Sampler Step By Step Series from MTL
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Sampler Step By Step Series from MTL

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Here is an appetite-whetter for the MTL Step by Step Series which you won't want to miss....

Here is an appetite-whetter for the MTL Step by Step Series which you won't want to miss.

In 99 pages and 167 easy-to-follow steps, you'll get 10 extracts from the full series, including The Appraisal Interview, Dispositions of Counselling, DIY Empowerment, Working with People, Positivity, Teamwork, and much more.

See how easy it is to take the step-by-step approach. Just start at the beginning and work forward. Or dip in anywhere you want. There's always tons to learn.

This sampler is delivered as a pdf file which you can open with the FREE Adobe Acrobat Reader.

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  • 1. The Step-by-Step Series: Free Sampler A selection of modules from the Step by Step Series, including The Appraisal Interview, Empowering People, Working With Conflict, Positivity, Teamwork... and much more
  • 2. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management All rights reserved. No part of this publication shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered. It is published with the understanding that the author and the publisher are not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional advice. If legal advice or other professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Eric Garner, KSA Training Ltd, individually or corporately, does not accept any responsibility for any liabilities resulting from the actions of any parties involved. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 2 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 3. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Table of Contents 1. The Appraisal Interview ............................................ 8 1. Appraisal Interviews ................................................... 8 2. The Aims of Appraisal ................................................. 9 3. 2-2-2 Preparation ...................................................... 9 4. A Relaxed Environment ............................................ 10 5. The Shape of Appraisals ........................................... 10 6. The Reality Bridge ................................................... 11 7. Contracting ............................................................. 11 8. Classic Structures .................................................... 12 9. Agendas ................................................................. 12 10. Interview Tone ........................................................ 13 11. 3D Interview Skills ................................................... 13 12. Containing Stress .................................................... 14 13. Staying in Control .................................................... 14 14. Empowering People .................................................. 15 2. Responding to Change ............................................. 15 15. Responding to Change .............................................. 16 16. Do Nothing ............................................................. 16 17. Reasons Not to Change ............................................ 17 18. Discounting ............................................................. 17 19. Excuses, Excuses ..................................................... 18 20. Do Anything ............................................................ 18 21. Do Everything ......................................................... 19 22. Change Indigestion .................................................. 19 23. Defy Change ........................................................... 20 24. Resistance to Change ............................................... 20 25. Tinkering Around the Edges ...................................... 20 26. Evolution ................................................................ 21 27. Rely on Others ........................................................ 21 28. Manage Change ....................................................... 22 3. Dispositions of Counselling ..................................... 22 29. Dispositions ............................................................ 23 30. Warmth .................................................................. 23 31. Empathy ................................................................. 24 32. Empathy is not Sympathy ......................................... 24 33. Do It Anyway .......................................................... 25 www.managetrainlearn.com Page 3 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 4. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 34. Specificity ............................................................... 25 35. Don't Ask Why? ....................................................... 26 36. Gestalt Therapy ....................................................... 26 37. Here and Now ......................................................... 27 38. Genuineness ........................................................... 27 39. A Genuine Relationship ............................................. 28 40. Confidentiality ......................................................... 28 41. Three Secrets .......................................................... 29 42. Professional Distance ............................................... 29 43. The Touch of Integrity .............................................. 30 44. Confronting ............................................................. 30 45. Self-Renewal ........................................................... 31 46. Five Golden Rules .................................................... 31 4. DIY Empowerment .................................................. 32 47. DIY Empowerment ................................................... 32 48. Break Free .............................................................. 33 49. Never Wait For Them ............................................... 33 50. Self-Empowerment .................................................. 34 51. The Meaning of Commitment..................................... 34 52. Own the Job ............................................................ 35 53. Self-Development .................................................... 35 54. Be the Best ............................................................. 36 55. Zen It .................................................................... 