 27.8 10.1 16.4 70.5 61.3 Iceland2 Ireland 1.7 6.4 34.9 36.9 23.3 29.3 63.4 56.7 Ireland Italy 2.1 3.3 26.8 29.7 18.3 21.8 71.1 67.0 Italy Japan3 1.4 1.9 29.1 33.0 20.7 22.4 69.5 65.2 Japan3 Korea 3.3 6.0 39.6 41.3 28.0 26.7 57.1 52.8 Korea Luxembourg 0.4 0.9 14.6 20.2 7.9 12.5 85.1 78.9 Luxembourg -2 -2 -2 -2 Mexico 3.8 5.9 26.0 27.7 17.9 21.0 70.2 66.3 Mexico Netherlands 2.2 3.3 24.1 26.9 13.3 16.8 73.7 69.8 Netherlands 4 -3 -3 -3 -3 4 New Zealand 6.5 7.2 24.0 25.8 15.2 17.3 69.5 67.0 New Zealand Norway 1.5 2.6 45.0 36.6 9.7 12.3 53.5 60.7 Norway
  • 18. Poland 4.3 7.6 31.2 33.6 18.9 19.9 64.5 58.9 Poland -1 Portugal 2.9 5.5 24.3 28.9 14.7 19.0 72.8 65.6 Portugal Slovak Republic 4.0 5.5 35.0 39.1 21.9 26.0 61.1 55.4 Slovak Republic Spain 2.9 5.1 30.4 29.1 16.1 18.6 66.7 65.8 Spain Sweden 1.4 2.6 28.5 29.3 20.0 21.7 70.1 68.1 Sweden Switzerland 1.2 1.9 27.7 29.1 19.9 20.0 71.2 69.1 Switzerland Turkey 9.4 12.6 28.2 36.7 19.5 27.2 62.4 50.6 Turkey United Kingdom 0.9 1.7 22.9 30.6 12.6 20.5 76.2 67.7 United Kingdom 2 +2 2 United States 1.1 1.8 22.4 25.9 12.2 16.2 76.5 72.2 United States 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467356167281 1. According to the 1993 System of National Accounts and the International Sources: Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), Revision 3 (1990). Value added is National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2008. estimated at basic prices and includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM). 2. Value added estimated at factor cost. 3. Value added is estimated approximately at market prices. 4. Value added is estimated at producer's prices. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 17
  • 19. 18 Economy > Business statistics, 2005* Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Business services and real estate Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of Production Production Production employees* enterprises* employees* enterprises* employees* enterprises* Billion USD Thousands Thousands Billion USD Thousands Thousands Billion USD Thousands Thousands Australia 242 994 131 153 1 756 337 166 1 005 676 Australia Austria 156 598 28 64 536 77 48 323 82 Austria Belgium 254 578 37 95 465 134 78 364 106 Belgium -2 -2 -2 Canada 397 1 947 49 .. .. .. .. .. .. Canada -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Czech Republic 96 1 202 151 23 489 227 19 299 252 Czech Republic Denmark 96 401 19 83 421 49 55 321 71 Denmark Finland 129 400 25 31 244 47 28 191 49 Finland France 1 089 3 662 256 400 3 044 702 502 2 990 595 France Germany 1 814 7 004 204 398 3 980 415 439 3 530 587 Germany -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Greece 36 296 88 .. .. 305 .. .. 145 Greece Hungary 86 754 65 19 484 156 14 292 194 Hungary Iceland .. 16 3 .. 23 5 .. 14 17 Iceland Ireland 133 215 4 29 260 29 36 155 31 Ireland Italy 1 038 3 837 519 478 1 787 1 255 292 1 527 1 031 Italy -3 Japan 2 683 7 549 277 .. 10 720 .. .. .. .. Japan -4 -1 -4 -1 Korea 832 2 727 117 331 1 242 899 58 1 149 206 Korea
  • 20. Luxembourg 11 37 1 5 39 7 7 49 9 Luxembourg -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Mexico 254 3 464 348 81 2 601 1 780 29 1 120 157 Mexico Netherlands 286 725 46 135 1 158 162 152 1 214 147 Netherlands New Zealand 48 277 23 27 328 53 29 217 134 New Zealand -1 -1 -2 Norway 71 252 9 50 332 57 50 213 93 Norway Poland 194 2 245 192 127 1 460 591 37 632 268 Poland Portugal 87 851 104 41 821 299 33 523 207 Portugal Slovak Republic 36 404 7 8 177 17 4 101 11 Slovak Republic Spain 572 2 465 220 213 2 552 819 194 2 019 584 Spain Sweden 208 709 60 62 501 124 91 452 216 Sweden -2 -4 -3 -2 -2 -3 Switzerland .. .. .. 64 522 40 56 323 30 Switzerland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Turkey 200 2 085 281 57 1 333 968 17 401 110 Turkey United Kingdom 793 3 138 153 462 4 595 383 611 4 296 617 United Kingdom -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 United States 4 735 13 169 346 .. 21 761 1 267 .. 17 057 1 139 United States 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467375003383 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Structural and Demographic Business Statistics, OECD database. .. Not available or not applicable. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 19
  • 21. 20 Economy > Services: value added* Contribution to total economy % of total value added Wholesale and retail trade, Transport, storage and Real estate, renting and Public administration and Education, health, social work Finance and insurance restaurants and hotels communication business services defence and other services I II III IV V VI 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 Australia* 13.5 14.7 7.5 8.8 7.8 6.1 21.0 19.8 4.2 4.3 15.0 14.2 Australia* Austria 17.4 16.8 7.0 7.4 5.4 6.1 18.0 13.8 5.8 6.8 15.0 16.0 Austria Belgium 14.6 13.8 8.4 8.2 5.8 6.4 22.2 19.1 7.3 7.1 16.5 15.6 Belgium -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Canada* 13.8 13.4 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.6 18.2 17.6 5.8 6.6 14.2 14.8 Canada* Czech Republic 14.4 14.0 10.3 10.4 3.3 3.2 13.8 13.6 5.7 5.4 11.3 10.1 Czech Republic Denmark 12.8 14.7 9.2 7.6 5.6 5.2 18.2 17.1 6.3 6.8 16.3 20.1 Denmark Finland 12.2 11.1 10.4 9.7 2.3 4.3 18.5 14.6 5.0 5.5 17.4 17.7 Finland France* 12.9 13.2 6.4 6.2 4.6 4.8 27.4 22.8 7.6 7.9 18.0 16.9 France* Germany 12.2 12.3 5.9 5.7 5.0 4.6 24.3 21.8 6.0 6.7 16.4 15.5 Germany Greece 23.8 .. 8.3 .. 4.2 .. 15.2 .. 7.3 .. 17.7 .. Greece Hungary 12.7 13.1 7.7 8.0 4.6 3.8 17.1 14.8 8.7 8.4 14.7 13.9 Hungary +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 Iceland 12.2 13.2 6.2 8.4 9.7 5.4 17.1 12.5 6.0 4.7 19.6 17.2 Iceland Ireland 11.9 11.8 5.3 5.5 10.3 8.1 14.9 9.2 4.5 5.7 15.0 14.6 Ireland Italy 15.4 17.2 7.8 7.0 4.6 4.7 22.3 17.7 6.5 6.1 14.3 13.8 Italy Japan* 13.0 14.6 6.5 6.8 7.2 6.1 20.3 18.3 5.9 4.3 17.4 15.7 Japan* Korea 9.8 11.5 7.3 6.6 8.4 6.9 12.5 11.5 6.3 5.3 12.0 9.9 Korea
  • 22. Luxembourg 11.4 13.1 10.3 8.2 24.2 22.1 20.0 17.2 5.6 5.6 11.9 11.1 Luxembourg -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Mexico 21.0 22.1 10.5 10.6 3.4 7.0 16.8 17.4 4.4 3.8 15.6 15.1 Mexico Netherlands 14.5 14.8 7.1 6.9 7.4 6.3 20.0 17.9 7.3 7.9 17.3 15.3 Netherlands -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 New Zealand* 15.7 16.0 7.4 8.3 6.6 5.8 21.7 19.6 4.4 5.0 13.8 11.3 New Zealand* Norway 9.4 12.3 7.5 10.0 3.9 4.4 14.0 13.1 4.4 6.1 16.2 16.9 Norway Poland 8.4 7.2 7.2 6.3 4.1 2.6 13.7 10.0 6.2 6.8 13.1 11.8 Poland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Portugal 17.6 17.7 7.0 6.5 6.7 6.3 14.4 13.6 9.1 8.1 16.9 13.6 Portugal Slovak Republic 15.7 14.0 10.4 10.5 4.2 5.7 14.3 11.8 5.6 5.2 9.7 9.1 Slovak Republic Spain 18.4 17.5 7.1 7.0 4.6 4.7 16.4 13.6 6.0 6.6 14.9 14.4 Spain -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Sweden 12.2 12.5 8.0 8.1 4.5 4.4 19.8 17.9 5.5 5.9 20.7 18.1 Sweden -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Switzerland 15.3 .. 6.4 .. 13.8 .. 17.4 .. 10.6 .. 8.7 .. Switzerland Turkey* 20.9 20.5 15.0 12.7 4.5 4.2 4.7 3.2 10.0 8.0 4.2 3.9 Turkey* United Kingdom 14.5 13.7 7.1 7.7 8.3 6.4 23.4 18.1 4.8 5.8 17.8 15.7 United Kingdom United States* 13.1 13.3 5.6 6.4 7.9 6.8 24.3 21.9 8.7 9.4 16.5 16.0 United States* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467403482436 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2006; .. Not available or not applicable. STAN: OECD Structural Analysis Statistics, 2005, OECD; -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the National sources. column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 21
  • 23. Economy > Transport, 2006 22 Freight transport Passenger transport Road accidents % of Billion tonne-kilometres Billion passenger-kilometres fatalities compared Killed and Killed per injured, 100 000 Inland Total inland Coastal Buses and Total road Total thousands population Rail Roads Oil pipelines Rail Private cars 2006 / 1996 waterways freight shipping coaches transport passengers -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Australia 170.2 168.6 .. .. 338.8 114.0 11.6 18.2 270.9 289.2 300.8 - 18.9 .. 8 Australia Austria 21.0 18.8 2.4 7.7 49.9 -- 9.3 .. .. .. 9.3 - 28.9 52.7 9 Austria Belgium 8.6 45.7 8.8 1.6 64.6 .. 9.6 17.1 109.4 126.5 136.1 - 21.2 66.4 10 Belgium -1 -1 -1 -1 Canada 306.6 134.4 26.7 121.9 579.0 19.9 1.4 .. 472.0 .. .. - 5.6 202.8 9 Canada Czech Republic 15.8 50.4 0.8 2.3 69.2 -- 6.9 9.5 69.6 79.1 86.1 - 32.2 29.2 10 Czech Republic Denmark 1.9 11.5 -- 4.9 18.3 .. 5.9 7.5 62.4 69.9 75.8 - 40.5 6.8 6 Denmark Finland 11.1 25.5 0.1 -- 36.6 2.7 3.6 7.5 62.5 70.0 73.6 - 16.8 8.9 6 Finland France 40.8 198.8 9.0 21.8 270.4 .. 78.8 44.9 723.8 768.7 847.5 - 44.9 106.8 8 France Germany 107.0 330.0 64.0 15.8 516.8 .. 79.0 66.2 869.0 935.2 1 014.2 - 41.9 427.4 6 Germany Greece 0.7 16.5 -- -- 17.2 .. 1.8 6.1 36.2 42.3 44.1 - 23.2 22.3 15 Greece Hungary 10.2 12.4 1.9 5.8 30.3 -- 9.6 17.6 46.9 64.5 74.1 - 4.9 29.3 13 Hungary Iceland -- .. -- -- .. 0.1 -- 0.6 4.9 5.5 5.5 210.0 1.4 10 Iceland Ireland 0.2 17.7 -- -- 17.9 2.0 1.9 .. .. .. 1.9 - 19.4 8.9 9 Ireland -1 Italy 20.9 168.7 0.1 11.1 200.8 37.1 48.2 98.7 708.0 806.7 854.9 - 15.2 338.6 10 Italy Japan 23.2 346.5 .. .. 369.7 207.8 395.6 84.1 833.9 917.9 1 313.6 - 37.7 1 104.6 6 Japan -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Korea 10.6 100.9 .. .. 111.0 26.6 19.1 58.2 142.6 200.8 219.9 - 56.5 346.6 13 Korea Luxembourg 0.4 0.6 0.4 -- 1.4 -- 0.3 .. .. .. 0.3 - 49.3 1.2 8 Luxembourg Mexico 73.7 209.4 -- .. 283.1 .. 0.1 437.0 .. 437.0 437.1 .. .. .. Mexico
  • 24. Netherlands 6.3 33.4 43.6 5.8 89.1 .. 15.4 15.6 148.0 163.6 179.0 - 38.1 29.3 4 Netherlands -2 New Zealand 3.9 18.5 -- -- 18.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- - 23.5 15.6 9 New Zealand Norway 2.4 16.1 -- 4.5 23.0 24.3 3.3 5.9 51.8 57.7 61.0 - 5.1 10.9 5 Norway Poland 53.6 136.5 1.2 25.6 216.9 .. 18.6 28.1 219.2 247.4 265.9 - 17.5 64.4 14 Poland Portugal 2.5 17.6 -- -- 20.1 .. 3.9 10.6 86.6 97.2 101.1 - 59.5 48.0 9 Portugal Slovak Republic 10.0 22.1 0.9 -- 33.0 -- 2.2 7.7 26.3 34.0 36.2 .. .. .. Slovak Republic Spain 11.6 235.8 -- 9.2 256.6 47.4 22.1 49.4 340.9 390.3 412.4 - 25.2 147.6 9 Spain Sweden 14.4 35.5 -- -- 49.8 7.2 9.6 8.7 97.0 105.7 115.3 - 17.1 27.1 5 Sweden Switzerland 12.3 25.4 0.1 0.2 38.1 -- 17.0 5.3 88.1 93.5 110.4 - 39.9 27.1 5 Switzerland Turkey 9.5 173.7 -- 2.4 185.6 .. 5.3 .. .. 182.2 187.4 .. .. .. Turkey United Kingdom 22.1 167.1 0.2 11.2 200.5 .. 46.5 46.1 675.8 721.9 768.4 - 12.1 267.6 5 United Kingdom -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 United States 2 531.3 1 888.2 400.6 835.1 5 655.2 384.7 8.7 226.8 4 297.2 4 524.0 4 532.6 1.5 2 617.4 14 United States Russian Federation 1 950.8 198.8 86.7 1 153.8 3 390.1 7.6 177.8 84.3 .. 84.3 262.2 .. .. .. Russian Federation 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467425371234 Sources: .. Not available. Trends in the Transport Sector, ECMT, Paris, 2007; -- Not applicable. IRTAD: www.irtad.net. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 23
  • 25. 24 Energy > Supply, 2006 1 Primary energy supply 2 Total Nuclear Coal and peat Oil Natural gas Other 3 % Change Energy % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change Mtoe 4 Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe 2006/1996 intensity 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 Australia 122.47 21.2 0.25 - 13.6 - - 53.75 32.1 38.76 4.0 23.43 39.4 6.54 3.7 Australia Austria 34.23 18.7 0.16 - 5.0 - - 4.02 15.6 14.38 16.0 7.46 9.9 8.37 35.8 Austria Belgium 60.99 3.2 0.24 - 17.8 12.16 7.6 4.78 - 42.2 24.45 - 2.3 14.99 26.9 4.62 72.5 Belgium Canada 269.74 13.8 0.32 - 19.0 25.53 5.3 27.53 6.3 95.34 20.1 79.47 12.8 41.88 12.6 Canada Czech Republic 46.05 8.9 0.64 - 17.7 6.81 103.5 20.83 - 7.7 9.84 19.7 7.57 0.4 1.01 59.1 Czech Republic Denmark 20.93 - 7.4 0.12 - 25.3 - - 5.48 - 38.5 8.26 - 14.3 4.54 21.5 2.66 + Denmark Finland 37.44 19.1 0.26 - 17.7 5.97 17.6 7.36 0.9 10.57 11.8 3.87 30.6 9.66 45.6 Finland France 272.67 7.1 0.19 - 14.7 117.32 13.3 13.20 - 20.5 90.71 1.7 39.61 21.2 11.83 - 6.1 France Germany 348.56 - 1.3 0.17 - 14.8 43.59 4.5 82.27 - 9.3 123.55 - 10.6 79.47 5.6 19.68 165.5 Germany Greece 31.12 28.5 0.19 - 14.0 - - 8.39 5.6 17.83 21.4 2.75 + 2.15 40.4 Greece Hungary 27.59 5.3 0.45 - 31.7 3.52 - 5.1 3.08 - 33.9 7.62 10.3 11.45 11.9 1.92 176.1 Hungary Iceland 4.33 75.1 0.40 15.6 - - 0.08 21.2 0.99 25.1 - - 3.26 101.7 Iceland Ireland 15.46 32.6 0.12 - 33.9 - - 2.40 - 17.0 8.47 42.2 4.01 51.4 0.57 263.9 Ireland Italy 184.17 14.6 0.16 - 0.4 - - 16.67 48.3 81.19 - 11.5 69.17 50.2 17.14 45.9 Italy Japan 527.56 3.1 0.10 - 7.5 79.07 0.4 112.41 29.1 240.57 - 12.0 77.44 37.8 18.06 8.7 Japan Korea 216.50 34.6 0.32 - 11.4 38.76 101.2 52.61 83.4 93.61 - 7.2 28.70 163.0 2.81 162.1 Korea Luxembourg 4.71 38.2 0.18 - 18.0 - - 0.11 - 77.2 2.98 61.0 1.23 101.9 0.39 - 16.2 Luxembourg Mexico 177.43 31.0 0.27 - 7.8 2.83 37.9 8.74 39.9 100.74 20.2 48.56 74.8 16.56 6.9 Mexico Netherlands 80.12 5.2 0.19 - 18.5 0.90 - 16.6 7.78 - 16.1 32.40 24.3 34.25 - 8.5 4.78 106.6 Netherlands New Zealand 17.54 5.3 0.28 - 20.5 - - 2.09 77.2 6.91 14.3 3.28 - 25.4 5.26 4.4 New Zealand Norway 26.09 12.7 0.14 - 13.2 - - 0.71 - 29.0 8.87 7.2 4.74 58.8 11.77 8.2 Norway
