Review

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Review

  1. 1. Alzheimer&apos;s and Parkinson&apos;s Diseases Common Cause<br />Erick G. Rodríguez<br />RISE<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease:
  3. 3. The most common progressive neurologic diseases
  4. 4. Irreversible loss of neurons in various areas of the brain
  5. 5. Caused by the accumulation of proteins
  6. 6. Incurable</li></li></ul><li>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Protein aggregates accumulate, killing the neurons in the midbrain that release dopamine at synapses in the basal nuclei.
  8. 8. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurities are made of ubiquitin and α-synuclein.
  9. 9. α-synuclein is found naturally in the brain and has an unknown function</li></li></ul><li>Nussbaum R, Ellis C. 2003. Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 348(14):1356-1364.<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li>visual </li></ul> system <br /><ul><li>auditory system
  11. 11. eye movement
  12. 12. body movement</li></ul>HOPES. 2004. The HOPES Brain Tutorial. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/braintut/ab3.html. <br />
  13. 13. <ul><li>Many patients have symptoms of both diseases.
  14. 14. Masliah and coworkers at the University of California, San Diego:
  15. 15. β-amyloid and α-synuclein are active proteins in both diseases
  16. 16. these two proteins work together to create a hybrid protein
  17. 17. β-amyloid promote α-synuclein aggregation</li></li></ul><li>Tsigelny I, Crews L, Desplats P, Shaked G, Sharikov Y, Mizuno H, Spencer B Rockenstein E, Trejo M, Platoshyn O, Yuan J, Masliah E. 2008. Mechanisms of Hybrid Oligomer Formation in the Pathogenesis of Combined Alzheimer&apos;s and Parkinson&apos;s Diseases. PLoS ONE [Internet]; 3(9), Available from: e3135. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003135<br />
  18. 18. <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Association [Internet]. What is Alzheimer’s? [cited 2009 Sep 26]. Available from: http://www.alzheimersassociation.com/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp.
  19. 19. Masliah E, Rockenstein E, Veinbergs I, Sagara Y, Mallory M, Hashimoto M, Mucke L. 2001. β-Amyloid peptides enhance α-synuclein accumulation and neuronal deficits in a transgenic mouse model linking Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 98(21):12245-12250.
  20. 20. Nussbaum R, Ellis C. 2003. Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 348(14):1356-1364.
  21. 21. Parkinson’s Disease Society [Internet]. What is Parkinson’s? [cited 2009 Sep 26]. Available from:http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/about_parkinsons/what_is_parkinsons/what_is_parkinsons.aspx.
  22. 22. Tsigelny I, Crews L, Desplats P, Shaked G, Sharikov Y, Mizuno H, Spencer B Rockenstein E, Trejo M, Platoshyn O, Yuan J, Masliah E. 2008. Mechanisms of Hybrid Oligomer Formation in the Pathogenesis of Combined Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. PLoS ONE [Internet]. [cited 2009 sept 14]; 3(9), Available from: e3135. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003135
  23. 23. Wasserman S. 2008. Nervous Systems. In: Campbell NA, Reece JB, editors. Biology. San Francisco (CA): Pearson Benjamin Cummings. p. 1082-1083.</li>
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