36 56. Concentration.......................................................... 37 57. A State of Flow ........................................................ 37 58. Adding Value ........................................................... 38 59. Shine Your Light ...................................................... 38 5. Empowering People ................................................. 39 60. Being Open ............................................................. 39 61. Time and Space ....................................................... 39 62. Freedom ................................................................. 40 63. Language................................................................ 40 64. Tolerance ............................................................... 41 65. Valuing ................................................................... 41 66. Owning................................................................... 42 67. Never Say You Have To ............................................ 42 68. Not Doing It For Them .............................................. 43 69. Boomerang Questions .............................................. 43 www.managetrainlearn.com Page 4 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 5. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 70. Answer A Question With A Question ........................... 44 71. Weaving ................................................................. 44 72. Sharing .................................................................. 44 73. Releasing Their Power .............................................. 45 74. Volunteering ........................................................... 45 75. Non-Rescuing .......................................................... 46 76. Offering Options ...................................................... 46 77. Letting Them Grow .................................................. 47 78. Letting Go ............................................................... 47 79. Levels of Learning .................................................... 48 80. Learning How to Learn ............................................. 49 81. Bateson’s Dolphins ................................................... 49 82. States of Personhood ............................................... 49 83. Man’s Divinity.......................................................... 50 6. Working with Conflict .............................................. 51 84. The Negative View of Conflict .................................... 51 85. The Positive View of Conflict ...................................... 52 86. Options in Conflict ................................................... 52 87. No Deal .................................................................. 53 88. I Win, You Lose ....................................................... 53 89. The Peace of Conquest ............................................. 53 90. I Lose, You Win ....................................................... 54 91. Win At All Costs ....................................................... 54 92. The £5 Auction ........................................................ 55 93. Compromise............................................................ 55 94. Win-Win ................................................................. 56 95. Working With Conflict ............................................... 56 96. Power Negotiations .................................................. 56 97. Positional Negotiations ............................................. 57 98. Principled Negotiations ............................................. 57 99. The Three Phases .................................................... 58 7. People Builders ....................................................... 58 100. How to Build People ............................................... 58 101. Sowing Habits ....................................................... 59 102. The Habit Score .................................................... 59 103. Coaxing Out Skills ................................................. 60 104. Coaching .............................................................. 60 105. Building the Team ................................................. 61 www.managetrainlearn.com Page 5 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 6. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 106. Removing Limitations ............................................ 61 107. The Pygmalion Effect ............................................. 62 108. Leading Out .......................................................... 62 109. Where Training Leads ............................................ 63 110. Empowering ......................................................... 63 111. The Builder ........................................................... 64 112. Working with Time ................................................ 64 113. The Leader Withdraws ........................................... 65 8. Positivity ................................................................. 65 114. What is Positivity? ................................................. 66 115. The Faces of Positivity ........................................... 66 116. The Self-Image ..................................................... 67 117. Gold .................................................................... 67 118. Positive Goals ....................................................... 68 119. Positive Expectations ............................................. 68 120. Salutation to the Dawn .......................................... 69 121. Positive Review ..................................................... 69 122. Giving Positive Feedback ........................................ 70 123. It's In the Words ................................................... 70 124. Igniters & Chloroforms ........................................... 71 125. Mix with Positive People ......................................... 71 126. The Electricity of Life ............................................. 72 127. Good Medicine ...................................................... 72 128. Positivity as Pain-Relief .......................................... 73 129. The Positivity Habit ............................................... 73 130. What You Think You Can... ..................................... 73 9. Teamwork ............................................................... 74 131. Acts of Teamwork ................................................. 74 132. Sharing ................................................................ 