  • 26. Poland 97.72 - 5.9 0.46 - 37.8 - - 57.17 - 20.8 23.56 31.5 12.37 31.0 4.62 8.8 Poland Portugal 25.43 24.0 0.21 - 0.3 - - 3.31 - 3.5 13.69 3.7 3.64 - 4.79 23.3 Portugal Slovak Republic 18.68 3.1 0.67 - 31.1 4.75 62.0 4.46 - 16.4 3.42 2.3 5.38 - 2.2 0.68 - 32.9 Slovak Republic Spain 144.56 42.5 0.20 - 2.2 15.67 6.7 17.87 11.2 70.84 29.4 31.01 258.9 9.16 25.3 Spain Sweden 51.31 - 1.5 0.18 - 28.2 17.45 - 9.8 2.69 - 11.2 14.62 - 8.4 0.88 9.1 15.67 21.1 Sweden Switzerland 28.21 11.4 0.10 - 7.8 7.28 10.7 0.16 9.8 12.97 3.3 2.71 13.9 5.10 39.0 Switzerland Turkey 94.00 39.8 0.36 - 6.0 - - 26.45 39.9 31.36 4.0 25.97 271.8 10.22 - 8.9 Turkey United Kingdom 231.13 - 1.0 0.14 - 25.2 19.66 - 20.3 41.29 - 6.8 83.80 - 1.5 81.04 6.7 5.33 57.7 United Kingdom United States 2 320.70 8.5 0.21 - 20.3 212.71 14.1 550.96 10.0 937.12 13.1 501.27 - 0.3 118.64 - 1.0 United States G7 4 154.52 6.8 0.18 - 15.4 497.89 8.4 844.33 8.7 1 652.28 4.2 927.48 7.9 232.55 11.4 G7 EU27 1 822.49 5.8 0.19 - 16.8 258.12 6.9 324.40 - 10.3 668.27 1.2 437.76 19.4 133.93 43.7 EU27 OECD total 5 537.42 9.8 0.19 - 14.7 614.00 11.9 1 138.65 8.5 2 209.42 5.7 1 210.25 16.4 365.11 15.9 OECD total Brazil 224.13 32.2 0.29 3.0 3.58 466.2 12.79 5.0 90.13 14.5 17.50 277.0 100.12 36.5 Brazil China 1 878.74 72.9 0.90 - 27.9 14.29 282.5 1 206.98 79.5 344.00 99.9 47.36 206.4 266.12 19.4 China India 565.82 41.3 0.80 - 25.1 4.85 105.1 222.77 53.6 136.08 53.1 31.39 89.5 170.72 15.7 India Russian Federation 676.20 8.6 1.81 - 32.8 41.12 42.9 106.74 - 10.2 139.24 0.6 358.61 12.7 30.50 65.1 Russian Federation South Africa 129.81 22.4 0.77 - 12.4 3.07 - 93.09 17.2 16.16 50.4 3.82 147.3 13.68 21.3 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467475472065 1. These figures are based on an assumption of 100% efficiency for hydro-electric, 33% for nuclear Sources: and approximately 10% for geothermal plants. Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; 2. Includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables, waste and international trade Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; in electricity. Main Economic Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008. 3. Million tonnes of oil equivalent. 4. Total primary energy supply (in Mtoe) divided by GDP (in constant prices, 2000 USD). - Nil or negligible. + Growth of more than 500% 25
  • 27. 26 Energy > Production, 20061 2 Total Nuclear Coal and peat Oil Natural gas Other 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change 3 % Change Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe Mtoe 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 Australia 267.79 41.1 - - 201.36 54.9 23.08 - 17.2 36.83 43.6 6.53 3.7 Australia Austria 9.93 15.0 - - - - 99.9 1.00 - 5.9 1.56 23.2 7.37 21.9 Austria Belgium 15.48 12.5 12.16 7.6 0.02 - 93.9 - - - - 3.31 49.7 Belgium Canada 411.74 14.9 25.53 5.3 32.54 - 21.8 155.30 32.9 154.86 14.6 43.51 7.6 Canada Czech Republic 33.42 2.9 6.81 103.5 23.73 - 15.6 0.41 92.5 0.15 - 19.1 2.33 269.4 Czech Republic Denmark 29.57 67.4 - - - - 17.29 67.5 9.32 63.2 2.96 81.3 Denmark Finland 18.05 32.6 5.97 17.6 3.22 45.5 0.09 - - - 8.76 38.6 Finland France 137.02 3.5 117.32 13.3 0.28 - 94.7 1.10 - 57.6 1.06 - 56.0 17.26 - 6.8 France Germany 136.76 - 4.5 43.59 4.5 53.37 - 27.8 4.55 31.9 14.05 - 13.9 21.20 169.4 Germany Greece 10.03 10.0 - - 8.14 13.2 0.09 - 81.6 0.03 - 43.9 1.78 26.1 Greece Hungary 10.33 - 21.4 3.52 - 5.1 1.76 - 45.3 1.36 - 35.6 2.38 - 33.9 1.31 159.0 Hungary Iceland 3.26 101.7 - - - - - - - - 3.26 101.7 Iceland Ireland 1.60 - 54.9 - - 0.77 - 36.3 - - 0.41 - 81.1 0.42 149.2 Ireland Italy 27.43 - 9.4 - - 0.01 - 61.1 6.10 9.3 8.99 - 45.0 12.32 48.6 Italy Japan 101.07 - 0.7 79.07 0.4 - - 0.74 - 13.3 3.19 57.0 18.06 8.7 Japan Korea 43.73 94.4 38.76 101.2 1.21 - 43.8 0.57 - 0.39 - 2.79 160.7 Korea Luxembourg 0.08 105.6 - - - - - - - - 0.08 105.6 Luxembourg Mexico 255.97 20.7 2.83 37.9 5.51 13.5 190.48 17.4 40.52 47.9 16.62 7.4 Mexico Netherlands 60.77 - 17.9 0.90 - 16.6 - - 2.08 - 34.7 55.38 - 18.9 2.41 71.8 Netherlands New Zealand 13.05 - 6.6 - - 3.47 64.5 1.04 - 57.2 3.28 - 25.4 5.26 4.4 New Zealand Norway 222.94 7.6 - - 1.61 + 131.28 - 18.0 78.39 113.3 11.65 15.4 Norway Poland 77.88 - 21.3 - - 67.56 - 25.7 0.81 105.5 3.88 23.6 5.63 24.4 Poland
  • 28. Portugal 4.33 14.0 - - - - - - - - 4.33 14.0 Portugal Slovak Republic 6.62 33.0 4.75 62.0 0.56 - 45.3 0.23 215.0 0.18 - 27.2 0.91 28.3 Slovak Republic Spain 31.36 - 4.1 15.67 6.7 6.05 - 38.6 0.14 - 72.9 0.05 - 87.2 9.44 30.8 Spain Sweden 32.79 2.5 17.45 - 9.8 0.19 - 10.7 - - - - 15.15 22.1 Sweden Switzerland 12.15 17.7 7.28 10.7 - - - - - - 4.87 30.0 Switzerland Turkey 26.33 - 2.9 - - 13.08 6.7 2.13 - 38.3 0.74 339.3 10.37 - 7.7 Turkey United Kingdom 186.62 - 30.6 19.66 - 20.3 10.68 - 64.7 80.01 - 41.3 71.99 - 5.1 4.28 120.9 United Kingdom United States 1 654.23 - 1.9 212.71 14.1 576.76 5.4 317.81 - 19.8 430.93 - 1.8 116.03 - 0.4 United States G7 2 654.86 - 2.4 497.89 8.4 673.64 - 4.0 565.61 - 14.6 685.06 - 0.3 232.66 10.7 G7 EU27 881.42 - 10.9 258.12 6.9 191.29 - 29.5 120.97 - 30.1 179.35 - 14.5 131.68 41.3 EU27 OECD total 3 842.31 2.1 614.00 11.9 1 011.86 1.4 937.70 - 9.5 918.56 6.0 360.20 14.8 OECD total Brazil 206.72 75.1 3.58 466.2 2.30 21.8 92.79 125.3 9.35 101.4 98.69 41.6 Brazil China 1 749.29 59.4 14.29 282.5 1 234.45 77.2 184.85 17.5 48.99 191.1 266.71 19.5 China India 435.64 27.7 4.85 105.1 197.90 43.6 39.00 5.3 23.41 41.3 170.48 15.7 India Russian Federation 1 219.98 28.0 41.12 42.9 143.25 27.8 478.13 55.9 525.72 8.3 31.75 58.1 Russian Federation South Africa 158.68 17.5 3.07 - 138.26 17.2 1.45 262.2 1.62 5.2 14.27 19.3 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467475620526 1. These figures are based on an assumption of 100% efficiency for hydro-electric, 33% for Sources: nuclear and approximately 10% for geothermal plants. Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; 2. Includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables, waste and international Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008. trade in electricity. 3. Million tonnes of oil equivalent. - Nil or negligible. + Growth of more than 500% 27
  • 29. 28 Energy > Energy consumption and electricity generation, 2006 Final energy consumption by sector1 Total electricity generation Total Industry Transport Other 2 % Change % Change % Change % Change % Change TWh Mtoe3 Mtoe3 Mtoe3 Mtoe3 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 2006/1996 Australia 77.73 17.5 30.25 17.0 29.50 13.4 17.98 25.7 251.3 41.7 Australia Austria 27.97 18.8 9.52 28.8 8.05 35.3 10.40 1.9 60.7 13.3 Austria Belgium 43.55 2.1 19.78 12.0 9.67 7.0 14.10 - 11.6 84.4 12.3 Belgium Canada 201.51 11.0 78.92 13.9 56.68 13.2 65.91 6.0 612.5 6.9 Canada Czech Republic 28.35 5.2 11.53 - 14.2 6.50 66.5 10.32 7.5 83.7 31.1 Czech Republic Denmark 15.93 1.1 3.18 - 3.8 5.37 15.3 7.38 - 5.3 45.7 - 14.7 Denmark Finland 27.14 18.0 13.71 28.7 4.97 22.6 8.46 2.1 82.3 18.6 Finland France 173.95 6.9 46.80 - 5.7 51.23 11.4 75.92 13.0 569.2 11.8 France Germany 253.57 2.5 81.77 8.7 63.67 - 0.2 108.13 - 0.3 629.4 14.3 Germany Greece 22.31 28.9 5.01 7.0 8.56 29.3 8.74 45.5 60.2 41.9 Greece Hungary 20.08 13.8 5.59 4.8 4.72 77.0 9.77 1.4 35.9 2.2 Hungary Iceland 2.56 38.7 1.01 88.8 0.48 52.3 1.06 7.2 9.9 93.8 Iceland Ireland 13.40 51.1 3.04 22.1 5.38 100.6 4.97 34.6 27.7 46.3 Ireland Italy 144.57 17.1 46.41 7.9 44.59 13.4 53.57 30.3 307.7 28.5 Italy Japan 351.79 2.5 139.36 - 2.1 91.90 - 2.4 120.53 13.0 1 090.6 11.1 Japan Korea 145.08 25.8 71.68 45.1 32.87 12.4 40.54 10.7 402.3 98.5 Korea Luxembourg 4.42 41.7 1.04 0.1 2.63 93.5 0.75 3.6 3.5 + Luxembourg Mexico 113.43 20.6 36.67 - 2.3 51.00 49.3 25.76 15.3 249.7 48.4 Mexico Netherlands 61.25 6.1 23.70 18.5 15.68 21.7 21.87 - 12.0 98.4 15.6 Netherlands New Zealand 13.13 11.7 4.22 - 15.3 5.76 35.2 3.15 25.4 43.5 20.0 New Zealand Norway 20.78 7.3 8.68 10.0 5.12 12.7 6.98 0.7 121.3 16.1 Norway
  • 30. Poland 64.51 - 6.1 20.99 - 21.5 13.98 49.9 29.54 - 9.4 160.8 13.9 Poland Portugal 20.44 25.2 7.50 11.9 7.22 39.1 5.72 29.2 48.6 41.1 Portugal Slovak Republic 11.43 - 0.2 4.77 - 2.7 2.25 74.6 4.40 - 16.2 31.3 22.8 Slovak Republic Spain 103.93 45.1 37.03 43.8 41.17 46.5 25.73 44.9 299.1 72.5 Spain Sweden 34.99 - 6.6 14.33 - 7.9 8.77 13.5 11.89 - 16.1 143.3 1.9 Sweden Switzerland 22.24 8.8 4.71 18.0 7.13 11.3 10.40 3.5 62.1 10.4 Switzerland Turkey 73.45 41.8 28.60 54.7 15.60 21.3 29.26 43.0 176.3 85.8 Turkey United Kingdom 158.73 - 41.52 - 6.5 56.24 14.0 60.98 - 6.1 394.5 12.9 United Kingdom United States 1 572.16 9.5 441.72 5.6 648.83 15.8 481.61 5.3 4 274.3 17.1 United States G7 2 856.28 7.6 876.50 4.1 1 013.14 12.2 966.64 6.5 7 878.1 14.9 G7 EU27 1 288.09 7.7 418.51 3.1 374.38 19.0 495.20 4.1 3 323.1 18.2 EU27 OECD total 3 824.38 10.0 1 243.04 7.5 1 305.50 15.9 1 275.84 6.9 10 459.8 20.1 OECD total Brazil 180.55 32.0 85.46 44.1 55.21 21.8 39.88 24.0 419.3 44.0 Brazil China 1 201.85 48.1 625.89 59.7 126.48 138.1 449.47 22.7 2 864.2 165.2 China India 378.49 29.7 146.40 45.6 39.04 31.9 193.04 19.5 744.1 70.4 India Russian Federation 431.73 2.5 175.20 8.8 96.97 25.6 159.56 - 12.7 993.9 17.5 Russian Federation South Africa 64.08 17.9 25.42 0.7 16.27 28.6 22.39 35.9 251.9 26.3 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467480256804 1. Including non-energy use. Sources: 2. Terawatt hours, excluding output from pumped storage plants. Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; 3. Million tonnes of oil equivalent. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008. - Nil or negligible. + Growth of more than 500% 29
  • 31. 30 Labour > Employment Civilian employment* Total labour force* Foreign-born labour force Composition Total, Female participation % change Agriculture, forestry and Thousands, % change, thousands Industry Services % of total labour force rate* fishing 2006 2006/96 2006 1996 2006 2006/96 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 Australia 10 765 17.3 69.4 64.9 10 190 22.2 3.5 5.0 21.4 22.4 75.1 72.6 25.7 25.2 Australia Austria 4 124 6.6 67.3 61.5 3 918 6.5 5.5 7.3 28.2 32.7 66.2 60.0 16.2 12.5 Austria Belgium 4 647 7.4 59.9 56.9 4 264 14.1 2.0 2.4 24.7 25.9 73.4 71.8 12.3 9.6 Belgium Canada 17 654 18.3 73.2 67.5 16 484 22.8 2.6 4.0 22.0 21.8 75.4 74.2 21.2 19.2 Canada Czech Republic 5 199 0.5 63.0 64.4 4 811 - 2.1 3.8 6.2 40.1 42.0 56.1 51.8 1.9 .. Czech Republic Denmark 2 904 2.9 77.0 74.1 2 759 6.4 3.0 4.0 23.6 27.0 73.4 69.0 6.0 4.3 Denmark Finland 2 670 5.9 73.8 70.3 2 434 14.9 4.7 7.5 25.8 27.3 69.6 65.2 3.1 1.5 Finland France 27 575 7.7 64.2 61.0 24 717 12.2 3.4 4.5 22.9 25.9 73.8 69.7 12.0 11.9 France -1 +3 Germany 41 521 5.0 69.1 61.9 36 978 3.8 2.3 3.0 29.8 35.4 67.9 61.6 14.9 11.9 Germany Greece 4 880 13.1 53.8 46.5 4 453 15.1 12.0 20.3 22.0 22.9 65.9 56.8 8.3 4.8 Greece Hungary 4 247 4.9 55.2 49.6 3 887 9.3 4.9 8.5 32.7 33.5 62.4 58.0 1.7 .. Hungary Iceland 175 18.4 81.1 80.2 170 19.7 6.3 9.5 21.4 24.3 72.3 66.2 .. .. Iceland Ireland 2 114 40.2 62.1 49.7 2 015 52.8 5.6 10.7 27.6 27.8 66.8 61.4 13.9 6.5 Ireland Italy 24 662 7.4 51.2 43.5 22 738 14.0 4.3 6.4 30.5 33.5 65.2 60.0 8.6 0.5 Italy Japan* 66 570 - 0.8 66.2 62.6 63 820 - 1.6 4.3 5.5 28.0 33.3 67.7 61.2 0.3 0.1 Japan* Korea* 23 978 12.6 58.8 54.2 23 151 11.0 7.7 11.1 26.3 32.6 66.0 56.2 1.3 0.4 Korea* Luxembourg 330 45.4 89.3 60.2 319 44.3 1.3 2.0 20.8 26.6 77.9 71.4 44.6 38.9 Luxembourg -6 Mexico 43 216 22.3 46.7 41.6 41 849 25.0 14.1 21.8 27.4 22.7 58.5 55.5 0.4 .. Mexico Netherlands 8 597 14.4 71.0 60.1 8 261 18.3 3.0 3.9 19.2 22.4 77.8 73.8 11.0 8.3 Netherlands +5 New Zealand 2 209 17.8 71.6 68.1 2 117 20.8 7.1 9.5 22.3 24.7 70.5 65.8 23.8 19.9 New Zealand
  • 32. -1 Norway 2 446 9.2 76.1 73.9 2 345 11.5 3.3 5.1 20.9 23.2 75.8 71.7 7.8 4.6 Norway Poland 16 992 - 1.2 56.5 60.5 14 594 - 2.5 15.8 22.1 30.0 31.7 54.2 46.2 0.3 .. Poland Portugal 5 587 16.7 72.3 62.1 5 130 16.4 11.8 12.4 30.7 31.4 57.5 56.2 7.9 5.0 Portugal Slovak Republic 2 655 5.8 60.9 62.4 2 301 3.4 4.4 8.9 38.8 39.5 56.8 51.6 0.7 .. Slovak Republic Spain 21 585 29.5 60.4 47.1 19 660 53.4 4.8 8.4 29.7 29.8 65.5 61.8 15.1 2.7 Spain Sweden 4 671 6.1 76.1 75.8 4 341 9.5 2.0 2.9 22.0 26.1 76.0 71.0 13.5 8.5 Sweden Switzerland 4 477 9.1 79.8 73.8 4 304 9.0 3.8 4.7 23.8 27.4 72.5 67.9 25.4 .. Switzerland Turkey 25 276 9.0 27.3 33.1 22 330 5.4 27.3 43.7 25.4 22.6 47.3 33.7 .. .. Turkey United Kingdom 29 942 6.4 69.0 66.6 28 203 9.6 1.3 2.0 22.0 27.3 76.7 70.8 11.2 7.4 United Kingdom United States 152 672 12.9 69.9 69.9 144 427 14.0 1.5 2.8 19.8 23.8 78.7 73.3 15.6 11.6 United States G7 360 596 8.1 67.3 64.2 337 367 9.4 2.5 3.7 23.7 28.1 73.8 68.1 .. .. G7 EU15 185 808 9.8 64.3 57.8 170 189 14.2 3.6 5.0 26.3 29.9 70.1 65.1 .. .. EU15 OECD total 564 339 10.1 62.1 59.3 526 968 11.8 5.5 8.3 24.8 27.8 69.7 63.9 .. .. OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467508228555 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Labour Force Statistics: 1986-2006, OECD, Paris, 2007; .. Not available or not applicable. International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI, 2008 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2008. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 31
  • 33. 32 Labour > Part-time and self-employment Part-time employment* Female part-time employment Self-employment* % of total employment Total Women Men % of total part-time employment % of civilian employment 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2006 1996 +4 +4 +4 +4 Australia* 24.1 24.2 38.5 39.5 12.4 11.9 71.6 72.7 12.9 15.1 Australia* Austria 17.2 10.8 31.5 21.3 5.2 2.6 83.5 86.3 13.6 14.0 Austria Belgium 18.3 15.0 32.9 30.5 6.3 4.4 81.2 82.5 15.1 18.8 Belgium Canada 18.2 19.1 26.1 29.4 11.0 10.5 68.0 69.9 9.1 11.1 Canada Czech Republic 3.5 3.4 5.9 5.5 1.7 1.9 72.3 69.1 16.2 12.3 Czech Republic Denmark 17.7 17.2 23.9 24.5 12.4 11.1 62.8 64.6 8.9 9.5 Denmark Finland 11.7 9.3 15.5 12.5 8.2 6.4 63.7 63.7 12.9 15.3 Finland France 13.4 14.8 23.1 25.8 5.0 5.9 80.3 77.9 9.0 11.3 France Germany 22.2 15.8 39.2 31.4 7.9 4.1 80.7 85.1 12.2 10.8 Germany Greece 7.8 8.3 13.6 14.2 4.1 4.9 67.9 62.6 36.3 45.7 Greece Hungary 2.8 2.9 4.2 4.7 1.6 1.5 68.6 71.3 12.8 18.1 Hungary Iceland 15.9 22.4 25.4 36.8 8.0 10.1 72.7 75.8 14.8 18.2 Iceland Ireland 20.3 15.0 35.6 27.6 7.6 6.9 79.6 71.8 16.3 20.9 Ireland Italy 15.1 11.3 29.9 22.2 5.4 5.1 78.5 71.0 26.7 29.3 Italy +5 +5 +5 +5 Japan* 18.9 17.7 32.6 30.9 9.2 8.6 71.5 71.3 13.8 17.7 Japan* Korea* 8.9 5.0 12.5 7.7 6.3 3.2 58.9 62.9 32.8 36.7 Korea* Luxembourg 13.1 11.0 28.8 26.2 1.6 2.0 93.1 88.8 6.3 8.3 Luxembourg -3 -3 -3 -3 Mexico 15.1 15.5 27.6 29.3 8.1 8.5 65.1 64.0 34.5 40.1 Mexico Netherlands 36.1 29.1 60.0 54.9 16.2 11.1 75.4 77.6 12.9 12.5 Netherlands New Zealand 22.0 22.3 34.7 37.0 11.2 10.4 72.6 74.3 17.7 20.9 New Zealand
  • 34. Norway 20.4 21.0 31.6 36.5 10.5 7.7 72.9 80.1 8.5 8.7 Norway Poland 10.1 11.9 15.0 16.6 6.0 8.2 67.0 61.1 24.4 29.5 Poland Portugal 10.0 10.2 14.3 16.5 6.3 5.1 66.1 72.6 24.0 28.6 Portugal Slovak Republic 2.6 2.0 4.4 3.2 1.2 0.9 74.0 73.5 12.6 6.4 Slovak Republic Spain 10.9 7.9 20.9 16.8 3.8 3.0 79.8 75.2 17.9 24.7 Spain Sweden 14.4 14.2 19.7 22.6 9.5 6.5 65.0 76.3 10.0 11.0 Sweden Switzerland 25.4 24.0 45.6 45.7 8.7 7.1 81.3 83.4 11.1 13.5 Switzerland Turkey 8.4 6.1 19.2 13.2 4.6 3.5 59.7 58.6 43.5 57.2 Turkey United Kingdom 23.3 22.9 38.6 41.0 9.9 8.2 77.4 80.2 13.5 14.9 United Kingdom United States* 12.6 13.5 17.9 19.4 7.6 8.2 68.4 68.4 7.4 8.4 United States* G7 16.4 11.9 26.4 20.0 8.0 5.5 73.5 74.2 11.1 12.9 G7 EU15 18.1 15.6 31.7 29.4 7.2 5.7 78.0 78.9 15.6 17.2 EU15 OECD total 15.4 11.8 25.3 20.2 7.5 5.6 72.8 72.5 16.5 19.2 OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467542037417 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Labour Market Statistics, OECD database, August 2008; -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the Labour Force Statistics: 1986-2006, OECD, Paris, 2007; column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, Paris, 2008. 33
  • 35. 34 Labour > Unemployment Long-term Unemployment rates* Youth unemployment rates unemployment % of civilian labour force (under 25) % of youth labour force (12 months or more) % of Total Women Men total unemployment Total Women Men 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 Australia 4.9 8.5 5.0 8.2 4.8 8.8 15.5 31.2 9.4 16.1 9.3 14.7 9.4 17.3 Australia Austria 4.8 4.2 5.2 4.5 4.3 4.0 26.8 27.5 8.7 6.3 9.1 7.1 8.3 5.6 Austria Belgium 8.2 12.7 9.3 16.5 7.4 9.7 50.0 60.5 19.2 21.3 22.6 25.7 16.2 17.6 Belgium Canada 6.3 9.6 6.1 9.3 6.5 9.9 7.5 16.1 11.2 16.2 10.0 15.2 12.3 17.1 Canada Czech Republic 7.2 3.9 8.8 4.7 5.8 3.4 53.4 30.5 10.7 8.6 11.0 10.3 10.6 7.5 Czech Republic Denmark 4.1 7.0 4.7 8.3 3.5 5.9 18.2 27.2 7.2 8.1 6.8 9.9 7.5 6.6 Denmark Finland 7.7 14.6 8.1 14.8 7.4 14.4 23.0 29.8 15.7 23.3 16.8 25.0 14.8 22.0 Finland France 9.1 12.2 9.9 14.0 8.5 10.7 40.4 41.4 18.7 28.1 19.6 32.8 18.0 24.5 France Germany 10.4 9.0 10.2 9.6 10.5 8.4 56.6 50.1 11.7 10.2 11.1 9.6 12.2 10.7 Germany Greece 8.8 10.3 13.4 16.6 5.6 6.3 50.3 55.7 22.0 31.0 32.1 40.6 14.1 22.2 Greece Hungary 7.5 10.1 7.9 8.9 7.3 11.1 47.5 51.3 18.0 15.9 18.6 14.5 17.6 16.9 Hungary Iceland 2.9 3.7 3.1 4.1 2.7 3.4 8.0 16.3 7.2 7.7 6.3 7.1 8.0 8.3 Iceland Ireland 4.4 11.9 4.1 11.9 4.6 12.0 30.3 57.0 8.7 16.1 7.9 15.2 9.3 16.9 Ireland Italy 6.9 11.7 8.8 16.1 5.5 9.1 49.9 66.3 20.3 32.1 23.3 39.6 18.2 26.7 Italy
  • 36. Japan 4.1 3.4 3.9 3.3 4.3 3.4 32.0 21.8 7.7 6.6 7.1 6.3 8.3 6.9 Japan Korea 3.5 2.0 2.9 1.6 3.8 2.4 0.6 2.6 8.8 7.6 7.1 6.5 11.4 9.2 Korea Luxembourg 3.1 2.5 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.2 33.5 34.6 14.9 7.3 9.9 9.2 17.5 5.6 Luxembourg Mexico 3.2 5.2 3.5 6.9 3.0 4.4 2.7 1.8 6.7 7.4 7.5 10.5 6.2 5.6 Mexico Netherlands 3.9 6.5 4.4 8.4 3.5 5.3 41.7 49.1 7.3 9.3 8.1 9.8 6.5 8.8 Netherlands New Zealand 3.8 6.1 4.0 6.1 3.5 6.1 5.7 19.3 9.7 13.0 9.8 13.0 9.6 13.1 New Zealand Norway 3.5 4.9 3.4 4.9 3.5 4.9 8.5 12.4 7.5 10.6 6.7 11.1 8.2 10.2 Norway Poland 13.8 12.4 14.9 13.9 12.9 11.0 45.9 38.0 21.7 24.7 23.8 28.0 20.0 22.0 Poland Portugal 7.7 7.2 9.0 8.2 6.6 6.4 47.3 55.6 16..6 14.6 20.3 18.5 13.5 11.3 Portugal Slovak Republic 13.3 11.3 14.7 12.7 12.2 10.2 70.8 51.6 20.1 22.6 19.9 22.6 20.3 22.7 Slovak Republic Spain 8.5 22.1 11.6 29.6 6.3 17.5 27.6 55.7 18.2 37.2 21.9 46.0 15.2 30.4 Spain Sweden 7.1 10.0 7.2 9.4 7.0 10.5 13.0 33.4 18.9 21.1 19.5 20.4 18.4 21.7 Sweden Switzerland 3.9 3.7 4.6 4.1 3.3 3.5 40.8 28.2 7.1 5.9 7.4 3.8 6.8 7.9 Switzerland Turkey 9.9 6.6 10.3 5.9 9.7 6.9 30.4 41.6 19.6 14.3 20.0 15.0 19.4 14.0 Turkey United Kingdom 5.4 8.1 4.9 6.3 5.8 9.7 24.7 38.6 14.4 13.4 12.7 11.1 16.0 15.6 United Kingdom United States 4.6 5.4 4.6 5.4 4.6 5.4 10.0 8.7 10.5 11.3 9.4 10.7 11.6 11.8 United States G7 5.8 6.8 5.9 7.1 5.8 6.5 28.7 32.2 11.6 12.9 10.8 12.6 12.4 13.1 G7 EU15 7.8 10.9 8.6 12.5 7.2 9.8 42.0 50.2 14.9 20.0 15.4 22.0 14.4 18.3 EU15 OECD total 6.1 7.3 6.4 8.0 5.9 6.8 29.1 35.0 11.9 13.4 11.6 14.1 12.1 12.9 OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467573606486 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Labour Market Statistics, OECD database, August 2008; Labour Force Statistics: 1986-2006, OECD, Paris, 2007; OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, Paris, 2008. 35
  • 37. Labour > Services: employment* 36 Contribution to total employment % of total civilian employment Wholesale and retail trade, Transport, storage and Real estate, renting and Public administration and Education, health, social work Finance and insurance restaurants and hotels communication business services finance and other services I II III IV V VI 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 2005 1995 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Australia* 24.7 25.4 6.4 6.5 3.6 3.9 12.1 9.5 5.8 6.2 22.4 20.4 Australia* Austria 21.9 21.1 6.9 7.2 3.1 3.2 9.6 6.3 6.8 7.2 20.3 18.1 Austria +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Belgium 17.2 18.0 6.9 7.1 3.3 3.7 15.6 11.7 9.9 9.6 22.6 21.0 Belgium Canada 24.0 23.3 6.8 7.3 5.2 5.4 11.6 8.2 5.2 6.1 21.5 22.2 Canada +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Czech Republic 18.0 17.3 7.3 7.3 1.5 1.6 9.8 7.3 6.4 5.8 14.9 13.7 Czech Republic Denmark 19.0 17.9 6.5 6.6 3.0 3.0 11.2 7.9 6.0 7.1 29.2 28.5 Denmark +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Finland 15.8 14.8 7.2 7.7 1.6 2.3 10.3 7.4 7.3 7.6 26.4 24.7 Finland France 16.9 16.0 6.3 6.1 3.1 3.2 14.8 11.7 8.6 9.5 22.7 21.5 France Germany 19.8 18.8 5.4 6.0 3.2 3.4 13.0 8.0 7.0 8.1 21.2 18.0 Germany +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Greece 20.5 19.3 6.5 6.6 2.6 2.3 6.8 4.9 7.8 7.4 17.1 14.7 Greece +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Hungary 17.8 15.9 7.7 8.9 2.1 2.3 6.9 3.6 7.8 7.3 19.4 20.3 Hungary -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Iceland* 16.6 16.4 6.2 7.4 3.9 3.9 9.1 5.5 5.2 12.6 30.1 17.0 Iceland* +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Ireland 20.2 19.4 6.1 5.1 4.5 3.8 8.5 6.0 5.0 5.6 21.6 20.4 Ireland Italy 20.4 20.2 6.4 6.3 2.4 2.7 11.1 7.3 5.7 6.6 16.7 16.4 Italy -1 -1 +2 +2 +2 +2 -1 -1 Japan* 18.0 17.1 5.8 5.9 2.7 3.1 1.5 1.5 3.3 3.3 27.8 23.4 Japan* Korea 26.3 26.8 6.2 5.2 3.4 3.5 8.7 4.2 3.4 3.2 16.0 9.9 Korea +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Luxembourg 18.5 21.1 7.5 7.0 11.0 10.3 17.1 9.9 5.4 5.4 15.3 14.6 Luxembourg -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 Mexico* 19.3 26.3 6.0 5.1 0.5 1.1 3.5 2.6 4.6 4.4 .. 8.1 Mexico*
  • 38. -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Netherlands 19.0 20.0 6.3 5.8 3.8 3.5 15.9 11.5 7.3 7.0 22.4 25.1 Netherlands New Zealand 26.4 26.3 6.2 6.0 3.0 3.8 12.3 9.3 3.3 4.5 25.7 23.6 New Zealand -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Norway 16.4 16.5 9.0 10.0 2.3 2.7 10.3 6.6 7.4 9.0 28.5 26.1 Norway -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Poland 17.4 14.2 5.7 5.9 2.1 1.7 7.5 3.2 6.6 2.6 16.0 14.7 Poland -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 Portugal 22.0 19.3 3.8 3.5 1.8 2.6 5.7 5.7 7.2 8.0 14.7 17.2 Portugal Slovak Republic 20.2 12.1 7.0 7.9 1.7 1.2 7.4 3.9 6.9 6.1 18.1 18.4 Slovak Republic -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Spain 22.4 20.9 5.7 5.9 2.1 2.7 8.5 5.7 7.6 8.8 15.2 19.0 Spain -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Sweden 15.4 15.5 6.6 6.9 2.1 2.1 11.7 8.3 6.2 7.9 32.8 32.4 Sweden Switzerland* 21.3 22.4 6.6 6.4 5.7 5.4 10.3 7.8 3.9 3.5 19.0 16.3 Switzerland* -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Turkey* 19.2 13.0 5.0 5.0 1.1 .. 2.5 .. 5.7 .. 9.4 .. Turkey* -1 -1 United Kingdom 24.2 23.1 5.9 5.8 4.1 4.4 15.4 12.4 6.4 7.1 23.8 23.8 United Kingdom United States* 21.4 24.1 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.7 15.0 10.6 8.4 9.1 24.7 21.0 United States* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467625887171 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2006; .. Not available or not applicable. STAN: OECD Structural Analysis Statistics, 2005, OECD; -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the Labour Force Statistics: 1985-2005, OECD, Paris, 2006. column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 37
  • 39. 38 Science and technology > Research and development (I), 2006* Government budget Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) appropriations for R&D, 2007 % financed by Per capita at % of value % financed by % of which % of GDP current USD, % of GERD added in % of GDP Government Industry Government Industry defence R&D PPPs industry -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 Australia* 1.78 40.51 52.97 578 54.1 1.43 4.3 93.4 0.52 6.5 Australia* -2 -2 Austria* 2.45 36.58 46.35 875 67.8 2.50 6.4 67.2 0.68 0.0 Austria* -1 -1 -1 -1 Belgium 1.83 24.65 59.68 614 67.9 2.01 6.5 82.5 0.61 0.3 Belgium -1 -1 Canada* 1.94 32.68 47.97 714 54.7 1.60 2.7 81.6 0.57 3.6 Canada* -1 Czech Republic 1.54 38.97 56.91 340 66.2 1.40 13.6 83.7 0.61 2.8 Czech Republic -1 -1 -1 -1 Denmark 2.43 27.58 59.53 856 66.6 2.84 2.4 86.0 0.79 0.6 Denmark Finland 3.45 25.11 66.56 1 129 71.3 4.01 3.7 89.9 0.98 2.4 Finland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 France 2.11 38.39 52.24 656 63.3 2.33 10.1 80.8 0.77 22.4 France -1 -1 -1 Germany 2.53 28.38 67.57 810 69.9 2.80 4.5 92.0 0.76 6.4 Germany -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Greece 0.57 46.82 31.06 156 30.0 0.28 5.6 85.7 0.29 0.5 Greece -2 -2 Hungary 1.00 44.77 43.30 182 48.3 0.76 8.4 75.6 0.37 0.1 Hungary -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Iceland 2.78 40.50 48.00 990 51.5 2.50 2.8 84.9 0.88 0.0 Iceland Ireland 1.32 30.13 59.26 539 67.5 1.35 3.9 86.5 0.53 0.0 Ireland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Italy 1.09 50.68 39.66 304 50.4 0.85 9.7 79.2 0.61 1.4 Italy -1 Japan* 3.39 16.18 77.07 1 086 77.2 3.80 1.0 98.5 0.68 5.1 Japan* Korea 3.23 23.07 75.45 743 77.3 3.64 4.7 94.8 0.91 16.6 Korea -1 -1 -1 -1 Luxembourg 1.47 16.61 79.72 1 147 84.9 1.81 5.2 91.7 0.39 0.0 Luxembourg -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Mexico 0.50 45.34 46.49 57 49.5 0.36 5.7 92.6 0.21 0.0 Mexico -3 -3 -3 -3 Netherlands 1.67 36.23 51.06 609 57.6 1.52 3.4 81.6 0.71 2.0 Netherlands -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 New Zealand 1.16 42.98 41.25 290 41.8 0.71 11.3 80.7 0.53 0.0 New Zealand
  • 40. -1 -1 Norway 1.52 43.99 46.41 791 54.2 1.21 10.5 80.7 0.70 5.6 Norway -1 -1 Poland 0.56 57.45 33.05 82 31.5 0.25 12.3 80.9 0.32 0.9 Poland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Portugal 0.83 55.20 36.27 174 41.7 0.59 4.2 91.4 0.76 0.7 Portugal -1 Slovak Republic 0.49 55.56 34.96 87 43.1 0.30 20.8 68.2 0.28 2.2 Slovak Republic -1 -1 Spain 1.20 42.49 47.07 354 55.5 1.02 14.4 79.0 1.00 16.6 Spain -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Sweden 3.73 23.50 65.70 1 301 74.9 4.68 4.2 87.1 0.85 16.8 Sweden -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 Switzerland 2.90 22.71 69.73 1 003 73.7 3.24 1.5 90.9 0.69 0.6 Switzerland -1 -1 -1 -1 Turkey 0.76 48.63 46.05 67 37.0 0.35 8.7 90.0 .. .. Turkey -1 -1 United Kingdom 1.78 31.87 45.20 588 61.7 1.69 7.6 69.4 0.74 28.3 United Kingdom United States* 2.62 29.34 64.89 1 146 70.3 2.98 9.3 90.7 1.02 58.3 United States* -1 -1 G7 2.50 27.83 64.67 921 69.7 2.76 6.8 90.6 0.89 38.2 G7 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 EU15* 1.88 33.96 54.77 557 63.8 1.92 7.1 82.2 0.78 13.4 EU15* -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 EU27* 1.76 34.72 54.14 492 63.0 1.75 7.3 82.1 0.73 12.8 EU27* -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 OECD total* 2.26 29.46 62.71 694 68.8 2.43 6.8 89.6 0.81 32.7 OECD total* -2 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 Brazil 1.02 57.88 39.38 92 47.9 .. 0.8 99.2 0.53 1.2 Brazil China* 1.42 24.71 69.05 66 71.1 .. 4.5 91.2 .. .. China* -2 -4 -4 -2 +2 India* 0.71 80.81 16.11 13 19.8 .. .. .. .. .. India* -1 -5 Russian Federation 1.08 61.10 28.81 141 66.7 1.01 52.0 35.7 0.36 52.1 Russian Federation -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 South Africa 0.92 38.19 43.87 78 58.3 0.81 16.2 68.3 .. .. South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467638774024 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. National sources: -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT); column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. India: National Science & Technology Management Information System, Department of Science & Technology. 39
  • 41. Science and technology > Research and development (II), 2006* 40 Researchers Higher education expenditure on R&D % of business expenditure on R&D (BERD) performed in (HERD) (national totals) Medium Medium low-tech High-tech Per 1 000 total high-tech and low-tech Service industries Full-time equivalent % of GERD % of GDP industries* employment industries* industries* -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 Australia 10.0 11.7 16.9 39.7 81 384 8.4 26.8 0.48 Australia -2 -2 -2 -2 Austria 31.0 27.8 12.9 27.4 30 452 7.8 26.7 0.65 Austria Belgium 41.2 23.7 15.7 17.0 33 924 7.9 22.3 0.41 Belgium -2 -2 Canada 32.4 9.1 11.0 41.9 125 330 7.7 35.5 0.69 Canada Czech Republic 22.3 35.6 8.7 31.8 26 267 5.2 15.9 0.25 Czech Republic -1 -1 -1 -1 Denmark 39.4 16.2 8.5 35.0 28 653 10.2 26.1 0.63 Denmark Finland 63.8 13.5 12.1 8.2 40 411 16.6 18.7 0.65 Finland -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 France 44.6 29.9 11.5 8.4 204 484 8.2 18.2 0.38 France Germany 29.6 52.2 8.3 9.4 282 063 7.2 16.3 0.41 Germany -1 -1 -1 -1 Greece 21.8 13.8 17.2 44.9 19 907 4.3 47.8 0.27 Greece Hungary 53.7 16.0 6.6 21.4 17 547 4.5 24.4 0.24 Hungary -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Iceland 25.0 6.9 5.7 59.7 2 155 13.4 22.0 0.61 Iceland -1 -1 -1 -1 Ireland 48.0 9.0 9.3 33.6 12 167 6.0 26.0 0.34 Ireland -1 -1 -1 -1 Italy 33.1 29.1 8.0 26.8 82 489 3.4 30.2 0.33 Italy Japan 44.7 40.4 2.9 10.4 709 691 11.1 12.7 0.43 Japan Korea* 53.8 27.9 8.3 7.1 199 990 8.7 10.0 0.32 Korea* -1 Luxembourg .. .. .. 55.6 2 346 7.4 2.4 0.04 Luxembourg -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Mexico 9.7 21.8 35.1 32.6 48 401 1.2 27.4 0.14 Mexico -1 -1 -1 -1 -3 -3 Netherlands 40.9 27.8 8.5 17.4 45 852 5.5 28.1 0.49 Netherlands