75 133. Sharing Goals ....................................................... 75 134. Living Goals.......................................................... 76 135. Asking for Help ..................................................... 76 136. Geese In Flight ..................................................... 77 137. A Can-Do Climate.................................................. 77 138. The 3 A's, not the 3 C's .......................................... 78 139. Valuing Others ...................................................... 79 140. The Familiarity Curve ............................................. 79 141. Trust ................................................................... 80 www.managetrainlearn.com Page 6 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 7. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 142. Constructive Feedback ........................................... 80 143. Convergent Thinking ............................................. 81 144. Groups and Teams ................................................ 81 145. Taking Risks ......................................................... 82 146. A Model of Change ................................................ 82 147. Team Morale ........................................................ 82 10. Time Travellers ....................................................... 83 148. Time Tendencies ................................................... 83 149. Nine Time Travellers .............................................. 84 150. The Perfectionist ................................................... 84 151. A Perfectionist's Time ............................................ 85 152. The Socialiser ....................................................... 85 153. A Socialiser's Time ................................................ 86 154. The Achiever ........................................................ 86 155. An Achiever's Time ................................................ 87 156. The Artist ............................................................. 87 157. An Artist's Time .................................................... 87 158. The Analyser ........................................................ 88 159. An Analyser's Time ................................................ 88 160. The Doubter ......................................................... 89 161. A Doubter's Time .................................................. 89 162. The Hurrier........................................................... 90 163. A Hurrier's Time .................................................... 90 164. The Rebel ............................................................. 91 165. A Rebel's Time ...................................................... 91 166. The Wanderer ....................................................... 92 167. A Wanderer's Time ................................................ 92 www.managetrainlearn.com Page 7 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 8. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 1. The Appraisal Interview (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Perfect Appraisals: 167 steps that will show you how to turn the dreaded appraisal into the perfect appraisal and create a high-performing team.) Although appraisal is an ongoing process, it is the yearly, half- yearly or irregularly-held appraisal interview that gives the whole process focus and meaning. Employees in particular judge schemes and the credibility of the appraisers by what happens during the brief but all-important contact of the appraisal interview. Whatever lofty aims and purposes an appraisal scheme may have, it is the quality of the one-to-one relationship and the use of professional skills in an interview, that determine if appraisal is a success. 1. Appraisal Interviews There are five principles which underlie effective appraisal interviews... 1. the appraisal interview is not an isolated event but should be part of ongoing performance management 2. the manager's role is to help employees perform successfully 3. in developmental appraisal, the interview is less about what the manager thinks than what the employee thinks 4. the interview is more effective when it focuses on good performance 5. the interview is more effective when it focuses on future plans. These principles apply whether the appraisal is simple feedback, review of work done, or a rating and assessment scheme. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 8 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 9. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 2. The Aims of Appraisal An appraising manager can pitch his or her sights in an appraisal interview at any of three levels... Level 1: to comply with the requirements of the appraisal scheme; to fill in the form; to meet the deadline. This does nothing to enhance the boss-subordinate relationship or to develop the employee. Level 2: to review the employee's past performance. If the interview is only about past performance, this can quickly lead to an exchange of views, some of which may be contested. Reviewing past performance is only of value if it leads to discussing future plans. Level 3: to help the employee to develop his or her potential. This turns the relationship into a rewarding one for both appraiser and appraisee and turns the interview into just one step in an ongoing process. 3. 2-2-2 Preparation The 2-2-2 Preparation technique manages the preparation of an appraisal interview. · about 2 weeks before the interview, set a time, date and location for the interview. Write it in your diary. Notify employees and say why it's important to attend. Give an indication of how they can best prepare, for example, by completing their part of the paperwork or self-assessing. · about 2 days before, complete any discussions with others who may have views on the employee and finalise your own assessment. Clear your diary of other work. Remind employees of the appointment. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 9 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 10. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · about 2 hours before, gather your notes, forms and files. Prepare the room. Re-direct last-minute crises or urgent work to other people. Clear your thoughts. 