  • 42. -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 New Zealand .. .. .. 41.1 17 235 10.5 32.5 0.38 New Zealand -1 -1 Norway 12.6 16.3 12.6 50.3 21 653 9.2 30.2 0.46 Norway Poland 13.9 23.7 9.1 50.6 59 573 4.4 31.0 0.17 Poland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Portugal 17.6 17.6 10.9 44.0 21 126 4.1 35.4 0.29 Portugal Slovak Republic .. .. .. 51.7 11 776 5.5 24.1 0.12 Slovak Republic -1 -1 -1 -1 Spain 20.5 18.8 15.1 41.8 115 798 5.8 27.6 0.33 Spain -1 -1 -1 -1 Sweden 38.7 29.8 5.2 24.8 55 729 12.6 20.4 0.76 Sweden -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Switzerland .. .. .. 19.6 25 400 6.1 22.9 0.66 Switzerland Turkey 16.3 42.0 14.5 25.8 42 663 1.9 51.3 0.39 Turkey United Kingdom* 49.0 18.8 7.6 23.2 183 535 5.8 26.1 0.47 United Kingdom* -3 -3 -3 -3 -1 -1 United States* 40.3 16.6 6.4 36.1 1 387 882 9.6 14.3 0.37 United States* -3 -3 -3 -3 -1 -1 G7* 39.2 26.5 8.2 24.8 2 972 784 8.6 16.2 0.41 G7* -3 -3 -3 -3 -1 -1 EU15* 38.7 34.9 9.2 15.0 1 133 469 6.4 22.1 0.42 EU15* EU27* .. .. .. .. 1 332 397 6.0 22.1 0.39 EU27* -1 -1 OECD total* .. .. .. .. 3 879 394 7.3 17.1 0.39 OECD total* -2 -2 -2 -2 Brazil .. .. .. .. 84 979 1.0 38.4 0.32 Brazil China* .. .. .. .. 1 223 756 1.6 9.2 0.13 China* -4 -4 -2 -2 India* .. .. .. .. 92 500 0.2 4.9 0.03 India* -1 -1 -1 -1 Russian Federation 7.7 5.1 3.4 78.6 464 357 6.8 6.1 0.07 Russian Federation -1 -1 -1 South Africa .. .. .. 36.4 17 303 1.5 19.3 -1 0.18 -1 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467655873016 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008; .. Not available or not applicable. Research and Development Expenditure in Industry, 2006. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the National sources: column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT); India: National Science & Technology Management Information System, Department of Science & Technology. 41
  • 43. Science and technology > Patents and trade in technology 42 Technology balance of payments Patenting activity Trade coverage ratios Export market shares Patent applications filed under the PCT* Exports as % of imports % of total OECD Triadic patent Million USD, 2006* % of which Medium high- All manu- families* Bio- High-tech High-tech mfg Total foreign co- ICT tech facturing technology industries* industries* inventors industries* industries Receipts Payments Balance 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 Australia 2 517.4 2 434.5 82.8 385 2 052 13.3 564 155 23 21 0.9 0.4 Australia -6 -6 -6 Austria 2 429.7 2 425.8 3.9 327 1 131 24.9 306 39 88 115 1.8 1.0 Austria Belgium 7 579.6 5 956.3 1 623.3 361 974 43.2 213 76 100 115 5.0 3.7 Belgium -2 -2 -2 Canada 2 072.2 1 180.6 891.6 777 2 666 26.5 1 066 231 63 82 4.2 2.2 Canada Czech Republic 1 282.1 1 590.5 - 308.4 16 120 38.6 28 5 89 129 1.4 1.0 Czech Republic -7 -7 -7 Denmark 1 657.3 1 055.3 602.0 229 1 127 17.0 241 109 106 85 1.1 1.0 Denmark Finland 3 333.2 2 608.1 725.1 278 1 420 15.7 872 39 123 103 1.1 1.0 Finland -3 -3 -3 France 5 188.3 3 233.5 1 954.8 2 472 6 067 19.9 2 022 223 106 110 6.7 6.6 France Germany 34 315.1 31 941.7 2 373.5 6 298 16 245 15.8 3 890 508 105 200 15.9 12.9 Germany Greece .. .. .. 11 98 24.1 20 5 23 20 0.3 0.1 Greece Hungary 1 595.6 2 365.9 - 770.2 41 180 28.8 41 5 121 114 1.0 1.3 Hungary Iceland .. .. .. 6 37 42.0 13 3 39 6 - - Iceland Ireland 23 123.9 26 554.9 -3 431.0 62 288 33.0 108 15 194 190 1.5 3.1 Ireland Italy 4 968.0 3 989.9 978.0 722 2 813 13.2 503 89 69 123 6.0 2.5 Italy Japan 20 448.8 6 065.3 14 383.5 14 976 22 740 3.1 9 405 1 221 133 367 9.1 9.3 Japan -3 -3 -3 Korea 816.4 3 237.3 -2 420.9 2 811 5 152 4.6 2 308 158 168 163 4.8 6.5 Korea Luxembourg 1 141.6 1 017.4 124.2 23 38 58.5 8 0 55 55 0.2 0.1 Luxembourg -1 -1 -1 Mexico 180.4 2 093.5 -1 913.1 17 172 22.1 20 6 99 97 3.1 3.7 Mexico
  • 44. Netherlands .. .. .. 1 092 3 087 18.2 1 369 168 105 123 4.9 6.1 Netherlands -7 -7 -7 New Zealand 7.9 3.7 4.2 63 344 17.6 60 30 26 28 0.3 0.1 New Zealand Norway 4 366.7 2 588.7 1 778.0 118 623 17.2 167 21 46 37 0.6 0.3 Norway Poland 1 290.3 2 984.7 -1 694.4 13 104 37.9 18 5 44 95 1.5 0.5 Poland Portugal 737.0 909.6 - 172.6 11 85 20.4 24 7 46 65 0.6 0.3 Portugal Slovak Republic 348.9 573.0 - 224.1 3 36 45.8 4 0 75 110 0.6 0.4 Slovak Republic -1 -1 -1 Spain 175.4 1 334.4 -1 159.0 197 1 141 18.1 190 77 44 77 2.9 1.3 Spain Sweden 11 556.0 10 839.3 .. 732 2 441 17.7 869 96 134 122 2.0 1.8 Sweden Switzerland 8 839.4 12 416.5 -3 577.1 807 1 976 43.4 415 94 177 119 2.1 3.8 Switzerland Turkey .. .. .. 26 233 12.3 19 1 23 19 0.6 0.1 Turkey United Kingdom 30 405.5 15 424.5 14 981.0 1 651 5 712 23.8 1 939 328 114 82 5.9 9.4 United Kingdom United States 75 380.0 35 479.0 39 901.0 15 774 46 542 10.3 17 667 2 913 81 69 13.9 19.5 United States Brazil .. .. .. 58 339 18.2 41 15 44 98 1.6 0.6 Brazil China .. .. .. 356 3 774 13.0 2 099 90 116 91 14.1 20.5 China India .. .. .. 113 978 24.8 209 50 26 61 1.7 0.4 India Russian Federation 528.5 1 137.9 - 609.4 63 715 23.2 198 31 17 37 1.8 0.2 Russian Federation South Africa 45.6 1 278.7 -1 233.1 30 372 8.5 59 10 15 63 0.6 0.1 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467710043472 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008; .. Not available or not applicable. OECD, STAN Indicators Database 2008 (forthcoming); - Nil or negligible. OECD, Patents database, June 2008; -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to OECD, International Trade by Commodity Statistics; United Nations, COMTRADE Database, 2008. 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 43
  • 45. Environment > Resources, latest available year* 44 Land Forest Threatened species Water Major Nitrogenous Use of forest Water Total fish Public waste Total area protected Pesticides use Wooded area Mammals Birds fertilisers use resources withdrawal catches water plants areas* t / km² of t / km² of % of gross % of % of territorial Harvest / % of known % of known % of world Thousand km² agricultural agricultural % of land area annual population area annual growth species species catches land land availability connected Australia* 7 741 13.0 0.2 0.01 21 0.6 24 13 5 0.2 .. Australia* Austria 84 28.0 3.2 0.10 47 0.7 22 28 5 - 89 Austria Belgium 31 3.3 10.6 0.69 22 0.9 36 25 32 - 55 Belgium Canada 9 985 6.7 2.5 0.06 34 0.4 20 10 2 1.2 72 Canada Czech Republic 79 15.8 6.8 0.10 34 0.7 20 50 12 - 74 Czech Republic Denmark* 43 2.0 7.4 0.11 12 0.7 22 16 4 1.0 88 Denmark* Finland 338 8.2 7.0 0.07 74 0.7 11 13 2 0.1 81 Finland France 552 11.8 7.5 0.28 28 0.6 19 19 18 0.6 80 France Germany 357 55.7 10.5 0.17 32 0.5 38 27 19 0.3 93 Germany Greece 132 2.8 2.7 0.12 29 0.6 38 2 12 0.1 56 Greece Hungary 93 8.9 5.8 0.17 22 0.5 38 15 5 - 60 Hungary Iceland 103 5.6 0.6 0.00 - - - 44 - 1.7 57 Iceland Ireland 70 0.5 8.1 0.05 10 0.7 2 5 2 0.3 70 Ireland Italy 301 12.5 4.2 0.52 34 0.5 41 18 44 0.3 69 Italy Japan 378 8.0 9.2 1.28 68 0.4 23 13 20 4.5 69 Japan Korea 99 3.8 18.8 1.23 63 0.1 11 6 40 1.8 83 Korea Luxembourg 3 17.0 - 0.33 34 0.5 52 23 3 - 95 Luxembourg Mexico 1 964 8.6 1.1 0.04 33 0.2 32 16 16 1.4 36 Mexico
  • 46. Netherlands 42 15.6 13.4 0.41 11 0.6 19 22 12 0.5 99 Netherlands New Zealand 268 19.5 1.8 0.02 31 .. 18 21 1 0.6 80 New Zealand Norway* 324 4.6 10.0 0.08 31 0.5 14 16 1 2.6 77 Norway* Poland 313 28.1 6.3 0.07 30 0.6 14 8 18 0.2 61 Poland Portugal 92 4.9 2.3 0.42 41 0.8 26 38 12 0.2 65 Portugal Slovak Republic 49 25.2 4.6 0.21 40 0.5 22 14 1 - 56 Slovak Republic Spain 505 7.7 3.3 0.14 36 0.5 13 27 34 0.9 92 Spain Sweden 450 9.2 5.1 0.05 67 0.7 18 17 1 0.3 86 Sweden Switzerland 41 28.7 3.6 0.10 31 0.8 33 36 5 - 97 Switzerland Turkey 784 3.9 3.3 0.06 13 0.5 14 4 19 0.5 42 Turkey United Kingdom* 244 18.3 5.9 0.19 12 0.6 16 16 18 0.7 97 United Kingdom* United States 9 632 19.5 2.6 0.08 33 0.6 17 12 19 5.2 71 United States G7 21 448 13.1 3.3 0.12 34 0.5 .. .. 12 12.9 76 G7 EU15 3 243 14.3 6.0 0.23 39 0.6 .. .. 19 5.5 84 EU15 OECD total* 35 096 12.4 2.2 0.07 31 0.6 .. .. 11 25.3 71 OECD total* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467844512702 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: OECD Environmental Data Compendium 2008, OECD, Paris, 2008; .. Not available or not applicable. OECD Key Environmental Indicators 2008, OECD, Paris, 2008. - Nil or negligible. 45
  • 47. 46 Environment > Emissions and pollution, latest available year* Air Waste Environment R&D Sulphur oxides Nitogen oxides Quantity generated budget* Industrial waste per Nuclear waste per Municipal waste as % of total % change since % change since unit of GDP* unit of energy* kg / capita kg / capita government R&D 1990 1990 budget t / million USD kg / capita t / Mtoe Australia* 123 58 78 25 20 690 - 4.2 Australia* Austria* 3 - 64 27 7 .. 590 - 1.9 Austria* Belgium 21 - 88 27 - 63 50 470 2.0 2.3 Belgium Canada* 64 - 34 74 -1 .. 420 6.2 4.4 Canada* Czech Republic 14 - 60 26 - 26 30 300 1.7 2.9 Czech Republic Denmark 4 - 88 34 - 32 10 740 - 1.7 Denmark Finland 16 - 66 37 - 35 110 490 1.9 1.8 Finland France 8 - 65 20 - 34 50 520 4.2 2.7 France Germany 7 - 90 17 - 50 20 570 1.2 3.4 Germany Greece 48 14 28 13 .. 440 - 4.0 Greece Hungary 13 - 87 20 - 15 30 470 1.7 9.7 Hungary Iceland 28 12 94 1 10 530 - 0.4 Iceland Ireland 17 - 62 28 -5 40 800 - 0.9 Ireland Italy 7 - 77 19 - 43 20 550 - 2.7 Italy Japan* 6 - 24 15 -6 40 410 1.5 0.8 Japan* Korea 8 - 50 27 50 40 370 3.2 4.5 Korea Luxembourg 6 - 80 30 - 39 30 700 - .. Luxembourg Mexico 26 -3 14 14 .. 340 0.1 1.0 Mexico Netherlands 4 - 67 21 - 38 40 620 0.1 1.2 Netherlands
  • 48. New Zealand* 20 54 39 58 10 400 - .. New Zealand* Norway 5 - 54 43 -7 20 800 - 2.1 Norway Poland 33 - 61 21 - 49 120 260 - 2.4 Poland Portugal 21 - 31 25 4 50 470 - 3.5 Portugal Slovak Republic 17 - 84 18 - 55 130 280 3.0 1.0 Slovak Republic Spain 29 - 42 35 22 30 600 1.2 3.0 Spain Sweden 4 - 63 23 - 35 110 500 4.1 2.2 Sweden Switzerland* 2 - 59 12 - 47 - 700 1.9 0.1 Switzerland* Turkey 27 28 15 66 30 430 - .. Turkey United Kingdom 12 - 81 27 - 45 30 590 1.0 1.8 United Kingdom United States* 45 - 37 57 - 26 .. 760 1.0 0.4 United States* G7 25 - 51 37 - 28 50 630 1.6 .. G7 EU15 12 - 72 23 - 33 40 560 1.5 .. EU15 OECD total 26 - 45 32 - 22 50 560 1.5 .. OECD total 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468013074257 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: OECD Environmental Data Compendium 2008, OECD, Paris, 2008; .. Not available or not applicable. OECD Key Environmental Indicators 2008, OECD, Paris, 2008. - Nil or negligible. 47
  • 49. 48 Environment > CO2 emissions, 2006 CO2 emissions from fuel combustion1 By type of fuel By sector CO2 per unit CO2 per Total, million of GDP capita % change Million tonnes of CO2 Million tonnes of CO2 tonnes of 2006/1990 Coal and Electricity CO2 Oil Gas Industry Transport Residential Other kg/2000 USD t/capita Others2 peat and heat Australia 394.4 51.8 226.6 112.3 55.1 0.5 231.4 48.3 78.0 7.6 29.2 0.82 19.02 Australia Austria 72.8 28.8 15.4 38.0 17.2 2.3 17.0 14.6 20.7 8.4 12.2 0.34 8.80 Austria Belgium 117.2 6.3 17.7 54.9 34.1 10.5 24.4 35.2 25.2 18.2 14.1 0.45 11.12 Belgium Canada 538.8 24.7 107.3 263.6 167.4 0.5 114.6 99.2 159.6 37.7 127.8 0.64 16.52 Canada Czech Republic 121.0 - 22.0 78.1 24.7 17.4 0.7 63.3 23.1 17.5 8.8 8.3 1.67 11.78 Czech Republic Denmark 55.2 9.5 21.6 22.0 10.6 1.0 27.9 5.3 13.3 3.3 5.4 0.31 10.15 Denmark Finland 66.8 22.9 30.7 26.7 9.0 0.4 33.3 12.8 13.2 2.1 5.5 0.46 12.69 Finland France 377.5 7.2 50.4 233.0 90.1 4.0 52.3 72.1 131.5 63.5 58.2 0.26 5.97 France Germany 823.5 - 13.4 339.3 297.7 182.2 4.3 344.7 118.0 153.8 125.1 81.8 0.41 10.00 Germany Greece 94.0 34.0 34.6 53.1 6.3 0.0 44.1 9.7 22.2 9.4 8.6 0.57 8.43 Greece Hungary 56.4 - 17.7 12.4 17.8 25.8 0.3 18.2 8.2 12.9 9.8 7.2 0.92 5.60 Hungary Iceland 2.2 16.1 0.3 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.20 7.18 Iceland Ireland 44.9 46.7 9.7 26.0 9.2 0.0 14.8 5.6 13.6 7.2 3.8 0.34 10.56 Ireland Italy 448.0 12.6 62.4 222.3 159.8 3.5 147.6 79.0 120.3 55.3 45.8 0.39 7.61 Italy Japan 1 212.7 13.2 431.4 586.8 190.0 4.5 459.1 292.1 245.4 63.4 152.6 0.24 9.49 Japan Korea 476.1 107.6 204.8 195.7 68.2 7.3 211.2 94.6 86.1 33.7 50.5 0.71 9.86 Korea Luxembourg 11.2 6.8 0.4 7.8 2.9 0.1 1.4 1.7 6.7 1.3 0.1 0.43 23.64 Luxembourg Mexico 416.3 42.1 35.7 257.7 122.9 0.0 135.1 60.5 139.8 22.2 58.7 0.63 3.97 Mexico Netherlands 178.3 13.9 28.9 67.8 78.5 3.1 54.3 36.6 35.2 17.5 34.7 0.42 10.91 Netherlands New Zealand 36.8 72.2 11.3 18.1 7.5 0.0 13.5 5.0 14.5 0.6 3.2 0.58 8.88 New Zealand
  • 50. Norway 36.8 29.5 2.6 22.4 11.3 0.5 0.9 7.0 13.8 0.7 14.5 0.19 7.91 Norway Poland 306.0 - 11.0 215.9 60.2 27.0 2.8 168.3 38.9 38.2 32.5 28.1 1.45 8.02 Poland Portugal 56.3 43.4 13.0 34.6 8.3 0.5 21.8 8.9 19.0 2.2 4.4 0.47 5.32 Portugal Slovak Republic 37.5 - 34.0 16.2 9.1 12.0 0.2 9.9 9.6 6.1 3.2 8.6 1.35 6.95 Slovak Republic Spain 327.6 59.2 66.6 190.3 70.0 0.8 104.6 63.3 112.3 18.8 28.6 0.46 7.44 Spain Sweden 48.3 - 8.5 9.0 35.0 2.0 2.4 9.3 11.0 22.4 0.9 4.7 0.17 5.32 Sweden Switzerland 44.1 8.2 0.6 33.8 6.3 3.4 1.7 6.5 16.5 11.6 7.7 0.16 5.83 Switzerland Turkey 239.7 88.9 101.7 77.3 60.5 0.1 82.1 62.7 42.2 29.8 22.9 0.92 3.29 Turkey United Kingdom 536.5 - 3.0 157.6 189.6 186.7 2.5 207.0 63.9 130.6 76.9 58.1 0.32 8.86 United Kingdom United States 5 696.8 17.1 2 090.0 2 410.9 1 169.4 26.5 2 421.0 632.7 1 809.3 309.3 524.4 0.51 19.00 United States G7 9 633.8 11.8 3 238.4 4 203.9 2 145.7 45.8 3 746.3 1 356.9 2 750.3 731.4 1 048.7 0.41 13.28 G7 EU27 3 983.0 - 2.0 1 262.5 1 681.7 998.7 40.1 1 460.6 655.8 952.0 476.1 438.6 0.42 8.07 EU27 OECD total 12 873.7 16.2 4 392.1 5 591.0 2 807.8 82.8 5 034.8 1 926.7 3 520.7 981.4 1 410.1 0.44 10.93 OECD total Brazil 332.4 72.5 47.0 245.5 39.9 0.0 34.3 98.2 140.8 15.6 43.6 0.43 1.76 Brazil China 5 606.5 153.6 4 641.0 864.4 101.2 0.0 2 795.8 1 764.0 366.8 246.5 433.6 2.68 4.27 China India 1 249.7 112.1 844.4 338.7 66.7 0.0 702.4 283.8 101.2 72.3 90.0 1.78 1.13 India Russian Federation 1 587.2 - 27.2 444.6 321.0 804.5 17.1 913.4 222.2 227.2 122.8 101.6 4.25 11.14 Russian Federation South Africa 342.0 34.3 280.5 61.4 0.1 0.0 218.9 47.9 44.4 14.8 15.9 2.03 7.22 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468038368544 1. Calculated using the IEA energy balances, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Sectoral Sources: Approach and the default emissions factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, IEA, Paris, 2008; Greenhouse Gas Inventories. They may differ from National Communications submitted to the UN Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; Framework Convention on Climate Change. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2008; Main Economic Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008. 2. Includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. 49
  • 51. 50 Education > Expenditure, 2005* Teachers' salaries in public lower- Index of change in annual Expenditure on educational institutions Annual expenditure per student secondary education after 15 years expenditure per student of experience, 2006 Primary, secondary and Public and post- Tertiary Public Private USD using PPPs* USD using PPPs* private secondary non- education tertiary education Salary per Primary Secondary Tertiary Annual statutory % of GDP % of GDP 2000 = 100 % of GDP 2000 = 100 2000 = 100 statutory teaching education education education salary hour Australia 5.81 4.27 113 1.53 5 992 8 408 14 579 109 111 43 289 53 Australia Austria* 5.51 5.16 105 0.35 8 259 9 751 14 775 104 137 39 424 69 Austria* Belgium* 6.03 5.78 107 0.25 6 648 7 731 11 960 96 96 .. .. Belgium* -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Canada* 6.20 4.68 106 1.52 .. 7 837 .. 115 .. 24 340 40 Canada* Czech Republic 4.65 4.07 130 0.57 2 812 4 847 6 649 139 111 39 898 136 Czech Republic Denmark* 7.38 6.81 114 0.57 8 513 9 407 14 959 110 114 43 058 .. Denmark* Finland* 5.98 5.86 120 0.12 5 557 7 324 12 285 117 110 38 269 78 Finland* France 6.01 5.56 102 0.45 5 365 8 927 10 995 103 102 33 846 55 France Germany 5.10 4.18 103 0.92 5 014 7 636 12 446 102 98 51 435 78 Germany Greece* 4.21 3.95 147 0.25 5 146 8 423 6 130 129 159 32 030 67 Greece* Hungary* 5.61 5.12 147 0.49 4 438 3 806 6 244 158 83 14 976 32 Hungary* Iceland* 7.96 7.23 160 0.73 9 254 8 411 9 474 133 120 28 097 61 Iceland* Ireland 4.58 4.29 139 0.29 5 732 7 500 10 468 147 85 48 653 66 Ireland
  • 52. Italy* 4.71 4.26 101 0.44 6 835 7 648 8 026 105 100 31 890 55 Italy* Japan* 4.92 3.38 100 1.54 6 744 7 908 12 326 110 105 49 097 .. Japan* Korea 7.19 4.32 140 2.87 4 691 6 645 7 606 152 122 52 543 95 Korea Luxembourg* .. .. .. .. 14 079 18 845 .. .. .. 90 582 141 Luxembourg* Mexico 6.54 5.32 122 1.22 1 913 2 180 6 402 118 113 23 161 .. Mexico Netherlands 5.02 4.63 119 0.39 6 266 7 741 13 883 116 94 46 417 83 Netherlands New Zealand* 6.68 5.24 110 1.44 4 780 6 278 10 262 .. .. 36 602 39 New Zealand* Norway* .. 5.67 124 .. 9 001 10 995 15 552 106 103 34 917 72 Norway* Poland* 5.93 5.38 126 0.55 3 312 3 055 5 593 128 139 .. .. Poland* Portugal* 5.72 5.30 103 0.42 4 871 6 473 8 787 113 128 32 866 48 Portugal* Slovak Republic* 4.44 3.73 119 0.71 2 806 2 716 5 783 147 106 47 050 53 Slovak Republic* Spain 4.63 4.12 116 0.51 5 502 7 211 10 089 115 123 .. .. Spain Sweden 6.38 6.19 115 0.19 7 532 8 198 15 946 112 95 43 171 64 Sweden Switzerland* .. 5.62 113 .. 8 469 12 861 21 734 108 105 31 565 .. Switzerland* Turkey .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 59 781 .. Turkey United Kingdom* 6.25 5.00 128 1.25 6 361 7 167 13 506 129 126 .. 25 United Kingdom* United States 7.13 4.80 112 2.33 9 156 10 390 24 370 105 104 42 775 .. United States OECD average 5.80 5.00 119 0.84 6 252 7 804 11 512 119 111 40 682 68 OECD average Brazil* .. 4.35 135 .. 1 425 1 186 9 994 139 83 .. .. Brazil* Russian Federation* .. 3.77 174 .. .. 1 754 3 421 .. .. .. .. Russian Federation* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468064465655 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Education at a Glance 2008 : OECD indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008 or revised data. www.oecd.org/edu/eag2008. .. Not available or not applicable. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 51
  • 53. 52 Education > Performance, 2006* % educational attainment of adult population and current Index of earning differentials, Student performance on the combined graduation rates % unemployment ratio at tertiary-type A to upper- reading, scientific and mathematical literacy tertiary-type A attainment secondary (25-to-64-year- scales, mean score, 2006* level (25-to-64-year-olds)* Upper olds)* Current upper Tertiary-type A First-time secondary or secondary attainment, 25- tertiary-type A higher, 25-to- Reading Maths Science graduation rate to-64-year-olds graduation rate Women Men Women Men 64-year-olds -1 -1 Australia 512.9 519.9 526.9 66.7 .. 23.8 59.1 156 143 2.4 2.0 Australia Austria 490.2 505.5 510.8 80.3 .. 10.1 21.5 166 181 4.1 2.1 Austria -1 -1 Belgium 500.9 520.3 510.4 66.9 .. 14.1 .. 151 155 4.5 3.5 Belgium -1 -1 Canada 527.0 527.0 534.5 85.6 .. 24.0 34.7 174 166 3.9 3.7 Canada Czech Republic* 482.7 509.9 512.9 90.3 89.7 13.5 29.0 167 197 2.4 2.1 Czech Republic* -2 -2 Denmark 494.5 513.0 495.9 81.6 86.5 27.1 44.6 128 141 3.5 2.7 Denmark -2 -2 Finland 546.9 548.4 563.3 79.6 95.4 19.2 47.5 165 180 3.9 2.8 Finland France 487.7 495.5 495.2 67.4 .. 15.6 .. 157 176 5.7 5.5 France Germany 494.9 503.8 515.6 83.2 102.7 15.1 21.2 168 173 5.1 4.4 Germany Greece 459.7 459.2 473.4 58.7 100.1 15.1 20.4 .. .. 7.2 4.2 Greece Hungary 482.4 490.9 503.9 78.1 85.4 17.4 30.3 189 260 2.2 2.2 Hungary Iceland 484.4 505.5 490.8 63.3 90.4 25.6 62.8 .. .. .. .. Iceland -2 -2 Ireland 517.3 501.5 508.3 66.2 86.5 19.9 39.1 187 192 1.7 2.2 Ireland -2 -2 Italy 468.5 461.7 475.4 51.3 85.5 12.4 39.4 134 183 5.9 3.8 Italy Japan 498.0 523.1 531.4 .. 92.6 23.0 38.6 .. .. 2.5 2.7 Japan -3 -3 Korea 556.0 547.5 522.1 76.7 93.0 23.5 .. 201 138 2.3 2.7 Korea -4 -4 Luxembourg 479.4 490.0 486.3 65.5 71.6 16.4 .. 145 170 4.2 2.4 Luxembourg Mexico 410.5 405.7 409.7 32.4 42.0 14.4 .. .. .. 3.2 2.9 Mexico
  • 54. -4 -4 Netherlands 506.7 530.7 524.9 72.4 .. 28.4 43.0 155 143 2.3 2.3 Netherlands New Zealand 521.0 522.0 530.4 69.4 73.7 23.0 51.9 140 132 2.7 2.1 New Zealand -1 -1 Norway 484.3 489.8 486.5 78.9 91.4 30.5 42.6 134 134 1.5 2.1 Norway Poland* 507.6 495.4 497.8 52.7 80.1 17.9 47.3 168 197 5.3 4.7 Poland* -1 -1 Portugal* 472.3 466.2 474.3 27.6 .. 13.5 32.9 173 183 6.0 4.5 Portugal* Slovak Republic 466.3 492.1 488.4 86.5 82.4 13.3 34.6 .. .. 3.3 2.0 Slovak Republic -2 -2 Spain 460.8 480.0 488.4 49.8 72.0 19.8 32.9 156 144 6.5 4.1 Spain -1 -1 Sweden 507.3 502.4 503.3 84.1 75.7 21.7 40.6 132 145 3.9 4.3 Sweden Switzerland 499.3 529.7 511.5 85.0 89.5 19.9 29.8 141 121 3.6 2.2 Switzerland -1 -1 Turkey* 447.1 423.9 423.8 28.3 51.2 10.4 15.2 162 162 9.0 5.9 Turkey* United Kingdom 495.1 495.4 514.8 69.1 88.3 21.7 39.0 194 159 2.1 2.3 United Kingdom United States .. 474.4 488.9 87.8 77.2 34.5 35.5 177 192 2.2 2.6 United States OECD average 491.8 497.7 500.0 68.5 82.6 19.5 37.3 .. .. 3.9 3.1 OECD average -2 -2 Brazil* 392.9 369.5 390.3 29.5 .. 7.8 .. .. .. .. .. Brazil* -4 -4 Russian Federation 439.9 475.7 479.5 88.0 .. 20.8 .. .. .. .. .. Russian Federation 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468068587416 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Education at a Glance 2008 : OECD indicators, OECD, Paris, 2008 . www.oecd.org/edu/eag2008; .. Not available or not applicable. PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World, OECD, Paris. www.pisa.oecd.org. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 53
  • 55. 54 Public finance > Agriculture: support estimates, 2007 Producer support estimate* Consumer support estimate* Total support estimate* Total in billion USD % of value of Total in billion USD consumption % of value of total expenditure on gross farm receipts commodities 2007 2006 domestically produced 2007 2006 % of GDP Australia 6 1.7 1.5 -2 - 0.2 - 0.2 0.3 Australia Canada 18 7.0 7.2 - 11 - 2.8 - 3.9 0.7 Canada Iceland 61 0.2 0.2 - 36 0.0 - 0.1 1.2 Iceland Japan 45 35.2 39.2 - 40 - 39.4 - 46.3 1.0 Japan Korea 60 25.4 25.3 - 57 - 31.4 - 30.3 3.0 Korea Mexico 14 6.0 6.1 -5 - 2.4 - 2.4 0.8 Mexico New Zealand 1 0.1 0.1 -2 0.0 - 0.1 0.2 New Zealand Norway 53 2.8 3.0 - 33 - 1.1 - 1.5 0.8 Norway Switzerland 50 4.2 4.9 - 30 - 2.0 - 3.0 1.1 Switzerland Turkey 21 13.4 10.8 - 12 - 6.4 - 6.1 2.8 Turkey United States 10 32.7 30.9 5 13.0 19.0 0.7 United States
  • 56. EU27* 26 134.3 130.6 - 10 - 45.8 - 49.6 0.9 EU27* OECD total 23 258.2 257.3 - 12 - 115.9 - 124.0 0.9 OECD total -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Brazil 6 4.4 2.3 -3 - 1.4 - 0.6 0.8 Brazil -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 China 8 35.6 26.1 -4 - 15.7 - 7.3 2.3 China -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Russian Federation 15 6.9 8.4 -8 - 5.0 - 6.0 1.0 Russian Federation -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 South Africa 9 1.0 0.9 -8 - 0.9 - 0.7 0.7 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468136168664 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2007 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2007. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 55
  • 57. 56 Public finance > Government sector, 2007 Total general government Total general government General government final Net saving of general Net lending of general Social security transfers revenue expenditure consumption expenditure government government % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Australia 35.8 34.9 18.3 7.9 2.1 0.9 Australia Austria 47.9 48.5 18.2 17.7 1.0 - 0.7 Austria Belgium 48.6 48.8 22.4 15.6 0.3 - 0.2 Belgium -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Canada 40.4 39.3 19.3 9.9 2.2 1.0 Canada -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Czech Republic 41.0 43.6 21.2 12.6 - 0.6 - 2.6 Czech Republic Denmark 55.6 50.8 25.9 14.9 4.6 4.8 Denmark Finland 52.6 47.3 21.2 15.1 5.7 5.3 Finland France 49.7 52.4 23.1 17.4 - 1.4 - 2.7 France Germany 43.9 43.9 18.0 17.3 0.7 0.0 Germany Greece 40.2 43.3 16.6 17.3 - 3.9 - 3.1 Greece Hungary 44.6 50.1 21.2 15.2 - 3.7 - 5.5 Hungary Iceland 48.3 43.1 24.6 5.9 8.6 5.2 Iceland -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Ireland 37.2 34.2 16.0 9.3 5.7 3.0 Ireland Italy 46.6 48.5 19.8 17.3 0.5 - 1.9 Italy -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Japan 34.6 36.0 17.7 11.4 - 3.0 - 1.4 Japan -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Korea 33.8 30.2 14.8 3.2 8.3 3.6 Korea
  • 58. Luxembourg 41.0 38.0 15.2 13.2 6.4 3.0 Luxembourg -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 Mexico 21.7 21.1 11.9 1.9 2.7 0.6 Mexico Netherlands 46.3 45.9 25.3 10.6 1.3 0.4 Netherlands -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 New Zealand 44.4 39.9 18.3 9.4 6.4 4.4 New Zealand Norway 58.3 40.9 19.7 12.2 18.6 17.4 Norway Poland 40.5 42.6 18.1 14.4 0.6 - 2.0 Poland Portugal 43.1 45.8 20.3 15.2 - 1.9 - 2.7 Portugal -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Slovak Republic 34.0 37.7 19.5 12.0 - 3.4 - 3.7 Slovak Republic Spain 41.0 38.7 18.4 11.6 5.2 2.2 Spain Sweden 56.0 52.6 25.9 15.3 4.5 3.4 Sweden -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Switzerland 34.7 35.4 11.6 11.9 0.3 - 0.7 Switzerland Turkey .. .. 12.2 .. .. .. Turkey United Kingdom 41.8 44.6 21.6 12.8 - 1.3 - 2.9 United Kingdom -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 United States 34.2 36.6 16.0 12.1 - 1.5 - 2.5 United States 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468155324423 Sources: .. Not available or not applicable. National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2008. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 57
  • 59. 58 Public finance > Taxation, 2005 Disposable income of average Tax structures worker* Total tax Highest rates of income taxes* receipts % of total tax receipts % of gross pay* Social security contributions Taxes on Personal Corporate Personal Corporate Married with % of GDP goods and Other taxes income tax income tax Single person income tax income tax two children* Employees Employers services % % Australia 30.9 39.8 19.3 0.0 0.0 27.8 13.2 48.5 30.0 76.0 89.1 Australia Austria 42.1 22.1 5.4 14.0 16.2 28.4 14.0 42.7 25.0 67.2 81.8 Austria Belgium 45.4 30.5 7.7 9.4 18.5 25.3 8.6 45.1 34.0 58.0 77.9 Belgium Canada 33.4 35.6 10.5 6.0 8.4 25.4 14.1 46.4 36.1 76.1 87.7 Canada Czech Republic 37.8 12.2 12.0 9.7 27.4 31.3 7.5 28.0 26.0 75.9 98.3 Czech Republic Denmark 50.3 48.7 7.6 2.1 0.1 32.2 9.3 55.0 28.0 59.2 71.2 Denmark Finland 44.0 30.7 7.6 5.0 20.4 31.3 4.9 49.9 26.0 68.7 76.4 Finland France 44.1 17.3 6.2 9.2 25.0 25.3 16.9 36.5 35.0 71.1 83.1 France Germany 34.8 23.3 4.9 17.4 19.2 29.0 6.1 44.3 38.9 56.7 76.2 Germany Greece 27.3 14.8 10.3 14.1 16.0 34.6 10.2 33.6 32.0 76.2 74.5 Greece Hungary 37.2 18.0 5.7 6.3 24.6 39.7 5.8 56.0 16.0 66.3 80.4 Hungary Iceland 41.4 34.8 5.6 0.2 7.8 40.4 11.3 38.2 18.0 74.4 93.9 Iceland Ireland 30.6 27.3 11.2 4.6 9.3 37.8 9.9 42.0 12.5 84.7 104.4 Ireland Italy 41.0 25.5 6.8 5.5 21.4 26.4 14.4 44.1 33.0 72.7 89.2 Italy Japan 27.4 18.3 15.5 15.9 16.7 19.4 14.1 47.1 39.5 81.5 85.8 Japan Korea 25.5 13.3 16.0 12.1 8.9 34.3 15.4 35.6 27.5 90.1 91.3 Korea Luxembourg 38.6 19.0 15.5 12.3 12.2 28.8 12.3 33.9 30.4 72.7 99.2 Luxembourg Mexico* 19.9 24.1 .. 15.7 .. 56.7 3.5 22.5 30.0 95.4 95.4 Mexico*
  • 60. Netherlands 39.1 18.0 9.8 16.5 10.7 31.7 13.3 52.0 31.5 67.7 78.0 Netherlands New Zealand 37.8 41.1 16.8 0.0 0.0 32.1 10.1 39.0 33.0 79.6 85.6 New Zealand Norway 43.7 22.1 27.0 6.9 12.3 27.9 3.7 43.5 28.0 71.0 79.7 Norway Poland* 34.3 12.6 6.1 39.7 .. 36.7 4.9 26.2 19.0 68.2 70.1 Poland* Portugal 34.8 15.7 8.8 10.2 20.9 39.3 5.2 35.6 27.5 77.6 89.5 Portugal Slovak Republic 31.6 8.4 8.7 9.6 22.4 39.7 11.2 14.4 19.0 77.9 97.0 Slovak Republic Spain 35.8 18.0 10.8 5.3 23.6 28.0 14.2 45.0 35.0 79.8 87.2 Spain Sweden 50.7 31.6 7.5 5.5 21.0 26.1 8.3 51.6 28.0 68.8 76.0 Sweden Switzerland 29.7 35.7 8.9 11.2 10.8 23.6 9.9 37.8 21.3 78.3 90.5 Switzerland Turkey 32.3 14.7 7.1 7.7 10.2 49.3 10.9 35.6 30.0 69.5 69.5 Turkey United Kingdom 36.5 28.6 9.3 7.8 10.4 30.3 13.1 40.0 30.0 73.1 79.7 United Kingdom United States 27.3 35.1 11.4 10.8 12.6 17.4 12.7 41.3 39.3 75.7 89.1 United States EU average 39.7 24.7 8.6 9.3 16.3 30.3 10.7 43.4 29.8 70.3 82.9 EU average OECD average 36.2 24.6 10.3 8.4 14.5 31.9 9.0 40.4 28.6 73.7 84.9 OECD average 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468178478114 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Revenue Statistics, 1965-2006, OECD, Paris, 2007; .. Not available or not applicable. Taxing Wages , 2006-2007, OECD, Paris, 2007. 59
  • 61. 60 Public finance > Development aid Official Development Assistance (ODA) Grant element Multilateral aid Grants by NGOs* ODA to LDCs* Share in total DAC Annual average % % of ODA Million USD % of GNI % of ODA % of GNI % of GNI ODA* change in volume commitments 2007 2007 2007 2001-02/2006-07 2006 2006 2006 2006 Australia 2 471 0.30 2.4 6.3 99.8 15.4 0.09 0.06 Australia Austria 1 798 0.49 1.7 12.8 100.0 27.1 0.04 0.08 Austria Belgium 1 953 0.43 1.9 5.2 99.4 31.4 0.06 0.18 Belgium Canada 3 922 0.28 3.8 5.7 100.0 31.3 0.09 0.10 Canada Denmark 2 563 0.81 2.5 - 1.7 100.0 34.5 0.03 0.31 Denmark Finland 973 0.40 0.9 7.6 100.0 45.5 0.01 0.14 Finland France 9 940 0.39 9.6 6.3 94.7 25.3 .. 0.12 France Germany 12 291 0.37 11.8 7.9 95.6 32.6 0.05 0.09 Germany Greece 501 0.16 0.5 2.9 100.0 55.4 0.00 0.04 Greece Ireland 1 190 0.54 1.1 14.8 100.0 38.1 0.18 0.28 Ireland Italy 3 929 0.19 3.8 3.5 100.0 45.0 0.01 0.04 Italy Japan 7 691 0.17 7.4 - 0.1 89.6 34.6 0.01 0.07 Japan Luxembourg 365 0.90 0.4 5.7 100.0 29.5 0.02 0.35 Luxembourg Netherlands 6 215 0.81 6.0 2.7 100.0 21.5 0.04 0.21 Netherlands
  • 62. New Zealand 315 0.27 0.3 6.8 100.0 21.6 0.05 0.08 New Zealand Norway 3 727 0.95 3.6 4.6 100.0 25.6 .. 0.34 Norway Portugal 471 0.22 0.5 - 2.3 100.0 46.7 0.00 0.13 Portugal Spain 5 134 0.37 5.0 8.2 94.5 45.1 .. 0.06 Spain Sweden 4 334 0.93 4.2 8.1 100.0 27.9 0.00 0.30 Sweden Switzerland 1 680 0.37 1.6 5.5 100.0 23.8 0.10 0.11 Switzerland United Kingdom 9 921 0.36 9.6 9.7 100.0 30.0 0.02 0.16 United Kingdom United States 21 753 0.16 21.0 9.9 100.0 10.1 0.07 0.05 United States G7 69 446 0.23 66.9 6.8 96.7 25.0 0.04 0.07 G7 EU15 61 577 0.40 59.7 6.6 97.9 31.4 0.02 0.12 EU15 DAC total* 103 136 0.28 100.0 6.4 97.5 26.3 0.04 0.09 DAC total* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468234666275 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: 2007 data are preliminary OECD/DAC Statistics, www.oecd.org/dac/stats. .. Not available or not applicable. 61
  • 63. 62 International trade and investment > Direct investment Direct investment flows Direct investment positions Inflows Outflows Inward Outward % of GDP Billion USD % of GDP Billion USD Billion USD Billion USD 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 2007 1997 Australia 2.5 1.8 23.6 7.6 2.7 1.5 25.7 6.4 315.1 101.1 280.7 72.0 Australia Austria 8.2 1.3 30.7 2.7 8.4 1.0 31.4 2.0 126.9 19.5 126.7 14.0 Austria Belgium-Luxembourg* 31.4 6.2 157.9 16.5 46.5 2.9 233.7 7.9 .. .. .. .. Belgium-Luxembourg* Canada 7.5 1.8 107.4 11.5 3.5 3.6 49.5 23.1 506.9 135.9 520.7 153.0 Canada Czech Republic 5.2 2.3 9.1 1.3 0.8 .. 1.3 .. 101.1 9.2 7.0 0.5 Czech Republic Denmark 3.6 1.6 11.2 2.8 5.5 2.5 17.0 4.2 154.2 22.3 180.0 28.1 Denmark Finland 3.5 1.7 8.5 2.1 3.5 4.3 8.6 5.3 85.2 9.5 113.0 20.3 Finland France 6.1 1.6 158.0 23.2 8.7 2.5 224.6 35.6 1 026.6 195.9 1 382.2 237.2 France Germany 1.5 0.6 50.9 12.2. 5.0 1.9 167.5 41.8 855.8 190.7 1 217.7 296.3 Germany Greece* 0.6 0.7 1.9 1.1 1.7 0.0 5.3 .. 52.8 13.1 30.8 27.9 Greece* Hungary 4.0 8.9 5.6 4.2 3.0 1.0 4.1 0.5 97.4 18.0 18.3 0.6 Hungary Iceland 19.2 2.0 3.8 0.1 62.4 0.8 12.5 0.1 12.1 0.3 27.4 0.3 Iceland Ireland* 10.2 3.3 25.9 2.7 8.7 1.2 22.1 1.0 156.6 62.5 123.3 20.3 Ireland* Italy 1.9 0.4 40.2 5.0 4.3 1.0 90.8 12.2 364.8 85.4 520.1 139.4 Italy Japan 0.5 0.1 22.5 3.2 1.7 0.6 73.5 26.0 132.9 27.1 542.6 271.9 Japan Korea* 0.2 0.6 1.6 2.8 1.6 0.9 15.3 4.4 .. 119.1 .. 49.2 Korea* Luxembourg* .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66.7 17.3 33.4 5.0 Luxembourg* Mexico* 2.6 3.5 23.2 14.2 0.9 0.0 8.3 .. 236.2 55.8 30.8 .. Mexico* Netherlands 13.0 2.9 99.5 11.1 4.1 6.3 31.2 24.5 673.4 122.2 851.3 198.5 Netherlands New Zealand 2.2 2.9 2.9 1.9 2.1 - 2.3 2.8 - 1.6 71.5 31.4 14.1 5.6 New Zealand Norway* 0.2 2.5 0.6 4.0 2.9 3.3 11.2 5.3 99.5 20.7 119.5 27.5 Norway*
  • 64. Poland* 4.2 3.1 17.6 4.9 0.8 0.0 3.2 .. 105.3 180.5 115.4 8.4 Poland* Portugal 2.5 2.1 5.6 2.4 2.8 1.9 6.2 2.1 114.2 22.4 69.2 5.7 Portugal Slovak Republic 3.9 1.1 2.9 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 45.3 2.1 1.5 0.2 Slovak Republic Spain 3.7 1.1 53.4 6.4 8.3 2.2 119.6 12.5 568.8 105.3 681.7 53.0 Spain Sweden 4.1 4.4 18.8 11.0 8.1 5.1 36.7 12.6 254.4 41.5 308.7 78.2 Sweden Switzerland 9.5 2.5 40.4 6.6. 12.0 6.8 51.0 17.7 278.2 59.5 603.6 165.4 Switzerland Turkey* 3.3 0.4 22.0 0.8 0.3 0.1 2.1 0.3 88.3 .. 12.2 .. Turkey* United Kingdom 6.7 2.5 186.0 33.2 8.3 4.6 229.9 61.6 1 288.2 253.0 1 706.8 360.8 United Kingdom United States 1.7 1.3 237.5 105.6 2.4 1.3 333.3 104.8 2 422.8 824.1 3 332.8 1 068.1 United States OECD total 3.4 1.3 1 369.1 301.5 4.5 1.7 1 818.6 410.6 10 301.2 2 745.4 12 971.7 3 307.6 OECD total Brazil .. 2.3 34.6 19.7 .. 0.1 7.1 1.0 .. .. .. .. Brazil China .. 4.3 .. 44.2 .. 0.3 .. 2.6 .. .. .. .. China India .. 0.9 .. 3.6 .. .. .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. India Russian Federation .. 1.8 52.5 4.9 .. 1.2 45.7 3.2 .. .. .. .. Russian Federation South Africa .. 2.8 5.7 3.8 .. 1.7 3.2 2.3 .. .. .. .. South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468311355862 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: International Direct Investment Database, OECD, Paris, 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. 63
  • 65. 64 International trade and investment > Trade, 2006 1 2 Goods and services Trade by commodities Imports Exports Imports (cif)* Exports (fob)* At current At current prices and % volume prices and % volume Manufacturing, share of Manufacturing, share of Coverage Total Total exchange change exchange change total trade total trade ratio rates rates % change % of total % change % change % of total % change Billion USD 2006/2005 Billion USD 2006/2005 Billion USD Billion USD 2006/2005 trade 2006/2005 2006/2005 trade 2006/2005 Australia 171.6 8.9 162.5 3.9 132.7 11.5 77.5 - 4.7 123.3 16.3 32.4 - 1.8 92.9 Australia Austria 166.8 5.1 182.8 7.5 134.2 11.8 76.4 - 1.9 134.1 13.9 85.8 - 1.0 99.9 Austria Belgium 335.6 2.7 348.3 2.6 353.7 10.5 75.3 - 2.0 369.1 10.5 81.8 - 1.3 104.4 Belgium Canada 429.9 5.0 462.6 0.7 349.9 11.3 81.5 - 0.6 388.1 7.7 64.7 - 0.8 110.9 Canada Czech Republic 104.0 14.2 109.0 15.8 93.4 22.1 83.4 - 2.3 95.1 21.6 91.5 0.8 101.8 Czech Republic Denmark 135.5 14.1 143.1 9.0 84.5 12.7 80.1 0.5 90.1 8.2 68.8 - 1.2 106.6 Denmark Finland 84.3 7.8 94.7 11.8 69.4 18.6 70.3 - 4.1 77.3 18.6 86.7 - 0.8 111.4 Finland France 636.4 6.1 607.9 5.4 529.9 11.3 75.4 - 1.4 479.0 10.3 83.1 - 0.2 90.4 France Germany 1 154.3 11.2 1 312.8 12.5 922.2 18.3 77.8 - 0.6 1 122.0 14.8 91.3 - 0.4 121.7 Germany Greece 92.5 8.7 58.8 5.1 63.7 16.0 68.0 - 1.0 20.9 19.4 62.2 - 1.1 32.8 Greece Hungary 87.4 14.7 88.0 19.0 77.0 16.8 87.3 3.4 74.1 18.9 90.4 0.6 96.2 Hungary Iceland 8.3 10.2 5.3 - 5.0 6.0 20.0 78.3 - 2.1 3.5 12.9 28.6 - 11.5 58.3 Iceland Ireland 151.8 4.4 175.3 4.4 76.6 9.0 82.2 - 1.7 108.8 - 1.1 88.2 - 2.0 142.0 Ireland Italy 532.1 5.9 516.7 6.2 442.6 15.0 74.7 0.3 417.2 11.9 88.7 - 0.3 94.3 Italy Japan 648.4 4.2 703.0 9.5 579.1 12.3 56.0 - 2.8 646.7 8.7 97.0 - 0.3 111.7 Japan Korea 373.8 11.3 382.0 11.8 309.4 18.5 61.2 - 3.8 325.5 14.5 91.2 - 1.4 105.2 Korea Luxembourg 57.9 7.2 70.5 9.6 19.6 11.4 73.5 - 1.2 14.2 11.8 91.5 - 3.2 72.4 Luxembourg
  • 66. Mexico 278.9 12.2 267.9 11.1 256.1 15.5 86.1 - 0.1 250.0 16.7 77.2 - 1.5 97.6 Mexico Netherlands* 441.1 8.1 490.9 7.0 331.5 17.1 69.5 - 1.7 370.2 15.7 68.1 - 1.9 111.7 Netherlands* New Zealand 32.8 - 1.7 31.3 3.1 26.4 0.8 75.0 - 4.1 22.4 3.2 40.2 8.9 84.8 New Zealand Norway 95.4 8.1 156.8 0.4 64.3 15.9 81.3 - 0.1 122.2 17.7 26.2 0.8 190.0 Norway Poland 142.6 17.4 137.9 14.6 125.6 23.7 81.0 1.6 109.6 22.6 83.9 0.0 87.3 Poland Portugal 76.5 4.8 60.9 9.3 66.7 9.0 71.5 - 1.0 43.4 13.9 82.9 - 1.3 65.1 Portugal Slovak Republic 49.8 17.8 47.2 20.7 44.4 29.8 77.9 0.5 41.7 30.7 88.7 1.0 93.9 Slovak Republic Spain 395.9 8.3 320.3 5.1 330.0 14.0 71.9 - 1.8 214.1 11.1 79.9 0.6 64.9 Spain Sweden 169.8 8.2 202.1 8.9 127.1 14.1 77.0 - 1.0 147.4 13.1 84.8 - 1.4 116.0 Sweden Switzerland 173.8 6.5 203.6 9.9 141.4 11.7 84.2 - 1.2 147.9 13.0 93.3 - 0.7 104.6 Switzerland Turkey 146.4 6.9 120.4 6.6 139.6 19.5 85.9 15.6 85.5 16.3 91.2 8.1 61.2 Turkey United Kingdom 767.9 9.8 682.2 10.7 598.4 16.0 80.7 - 0.3 448.4 16.7 83.9 0.1 74.9 United Kingdom United States 2 229.6 5.9 1 467.6 8.4 1 919.0 10.8 75.8 - 1.0 1 037.0 14.7 85.1 - 0.9 54.0 United States G7 6 398.5 6.9 5 752.7 8.6 5 341.1 13.2 74.8 - 0.8 4 538.4 12.7 86.6 - 0.5 85.0 G7 EU15* .. .. .. .. 1 951.8 15.6 71.1 - 2.1 1 809.7 9.0 88.3 - 1.6 92.7 EU15* OECD total 10 171.2 7.6 9 612.3 8.5 8 414.4 13.9 75.2 - 0.8 7 528.8 13.2 83.0 - 0.6 89.5 OECD total Brazil .. .. .. .. 91.3 24.1 73.2 - 1.4 137.8 16.3 54.4 - 3.7 150.9 Brazil China .. .. .. .. 791.5 19.9 76.3 - 1.7 968.9 27.2 94.5 1.0 122.4 China India .. .. .. .. 185.4 23.9 49.0 - 3.9 126.1 22.0 69.8 - 3.7 68.0 India Russian Federation .. .. .. .. 137.7 39.5 81.3 3.4 301.6 24.9 31.8 - 1.6 219.0 Russian Federation South Africa .. .. .. .. 69.2 25.8 74.4 - 5.2 53.2 13.2 73.3 1.4 76.9 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468313425130 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: 1. National accounts basis according to the 1993 System of National Accounts (SNA). National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2008; International Trade by Commodity Statistics, OECD, Paris, 2008. 2. Customs basis. .. Not available or not applicable. 65
  • 67. 66 International trade and investment > Trade in services, 2006* Imports Exports Total % of total Total % of total Royalties Royalties % change Finance and Other % change Finance and Other Billion USD Transport Travel and license Billion USD Transport Travel and license 2006/2005 insurance services* 2006/2005 insurance services* fees fees Australia 32.2 5.5 35.2 36.2 3.5 6.8 18.2 33.0 6.4 19.2 54.0 3.9 1.8 21.0 Australia Austria 32.5 - 28.2 29.9 28.6 4.9 4.1 32.5 46.4 - 8.0 22.2 35.8 3.9 1.2 36.9 Austria Belgium 53.0 3.5 24.6 29.1 7.5 2.0 36.8 59.4 5.8 26.3 17.2 7.6 2.6 46.3 Belgium Canada 72.6 11.2 23.3 28.3 10.6 10.1 27.7 59.3 7.2 18.0 24.7 9.0 5.5 42.7 Canada Czech Republic 11.8 14.8 23.3 22.6 11.3 4.5 38.3 13.3 12.9 28.1 37.7 3.0 0.2 31.0 Czech Republic Denmark 46.0 22.1 51.9 16.1 1.9 2.9 27.2 52.5 19.2 63.2 10.6 0.9 3.2 22.0 Denmark Finland 15.6 2.4 28.5 22.0 2.3 8.3 38.8 16.1 - 5.4 17.1 14.8 0.9 6.6 60.6 Finland France 107.8 2.1 27.3 28.9 5.6 3.1 35.1 118.2 - 0.6 22.2 39.2 1.8 5.3 31.5 France Germany 219.5 5.7 23.7 33.7 3.5 3.6 35.5 174.5 10.5 23.8 18.8 6.6 3.4 47.4 Germany Greece 16.3 10.8 53.7 18.3 6.6 2.5 19.0 35.6 3.8 50.5 40.0 1.0 0.2 8.2 Greece Hungary 11.7 1.6 20.7 18.3 3.9 9.0 48.1 13.3 3.9 18.0 32.1 1.3 4.7 43.9 Hungary Iceland 2.5 0.0 30.0 42.3 2.4 0.2 25.3 1.8 - 10.1 45.3 24.2 0.6 0.0 30.0 Iceland Ireland 78.4 9.6 3.2 8.7 17.5 26.5 44.1 69.1 15.2 4.2 7.7 27.2 1.5 59.3 Ireland Italy 100.2 11.3 22.4 23.0 3.8 1.8 49.0 98.4 10.0 15.7 38.7 3.7 1.1 40.8 Italy Japan 135.6 1.0 31.6 19.8 5.6 11.4 31.6 117.3 6.4 32.1 7.2 6.6 17.1 37.0 Japan Korea 70.6 20.2 33.1 25.8 2.2 6.4 32.5 51.9 14.9 49.8 10.3 5.6 3.9 30.4 Korea Luxembourg 30.2 22.5 4.0 10.4 62.4 0.5 22.7 50.9 24.6 5.3 7.1 70.3 0.7 16.6 Luxembourg Mexico* 22.8 6.5 11.8 35.5 42.3 2.2 8.3 16.4 1.6 11.7 74.3 7.7 1.0 5.3 Mexico* Netherlands 90.9 7.6 19.1 18.7 3.1 9.5 49.6 94.1 2.3 21.8 12.0 2.1 11.6 52.4 Netherlands New Zealand 7.8 - 5.2 33.3 32.4 3.7 6.2 24.3 8.1 - 6.0 20.6 58.9 1.3 1.5 17.6 New Zealand
  • 68. Norway 31.4 6.3 29.8 36.7 4.2 1.8 27.6 32.9 12.2 46.3 10.9 3.3 2.3 37.2 Norway Poland 18.3 27.8 23.1 31.4 4.2 7.2 34.1 20.5 26.0 34.0 35.2 1.5 0.2 29.2 Poland Portugal 11.6 10.8 30.7 28.4 4.3 3.0 33.7 17.7 16.4 22.5 47.0 2.1 0.5 28.0 Portugal Slovak Republic* 4.7 16.1 27.0 22.2 9.6 2.2 38.9 5.4 22.7 35.2 28.0 2.9 1.7 32.3 Slovak Republic* Spain 78.2 16.4 26.2 21.3 7.8 3.2 41.5 106.0 11.7 17.1 48.2 4.4 0.9 29.4 Spain Sweden 36.4 11.8 14.2 26.3 3.7 4.6 51.2 49.4 15.1 19.5 17.1 5.4 8.1 49.9 Sweden Switzerland* 25.5 4.0 12.2 38.8 5.9 34.8 8.4 51.9 10.0 9.0 20.5 32.6 14.8 23.1 Switzerland* Turkey* 11.2 - 1.6 38.5 24.5 12.3 4.7 19.9 24.6 - 7.9 17.2 68.6 2.1 .. 12.1 Turkey* United Kingdom 175.5 6.6 20.4 35.9 7.1 5.7 30.9 229.2 9.5 13.4 14.7 25.6 5.9 40.3 United Kingdom United States 342.8 8.6 27.1 22.5 14.0 7.7 28.8 418.8 8.9 16.4 25.5 12.4 14.9 30.8 United States G7 1 154.1 6.5 25.3 27.3 8.1 6.3 32.9 1 215.7 8.0 19.0 23.1 11.6 9.3 37.0 G7 EU-25 extra* .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. EU-25 extra* EU-25* .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. EU-25* OECD total* 1 893.6 7.3 24.9 25.8 8.7 7.0 33.6 2 086.0 8.4 21.3 24.3 11.5 7.0 35.8 OECD total* Brazil 29.1 20.1 22.5 19.8 5.5 5.7 46.4 19.5 20.9 17.7 22.2 5.5 0.8 53.9 Brazil China 100.8 20.3 34.1 24.1 9.6 6.6 25.6 92.0 23.6 22.8 36.9 0.8 0.2 39.3 China India 49.4 2.9 25.2 14.9 5.2 1.9 52.8 75.4 35.0 10.1 11.9 4.2 0.1 73.6 India Russian Federation 44.7 15.1 15.0 40.8 3.6 4.5 36.1 30.9 23.9 32.6 24.7 3.1 1.0 38.7 Russian Federation South Africa 14.3 17.6 46.4 23.7 5.4 9.0 15.6 12.0 7.8 12.4 65.5 7.2 0.4 14.5 South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468314482240 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: OECD Statistics on International Trade in Services, Volume 1, 1997-2006, OECD/Eurostat, Paris, 2008. .. Not available or not applicable. For Brazil, China, Russian Federation and South Africa: IMF 67
  • 69. 68 Prices and finance > Prices and interest rates Consumer prices Producer prices Share prices Interest rates June 2008 % change June June 2008 % change June June 2008 % change June June 2008 2008 / June 2007 2008 / June 2007 2008 / June 2007 2000 = 100 2000 = 100 2000 = 100 Short-term, %* Long-term, % Australia* 128.2 4.5 137.8 8.7 163.4 - 16.5 7.81 6.59 Australia* Austria 119.1 3.9 130.5 11.9 324.9 - 17.4 .. 4.74 Austria Belgium 121.3 5.8 125.9 8.6 139.4 - 21.4 .. 4.84 Belgium Canada 121.0 3.1 115.2 5.4 150.6 4.0 3.16 3.74 Canada Czech Republic 125.9 6.7 119.0 4.2 288.2 - 14.0 4.21 5.13 Czech Republic Denmark 118.8 3.8 121.9 6.0 167.3 - 13.3 5.03 4.82 Denmark Finland 115.3 4.4 112.7 6.7 60.8 - 20.7 .. 4.78 Finland France 117.5 3.6 111.9 2.4 83.2 - 22.7 .. 4.73 France Germany 115.4 3.3 118.2 4.9 82.8 - 22.1 .. 4.52 Germany Greece 131.9 4.9 142.2 12.5 80.8 - 29.0 .. 5.17 Greece Hungary 159.4 6.7 117.2 3.1 244.0 - 21.6 8.98 8.50 Hungary Iceland* 154.5 12.8 .. .. 259.0 - 46.9 19.00 10.24 Iceland* Ireland 136.1 5.0 87.5 - 2.8 104.5 - 41.3 .. 4.96 Ireland Italy 121.5 3.8 130.5 8.2 75.8 - 27.7 .. 5.11 Italy Japan 100.0 2.0 106.8 5.2 89.3 - 21.9 0.73 1.60 Japan Korea 130.1 5.5 131.5 15.2 240.1 0.2 5.36 5.89 Korea Luxembourg* 122.9 4.3 149.1 7.4 141.1 8.8 .. .. Luxembourg* Mexico 142.8 5.3 161.0 10.4 455.2 - 4.3 7.79 7.89 Mexico Netherlands 119.4 2.6 135.8 12.0 75.2 - 15.6 .. 4.73 Netherlands New Zealand* 124.0 4.0 126.0 8.9 116.6 - 28.6 8.68 6.42 New Zealand*
  • 70. Norway 115.8 3.4 140.0 7.4 292.0 - 2.1 6.41 4.94 Norway Poland* 124.1 4.5 113.2 1.6 229.9 - 32.7 6.65 6.42 Poland* Portugal 128.2 3.4 128.6 8.7 116.2 - 22.3 .. 4.96 Portugal Slovak Republic 148.9 4.6 121.5 3.0 535.3 10.0 4.06 4.94 Slovak Republic Spain 131.4 5.0 133.3 9.0 135.9 - 17.1 .. 4.79 Spain Sweden 116.0 4.3 116.4 2.3 88.5 - 26.7 4.17 4.43 Sweden Switzerland 109.8 2.9 111.7 4.4 97.3 - 21.5 2.79 3.29 Switzerland Turkey* 420.5 10.6 498.5 17.0 249.8 - 25.5 16.65 16.47 Turkey* United Kingdom 117.1 3.8 123.7 10.0 90.7 - 12.4 5.90 5.21 United Kingdom United States 127.1 5.0 136.3 11.2 132.2 - 9.1 2.76 4.10 United States G7 120.1 4.1 125.4 8.5 .. .. .. .. G7 Euro area* 121.2 4.0 123.4 6.9 80.3 - 21.5 4.94 4.81 Euro area* EU27* 123.6 4.3 126.0 7.8 .. .. .. .. EU27* OECD total* 126.3 4.4 131.5 8.7 .. .. .. .. OECD total* excl. high infl.* 122.0 4.3 127.0 8.5 .. .. .. .. excl. high infl.* Brazil 173.0 6.1 239.9 17.9 405.9 19.5 .. .. Brazil China* .. 7.1 .. 8.2 144.2 - 28.4 4.20 .. China* India 146.5 7.7 154.8 11.5 325.1 4.6 .. .. India Russian Federation** 273.6 15.2 358.8 24.7 879.0 10.8 8.00 .. Russian Federation** South Africa* 160.5 12.2 186.0 17.7 372.0 11.1 11.42 9.51 South Africa* 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468324466142 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Main Economic Indicators , August – Volume 2008 issue 8, OECD. .. Not available or not applicable. 69
  • 71. 70 Prices and finance > Insurance and pensions Insurance Pension* Total Benefits paid Contributions to Direct gross premiums 2006 premiums Financial assets* investment of Financial assets by pension pension funds pension funds funds % of GDP Millions of USD Millions of USD % of GDP Millions of USD % of GDP % of GDP 2006 1996 Life Non-life 2006 1996 2007 2007 2001 2007 2007 Australia 5.8 7.1 29 571.5 21 722.6 216 952.3 158 949.3 105.4 920 668.4 268 180.6 11.7 3.9 Australia Austria 5.5 5.8 8 873.0 12 392.3 .. 45 065.6 4.7 17 653.8 5 673.2 0.3 0.2 Austria Belgium 9.2 5.3 26 043.6 11 092.9 .. .. 4.0 18 151.7 12 771.0 0.2 0.2 Belgium Canada 7.7 4.3 43 857.2 65 678.3 419 783.0 .. 55.3 788 524.5 351 615.3 1.9 2.2 Canada Czech Republic 3.8 2.4 2 091.4 3 315.8 10 811.1 3 157.4 4.7 8 240.7 1 404.1 1.0 0.3 Czech Republic -1 -1 -1 -1 Denmark .. .. .. .. .. .. 32.4 89 569.5 43 639.4 0.5 0.5 Denmark Finland 3.6 3.8 3 687.1 4 119.5 53 853.8 16 700.0 71.1 173 972.6 61 951.7 10.7 8.7 Finland -1 -1 France 12.4 8.8 180 292.5 112 255.4 1 678 221.3 618 008.4 1.1 25 094.1 .. .. .. France Germany 7.2 6.2 92 920.3 184 677.6 1 284 361.7 723 375.8 4.1 136 455.9 65 125.3 0.5 0.1 Germany Greece 2.2 1.5 2 878.9 3 123.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Greece Hungary 3.4 2.2 1 961.4 1 927.5 .. .. 10.9 15 067.5 2 071.4 1.1 0.2 Hungary Iceland 2.8 2.8 40.8 425.6 .. .. 134.0 26 748.8 6 636.0 11.4 3.6 Iceland Ireland 20.7 8.9 36 729.0 9 103.8 177 149.5 23 250.7 46.7 118 633.2 45 791.2 .. .. Ireland Italy 7.5 3.5 96 417.8 51 030.0 599 404.0 151 940.9 3.3 68 685.6 19 575.0 0.4 0.2 Italy -1 -1 -2 -2 Japan 7.0 8.0 238 635.4 83 133.5 1 884 765.1 1 988 185.4 23.4 1 020 807.0 580 519.4 0.4 0.2 Japan -1 -1 -1 -1 Korea 11.4 11.2 69 819.1 35 349.3 265 916.3 108 787.2 2.9 26 264.2 .. 1.7 0.6 Korea -1 -1 -1 -1 Luxembourg 34.5 17.1 13 420.4 1 272.0 67 921.2 7 848.4 1.1 444.5 .. 0.1 0.1 Luxembourg Mexico 1.8 1.2 6 791.5 8 444.0 27 651.9 .. 12.1 108 107.3 26 600.0 0.9 0.2 Mexico Netherlands 8.5 8.4 32 196.6 25 144.4 298 183.7 215 084.4 132.2 928 169.0 423 453.0 4.2 3.6 Netherlands
  • 72. New Zealand .. .. .. 2 903.8 .. .. 11.1 14 534.7 7 686.9 1.4 1.3 New Zealand -1 -1 -1 -1 Norway 4.8 4.3 8 535.1 7 701.1 117 862.3 49 556.5 6.8 22 875.1 9 389.0 0.5 0.2 Norway Poland 3.5 1.9 6 801.6 5 292.4 23 244.6 2 388.3 12.2 51 115.3 4 624.0 1.5 .. Poland Portugal 8.2 4.6 10 785.0 5 414.0 56 889.1 13 518.1 13.7 28 050.2 13 664.8 0.6 0.7 Portugal -1 Slovak Republic 3.3 .. 854.9 952.8 3 014.2 .. 4.2 3 114.0 0.0 .. .. Slovak Republic Spain 5.4 4.5 31 906.6 40 359.0 224 576.4 .. 7.5 99 291.4 36 093.8 0.7 0.3 Spain -1 -1 Sweden 7.2 5.2 16 389.9 13 727.6 280 796.4 158 273.2 9.5 36 395.3 18 254.3 .. .. Sweden -1 -1 -1 -1 Switzerland 10.2 10.9 22 400.4 19 519.0 268 713.8 .. 123.0 465 425.3 261 356.6 7.9 5.3 Switzerland Turkey 1.4 0.9 968.4 4 941.0 2 107.4 1 482.4 1.2 7 920.2 .. .. 0.0 Turkey -1 -1 -1 -1 United Kingdom 14.9 11.7 256 634.6 122 338.1 .. 885 348.3 83.4 2 002 058.9 1 040 471.9 3.1 3.1 United Kingdom United States 10.7 9.4 527 483.1 863 894.7 5 306 565.4 2 532 522.0 74.3 10 238 127.3 7 207 878.3 .. .. United States 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468365445102 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: OECD, Global Pension Statistics; .. Not available or not applicable. OECD, Insurance Statistics. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 71
  • 73. 72 Prices and finance > Financial balance sheets and institutional investment Financial balance sheets Financial assets of institutional investors Households and NPISH General government % of GDP % of disposable income % of GDP Insurance companies* Pension funds* Investment companies* Total assets Total liabilities Total assets Total liabilities 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 1996 2006 1996 2006 1996 Australia 371.90 183.52 26.02 28.66 33.85 34.14 88.93 42.01 20.07 10.20 Australia Austria 251.89 87.39 27.40 64.97 36.66 23.50 4.72 1.20 54.87 17.41 Austria Belgium 461.81 85.57 14.59 91.75 66.85 20.77 4.39 3.43 36.39 11.10 Belgium Canada 454.87 131.93 50.81 94.46 33.51 28.34 52.90 41.75 38.02 23.57 Canada -1 +6 -1 +6 -1 Czech Republic 160.62 70.89 44.41 34.58 10.25 9.35 4.05 2.73 7.52 9.76 Czech Republic Denmark 559.97 307.56 33.24 35.97 70.51 49.35 49.63 35.13 56.34 5.24 Denmark +4 Finland 247.86 106.89 111.54 44.97 27.96 15.04 3.15 3.69 38.09 2.00 Finland France 301.50 87.78 32.94 70.85 90.82 46.56 .. .. 83.29 38.01 France Germany* 303.18 104.83 20.55 69.26 62.13 37.78 11.21 6.77 45.73 18.84 Germany* Greece 217.85 71.13 29.39 105.96 4.95 3.29 0.55 0.09 11.10 11.98 Greece +1 Hungary 163.84 51.58 20.20 71.96 8.86 3.95 9.10 0.33 10.29 2.83 Hungary +5 +5 +5 Iceland .. .. .. .. 13.75 9.53 127.37 82.96 38.87 13.03 Iceland Ireland 376.63 215.47 27.50 29.20 .. .. .. .. .. .. Ireland +3 +3 Italy 353.12 59.35 26.25 118.42 36.93 24.95 1.95 1.06 21.64 8.13 Italy -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Japan 532.30 135.68 109.76 190.77 52.08 41.59 23.42 14.17 69.05 38.70 Japan +6 +6 +6 Korea 323.18 152.61 68.67 29.19 41.13 33.60 3.52 3.30 34.88 30.67 Korea -1 Luxembourg .. .. .. .. 149.59 54.85 .. .. .. .. Luxembourg -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +3 Mexico 143.47 8.27 3.23 33.42 .. .. 7.89 0.19 7.66 4.01 Mexico Netherlands 632.51 247.76 22.81 54.72 63.74 52.64 124.57 86.65 16.95 14.22 Netherlands Norway* 257.39 204.13 199.82 59.35 33.59 30.77 7.00 6.37 17.87 6.44 Norway*
  • 74. +3 Poland 96.71 32.51 35.48 55.85 9.42 1.51 11.12 0.34 9.58 0.32 Poland -1 -1 +2 Portugal 307.82 142.49 28.87 71.47 31.73 12.45 12.52 8.75 20.17 23.24 Portugal +5 +4 Slovak Republic 82.37 53.37 31.11 35.15 7.80 5.71 1.74 .. 6.68 0.57 Slovak Republic -1 -1 Spain 302.87 143.50 21.85 46.72 25.13 15.56 8.21 3.68 29.26 24.46 Spain +5 +5 Sweden* 354.57 143.54 68.63 52.51 94.50 58.32 2.29 2.63 49.80 34.63 Sweden* -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +3 -1 +3 -1 +3 Switzerland* 626.20 207.14 39.74 56.45 89.25 78.89 108.48 95.68 55.59 32.30 Switzerland* Turkey .. .. .. .. 0.82 0.60 .. .. 3.00 0.64 Turkey -1 -1 United Kingdom 483.38 177.20 25.04 55.04 96.95 78.25 76.06 68.41 34.34 23.92 United Kingdom United States 458.37 144.01 18.20 62.46 45.80 38.86 73.97 68.79 76.89 43.49 United States 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468371325244 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Institutional Investors database (table 7IA), OECD, Paris, 2007; .. Not available or not applicable. Financial Balance Sheets, OECD, Paris, 2007. -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. 73
  • 75. 74 Prices and finance > Domestic and foreign finance Foreign finance Domestic finance Exchange rates Monetary aggregate Central government debt Commercial banks Reserve assets % of balance sheet, annual averages Currency Currency units, June 2008 Broad money % of GDP, 2007 2005 Million SDR* 2000 = 100 % change June Net income Non- Income before Per USD Per SDR* 2008 / June Marketable before Net provisions marketable tax* June 2008 June 2008 2007 provisions* Australia Australian dollar 1.05 1.70 19 757 201.6 15.8 5.4 0.0 .. .. .. Australia Austria* Euro .. .. 7 091 .. .. 52.3 5.4 0.81 0.23 0.58 Austria* Belgium* Euro .. .. 6 285 .. .. 78.5 8.0 0.49 - 0.03 0.52 Belgium* Canada* Canadian dollar 1.02 1.65 26 787 164.2 9.8 24.2 0.9 1.21 0.12 1.09 Canada* Czech Republic Czech koruna 15.62 24.62 23 134 181.0 7.3 24.0 1.1 .. .. .. Czech Republic Denmark* Danish krone 4.80 7.72 19 931 207.6 17.3 27.8 0.0 1.16 0.03 1.13 Denmark* Finland Euro .. .. 4 426 .. .. 30.1 1.2 0.91 - 0.01 0.92 Finland France Euro .. .. 30 961 .. .. 49.3 3.6 0.49 0.01 0.48 France Germany Euro .. .. 33 073 .. .. 38.3 1.2 0.96 0.26 0.70 Germany Greece Euro .. .. 357 .. .. 97.1 7.5 1.68 0.58 1.10 Greece Hungary forint 156.00 245.18 16 698 260.4 10.7 55.3 6.1 2.61 0.23 2.38 Hungary Iceland Icelandic króna 79.13 131.11 1 537 475.3 43.0 21.4 2.3 .. .. .. Iceland Ireland* Euro .. .. 482 .. .. 18.7 1.5 0.31 0.02 0.29 Ireland* Italy* Euro .. .. 22 720 .. .. 83.9 12.0 1.17 0.28 0.89 Italy* -1 -1 Japan yen 106.93 173.27 599 937 117.7 0.7 144.8 16.5 .. .. .. Japan Korea* won 1 030.50 1 697.44 159 284 202.8 13.5 31.1 1.0 1.96 0.50 1.46 Korea* Luxembourg* Euro .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 1.5 0.65 0.07 0.59 Luxembourg* Mexico Mexican peso 10.33 16.78 57 525 261.7 12.3 22.3 1.8 .. .. .. Mexico
  • 76. Netherlands* Euro .. .. 7 494 .. .. 38.1 0.3 0.74 0.06 0.68 Netherlands* New Zealand* N. Zealand dollar 1.31 2.15 11 188 204.6 6.2 16.1 4.8 1.69 0.08 1.61 New Zealand* Norway* Norwegian krone 5.14 8.26 30 898 200.3 9.0 10.1 1.5 1.22 - 0.10 1.32 Norway* Poland* Złoty 2.17 3.47 48 747 214.2 15.9 40.1 3.1 .. .. .. Poland* Portugal Euro .. .. 1 412 .. .. 54.1 15.1 1.23 0.57 0.66 Portugal Slovak Republic* Slovak koruna 19.50 31.36 11 656 205.8 6.1 26.2 2.0 0.76 - 0.33 1.09 Slovak Republic* Spain Euro .. .. 7 410 .. .. 29.0 1.1 1.18 0.27 0.90 Spain Sweden Swedish krona 6.03 9.76 16 486 182.5 14.1 35.2 2.0 0.71 - 0.20 0.91 Sweden Switzerland Swiss franc 1.04 1.66 30 045 132.8 2.2 20.6 3.2 1.30 0.18 1.13 Switzerland Turkey* Turkish new lira 1.23 2.00 46 529 733.0 18.5 35.1 3.9 4.35 1.89 2.46 Turkey* United Kingdom* Pound sterling 0.51 0.82 30 041 206.4 10.6 37.6 5.9 1.12 0.24 0.88 United Kingdom* United States US dollar .. 1.63 48 757 160.6 6.1 31.7 4.4 2.20 0.29 1.91 United States Euro area .. 0.64 1.03 152 799 187.9 10.5 .. .. .. .. .. Euro area OECD total .. .. .. .. 176.3 8.0 .. .. .. .. .. OECD total excl. high infl.* .. .. .. .. 170.1 7.8 .. .. .. .. .. excl. high infl.* Brazil Real 1.62 .. 122 356 341.0 18.4 .. .. .. .. .. Brazil China* Yuan 6.90 .. 1 083 780 348.1 17.4 .. .. .. .. .. China* India Rupee 42.82 .. 185 803 346.1 21.6 .. .. .. .. .. India Russian Federation Ruble 23.64 .. 339 952 1 239.0 30.9 .. .. .. .. .. Russian Federation South Africa Rand 7.92 .. 19 179 372.0 20.4 .. .. .. .. .. South Africa 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/468381718540 * Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL Sources: Main Economic Indicators, Volume 2008/8 - August, OECD .. Not available or not applicable. International Financial Statistics, IMF; -n Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2007, a Central Government Debt, OECD, Paris, 2008; data point with '-1' attached refers to 2006. Banking Statistics, database, OECD, Paris, 2007. 75
  • 77. OECD member countries (see page 4) Candidates for accession Chile Estonia Israel Russian Federation Slovenia Enhanced engagement countries Brazil China India Indonesia South Africa FOR A BETTER WORLD ECONOMY Note: For details on OECD enlargement and enhanced engagement, as well as co-operation programmes with other countries, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development please visit “About OECD” at www.oecd.org.
  • 78. OECD in graphs 2008 GDP growth GDP per capita Upwardly mobile Inflation Population growth Migration Public debt Female employment rates Health spending Road fatalities Aid for the environment Climate change Trading partners
  • 79. 78 GDP growth Average annual, constant PPPs, %, 1988-2007 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Ireland 6.5 Korea 6.1 Luxembourg 5.2 Slovak Republic 4.5 Turkey 4.2 Poland 3.9 Australia 3.3 Spain 3.3 Mexico 3.1 Greece 3.1 United States 3.0 Hungary 3.0 Norway 3.6 Iceland 2.9 Netherlands 2.8 Canada 2.8 OECD total 2.7 Portugal 2.7 Finland 2.6 New Zealand 2.6 Austria 2.6 United Kingdom 2.5 Euro area 2.3 Belgium 2.3 Sweden 2.3 France 2.2 Germany 2.1 Japan 2.0 Denmark 2.0 Czech Republic 1.8 Switzerland 1.7 Italy 1.7 Economic growth in the OECD area grew by an average of 2.8% per year in the 20 years to 2007, slightly faster than in the previous 20 years. The fastest period was 1987-91, when growth exceeded 3%, driven mostly by EU activity. The fastest annual growth over two decades was recorded by Ireland and Korea, at over 6% per year, followed by Luxembourg with 5.2%. Average growth reached over 4% in two other countries, but four countries posted growth of below 2%. Slovak Republic, Poland and Hungary–three countries that have moved to market economies from central planning since the 1980s–delivered strong growth, though the Czech Republic grew more slowly. Canada and the US were the only G7 economies to grow faster than the OECD average over the past two decades, whereas one G7 country, Italy, tied with Switzerland as the most sluggish average performers, at 1.7% 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466782815551
  • 80. GDP per capita 79 USD, using current PPPs Luxembourg Norway United States Ireland Switzerland Netherlands Canada Austria Iceland Sweden Denmark Australia Finland Belgium United Kingdom Germany Japan France Euro area OECD total Spain Italy Greece New Zealand Korea Czech Republic Portugal Slovak Republic 1987 Hungary Poland 2007 Mexico Turkey 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 Luxembourg, which had the highest GDP per head in the OECD in 1987 at $22,459 per year, was still in the top slot in 2007 with over $80,000 per head, a rise of 265%. The profile of the top 10 has not changed much in two decades, with the US, Norway, Iceland, Canada and Switzerland still in the leading group. Denmark and Sweden have slipped back, replaced by the Netherlands and Ireland. Korea’s GDP per head jumped 321%, and Ireland’s GDP per capita grew by 342%, the fastest in the OECD area. It was one of four countries, with Luxembourg, Norway and the US, to ease above $40,000. The average for the OECD was $32,300, compared with $13,932 in 1987. Italy is below the OECD average, whereas in 1987 it was above it. Poland, Mexico and Turkey had the lowest GDP per head in 2007, at below $16,000. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466805477535
  • 81. Upwardly mobile 80 World mobile phone subscribers 3.5 Billions 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 Information and communications technology has leapt forward since the 1990s, accelerating globalisation and economic activity along the way. Take the mobile phone business, which was spurred by competition and technological progress, as well as popular uses such as SMS text messaging. Also, many developing countries have embraced mobile phones as a way of leapfrogging heavy landline investments. The numbers speak for themselves: from just over 750,000 subscriptions worldwide in 1985 to 2.5 million in 1987, total mobile phone subscriptions shot past 11 million in 1990, and over 1 billion in 2002. The growth rate inevitably slowed from a higher base, but nevertheless surpassed 3.3 billion subscriptions in 2007. Indeed, penetration is so widespread that there are now more mobile phones in Africa than in Japan, an International Telecoms Union report says.
  • 82. Inflation 81 Consumer price indices, 2000 = 100 200 Consumer price (non-food non- energy) Consumer price (energy) 175 150 125 100 75 50 Jan-1988 Jan-1993 Jan-1998 Jan-2003 Jan-2008 The consumer price index for energy tracked alongside prices for non-energy and non-food for most of the last two decades, but rose to a steeper trend from 2003. The energy price index for fuel, electricity and petrol jumped by 68% from mid-2003 to mid-2008, compared with 32% in the five years to end-1992 and 24% in 1998-2002. Overall consumer price inflation has been modest in the OECD area as a whole. Average monthly price rises eased down from their high of about 0.5% per month in 1987-92 to 0.3% in 1998-2003 and to 0.2% in the period to 2006. Indeed, since 2000 there have been 20 months when prices barely rose at all. But overall price rises have accelerated to 0.4% a month in the last two years, and to 0.6% in spring 2008. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466835403855
  • 83. 82 Population growth %, 1987-2006 Turkey Germany Mexico Australia New Zealand Luxembourg Iceland United States Canada Ireland OECD total G7 Korea Switzerland Spain Greece Netherlands Norway France Austria Sweden Belgium Finland United Kingdom Portugal Denmark Japan Slovak Republic Italy Poland Czech Republic Hungary -8 -3 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 The OECD area’s population represented nearly 18% of the world’s population in 2006, over a percentage point less than in 1987. Still, every OECD country bar two saw their populations rise in the last 20 years. Czech Republic and Hungary were the exceptions, reflecting emigration in the aftermath of the Soviet bloc’s collapse. The sharpest rise in population was Turkey’s 39% increase, from 53 million to 73 million. Germany’s rapid 35% increase reflects unification in 1990, when the 63 million population in 1990 leapt by 17 million in 1991with the absorption of the eastern Länder. The US population has risen sharply (24%), while major countries with population growth of less than 10% include the UK, Japan and Italy, with smaller countries such as Sweden, Portugal and Belgium also lagging. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466846776715
  • 84. Migration 83 Trend of net migration as % of total resident population, OECD countries 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1986 1991 1996 2001 In the OECD area where fertility rates tend to be low, net migration has played a key role in driving population and employment growth. Indeed, inward migration has exceeded outward migration since 1987 in the area, with the effect on population growth being particularly marked in former “emigration” countries, such as Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Italy. Other countries to experience strongly positive net migration include Australia, Canada and Switzerland. A new phenomenon, according to the OECD International Migration Outlook 2008, is the return of temporary migration, and in particular, circular migration, as between a fifth and a half of long-term immigrants leave the host country within five years. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466860034151
  • 85. 84 Public debt As % of GDP 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Belgium Greece Italy Netherlands Japan Canada Portugal Denmark New Zealand Ireland United States Hungary Euro area Austria OECD total Sweden Poland Spain United Kingdom France Slovak Republic Germany Czech Republic Norway Iceland 1988 Switzerland Australia 2007 Finland Korea Luxembourg Public debt (or general government debt) has risen quite sharply in the OECD as a whole since 1987, from 59% of GDP to 75% in 2007. Japan’s rose from below 60% to 170% of GDP. The figure of 60% of GDP was one of a handful of targets European governments set to prepare for economic and monetary union, and eventually the euro. But in 2007 euro area public debt stood at 71%, though this represents a decline from over 80% in 1998. The figures for France and Germany have risen, and Italy’s debt now exceeds 100% of GDP. US public debt stood slightly higher than 20 years ago, and Canada’s slightly lower. Other countries to reduce their public debt/GDP ratios include Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and Spain. General government debt covers central and local governments. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466861461214
  • 86. Female employment rates 85 Emploment/Population Ratio, 15-64 Sweden Denmark Norway Finland Canada OECD countries France Netherlands Belgium 1987 Greece 2006 Italy Ireland Spain 0 20 40 60 80 100 The female employment rate rose in all OECD countries in our graph between 1987 and 2006, except in Finland and Sweden. (Some of the Swedish decline reflects changes in labour force survey methods in 1992-93.) The OECD average employment rate stood at 58% in 2006, up 6 percentage points since 1987. However, while women participate less in the work force than men in all OECD countries, the Nordic rate is higher than in other OECD countries. Interestingly, the countries with the highest female employment rates also report the highest birth rates. OECD believes raising female participation would boost economic performance, and this demands reforms, to provide more accessible and affordable childcare and suitable workplace arrangements for a better work-life balance. See Babies and Bosses at www.oecd.org. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/466885478204
  • 87. 86 Health spending Total as % of GDP United States Switzerland France Germany Belgium Portugal Austria Canada Denmark New Zealand Netherlands Sweden Iceland Greece Italy Australia Norway United Kingdom Spain Hungary Japan Finland Ireland Luxembourg Slovak Republic Czech Republic Mexico 1987 Korea 2006 Poland Turkey 0 5 10 15 Health spending has risen as a percentage of GDP in every OECD country in the last two decades. It accounted for below 7% of GDP on average across OECD countries in 1987 but nearly 9% in 2006. Spending exceeded 10% of GDP in seven countries in 2006: the US, Switzerland, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal and Austria, compared with only the US in 1987. About three quarters of health spending on average is publicly funded in the OECD area. The public share of health spending has fallen in some countries, but has risen in others, even in the US, from 40% to about 45% in 1990–2005; in fact, despite the private sector’s dominance, US public spending per capita in health is still higher than in most other OECD countries. See OECD Health Data at www.oecd.org/health 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467002635603
  • 88. Road fatalities 87 Killed per 100 000 population Portugal Hungary Korea New Zealand Belgium Poland United States Luxembourg France Spain Austria Greece Canada Switzerland Ireland Australia Finland Germany Czech Republic Italy Denmark United Kingdom Iceland Netherlands 1990 Japan 2006 Sweden Norway 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Road fatalities have declined in OECD countries, thanks to a mix of better technology and design, and stricter enforcement of rules against drink driving and speeding. Greece reported the highest road fatality rate in the OECD in 2006, followed by the US, with the Netherlands and Sweden the lowest. Traffic crashes remain the single biggest killer of 15-24 year-olds in all OECD countries, particularly for young men. The World Health Organisation ranks road deaths as the main cause of global mortality by injury, far ahead of the likes of suicide, drowning, fires or war. The problem imposes great social and economic costs on individuals, families and societies; the US government has put the cost of crashes involving 15-20 year-old drivers into tens of billions of dollars. See www.internationaltransportforum.org and www.who.int 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467072418213
  • 89. 88 Aid for the environment ODA to the environment sector as % of total ODA, 1990-2006 25 Other environment related support Water supply and sanitation Water resources management "Core" environment sector 20 15 10 5 0 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 Ever since the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the environment has been at the top of the global policy agenda. But since 1996 development aid for the environment has declined in relation to total aid. By 2005, environmentally-related aid was about $12 billion, up on its level of $10 billion in 1997. However, its share of total official development assistance (ODA) nearly halved over the same period, from 19.6% to 10.2%. Changes in aid structure explain some of the decline, while such as conservation, waste management and similar “core” programmes fell as more ODA went to debt relief and emergencies. As for water, aid remains above 40% of total environmental aid on broad definitions related to access and resource management, but ODA to water supply and sanitation declined from about 11% of total sector-allocable ODA in 1997 to about 8% in 2006. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467106846317
  • 90. Climate change 89 Emissions from fuel combustion, total and per capita, 2006 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 Luxembourg Australia United States Canada Finland Czech Republic Russian Federation Belgium Netherlands Ireland Denmark Germany Korea Japan New Zealand United Kingdom Austria Greece EU27 Poland Norway Italy Spain South Africa Iceland Slovak Republic France Switzerland Hungary Sweden Portugal China Mexico Million tonnes, upper scale Turkey Brazil tonnes/capita, lower scale India 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Twenty years ago global warming was a sideshow debate, but has since been recognised as mankind’s main long-term challenge. As carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by homes, businesses, transport and other economic activities plays a role, then economic tools such as taxes and carbon markets must be in the solution. Most carbon emissions come from the OECD area: the US and EU together generated nearly 10 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2006. However, emissions from developing countries are rising, with China now around the same level as the US. And given its low emissions per capita, China has room to grow much further. Meanwhile, Luxembourg is the highest emitter per head in the world, while Russia emits more CO2 per head than Germany or Japan. See www.oecd.org/environment 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467110781177
  • 91. 90 Trading partners % of merchandise trade (imports + exports) Difference between 1988 and 2006 Non-OECD 10.8 Non-OECD Asia 7.7 China 6.0 Canada 2.8 Mexico 2.3 Non-OECD America 1.6 Middle East 0.7 Africa -0.1 Japan -0.2 Belgium, Luxembourg -1.3 Italy -1.8 Netherlands -1.9 United Kingdom -2.0 France -2.7 Germany -3.3 United States -3.4 OECD -10.7 -15% -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% Globalisation has led to a shift in trade patterns over the last 20 years. China’s economic emergence is one reason: in 1988 China supplied just over 1% of total OECD imports in goods, but by 2006 this had risen to some 10%. There has also been a steady decline in the share of OECD trade among OECD countries: OECD imports from other OECD countries slid 15 percentage points, from 80% to 65% of the total. More interaction with India and China, largely because of outsourcing, helps explain this trend. A US-owned computer bought from a subcontractor in China counts as an import from China. On the other hand, OECD merchandise exports to China have risen moderately, by 4% in 2006 compared with 1% in 1988. 12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/467213443808
  • 92. General notes 91 Cut-off date Cut-off date for the data: August 2008. StatLink The OECD’s award-winning StatLink delivers Excel spreadsheets of the data underlying the tables in this book. Beside each StatLink logo you will find a link or code to the corresponding spreadsheet. The OECD’s StatLink uses Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs). To download a spreadsheet, either simply go to the OECD in Figures online and click the appropriate link, or type it into your Internet browser. For instance, for background data on GDP, use StatLink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/864662528136. For more information, visit www.oecd.org/statistics/statlink. The online version of OECD in Figures contains additional information, including footnotes for some items. Totals and averages • OECD total refers to the OECD countries as a whole. • OECD average is the unweighted, arithmetic average of OECD countries shown in the table. • EU refers to EU27, unless otherwise specified. • EU15 refers to the 15 EU member countries prior to May 2004. Notes and abbreviations .. Not available or not applicable. - Nil or negligible. + Growth of more than 500% Data from earlier years Data are for the year specified or for the latest available year. In the latter case, the data are followed by a number, corresponding to the number of years of difference from the indicated year. For instance, -1 means that the data are one year older than the other figures in the column. For further information Please consult the source publication specified at the bottom of each table. Sources of graphs are available on the online edition. All OECD publications are available at www.sourceOECD.org, the OECD online library. All OECD books can be purchased on www.oecdbookshop.org.
  • 93. 92 Glossary of terms used in OECD in Figures 93 DAC OECD Development Assistance Committee. PCT Patent Cooperation Treatry. GDP Gross domestic product. The standard measure of the incomes generated from productive activity in a country. GNI Gross national income. GNI = GDP + net receipts of wages, salaries and property income from abroad. ICT Information and communication technologies. ISCED International standard classification of education. A system designed by UNESCO to ensure comparability of education statistics. ISCED classifies various education programmes by their level of education (primary, secondary, tertiary...) and field of education (general programmes, humanities and arts, science...). LDC Least developed countries, group of 50 countries established by the United Nations. To be classified as an LDC, countries must fall below thresholds established for income, economic diversification and social development. Mtoe Million of tonnes of oil equivalent. This is defined as 10 13 kilocalories. This quantity of energy is, within a few per cent, equivalent to the net heat content of 1 million tonnes of crude oil. NGO Non-governmental organisation. ODA Official development assistance. Government aid to developing countries designed to promote economic development and welfare. ODA can be bilateral (from one country to another) or multilateral (via agencies such as the UN or the World Bank). PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty. An international patent law treaty which provides a single procedure for filing patent applications in each of its contracting states (139 countries). PPP Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are the currency conversion which eliminates the differences in price levels between countries. They are used to compare the volume of GDP in different countries. PPPs are obtained by evaluating the costs of a basket of goods and services between countries for all components of GDP; PPPs are given in national currency units per US dollar (in euro per US dollar for euro area countries). SNA The Systems of National Accounts includes definitions that ensure international comparability of national accounts aggregates such as GDP. TWh Terawatt hours.
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