4. A Relaxed Environment John who is an experienced appraiser is describing to his assistant, Wendy, how he creates the right interview environment for appraisal. "I aim for a relaxed and business-like setting. When people are relaxed, they talk more freely; when we're business-like, we focus on the job in hand. I pay attention to three areas of preparation: the whole environment, the room and the seating. Firstly, there must be no distractions or interruptions. I want them to know they are the only thing on my mind. If something important comes in, it must be delegated elsewhere. Next, I look at the room through the appraisee's eyes and check whether it gives the right impression. Lastly, I create a seating arrangement that is comfortable and safe and creates an area of informality inside the working office." 5. The Shape of Appraisals The following summarises the twelve starting points in an appraisal interview based on the past-present-future structure. 1. welcome appraisee 2. use any informal reality-bridge questions 3. outline the aims of the appraisal session 4. check the appraisee is happy with the aims 5. ask the appraisee to give their own assessment of how things have gone since the last formal review 6. summarise and agree the assessment 7. ask appraisee to outline their current work 8. summarise and agree what are current priorities 9. ask appraisee how they see things developing in the future 10. add any plans to the appraisee's own plans 11. review what has been agreed 12. thank appraisee and close. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 10 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 11. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 6. The Reality Bridge The "reality bridge" is the phrase which describes the initial social chit-chat at the start of an appraisal interview. The reality bridge does more than just settle both parties down. It reminds you that there is a real world outside the interview room. Appraiser and appraisee both cross the reality bridge to go back to this other world at the end of the interview. Some reality bridge phrases include... " I see you made it through the heavy traffic..." "Such dreadful weather..." "I heard you were in Spain for your holidays..." 7. Contracting After the opening courtesies of an appraisal interview, you should move on to outlining what you want to do in the course of the appraisal session. This is the contract. It is important to let people know they are part of what's going on and have an equal say on how things can develop. The contract can include... · how long you expect to take · your arrangements not to be interrupted · the purpose of the meeting · the structure of the interview · the outcomes you expect · what extent of confidentiality there is · the tone you'd like to use. At the end of outlining the contract, you should ask if they're happy. If they are, move on. If not, stop and re-negotiate a new contract. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 11 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 12. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 8. Classic Structures Your scheme may lay down the structure of the appraisal interview. If it doesn't, you can use one of the three classic appraisal interview structures. 1. Past-present-future. Start by discussing the review period; move on to where things are now; end by talking about future plans. 2. Positive-negative-positive. Start with what went well during the review period; follow with what didn't go so well; end with a summary of how things can go in future. 3. Strengths-weaknesses-opportunities- threats. Start by discussing their strong points; follow with areas that let them down; identify opportunities for managing weaknesses and building on strengths; end with an awareness of problems and threats to the team or individual. 9. Agendas As an alternative to any of the classic appraisal structures, an appraisal interview can be based on the following review topics... 1. work agreed at the previous appraisal 2. performance in key result areas 3. the achievement of any management by objective targets 4. project work 5. what has happened in their own self-development 6. what new learning has taken place 7. the trend and pace of performance. If you plan to use any of these, it is a good idea to let the appraisee know in advance so that they can prepare. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 12 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 13. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 10. Interview Tone Some managers have difficulty carrying over one tone from the task-centred workplace to the tone needed for the person- centred appraisal interview. To help you make the transition, it helps to see the appraisal interview as a people-maintenance exercise. It can be thought of as a check-up of the employee's working health. Author Stephen Covey calls it "looking after the goose that lays the golden eggs". One useful guide to capturing the right tone is "FLIRT" which is a mnemonic for Friendly, Listening, Interested, Relaxed and Trusting. You will find that if you set this kind of tone from the start, your appraisee will quickly follow suit. "Be to others how you would like your appraiser to be to you." 11. 3D Interview Skills The most successful interviews are three-dimensional. Dimension one is preparation; dimension two is the conduct of the interview; and dimension three is follow-up. Preparation: when preparing for the interview, be clear on what you're trying to achieve. Remember it is as much about systems as relationships. Structure the interview and leave room to explore uncharted territory. Conduct of the interview: when you conduct the interview, do more listening than talking. When you listen, really listen. Listen to feelings as well as facts. Feelings are the motivators of the future. Follow-up: wait until you have the whole picture before you come to any firm plans. Avoid making exciting plans in the heat of the interview which are unrealistic. Afterwards, do what you said you'd do. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 13 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 14. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 12. Containing Stress Stress arises when people perceive a situation as threatening. They then choose either a flight or fight reaction. Flight reactions in appraisal interviews include silence, moods and agreement to anything suggested. Fight reactions include arguing, politicking, and playing win-lose games. To avoid these unhelpful reactions... · play down status differences between you and the appraisee by finding common ground · allow appraisees as much control over the discussions as possible · don't criticise them · don't imply they're less than perfect · get side-by-side when dealing with problems of performance · add some human touches by using self-disclosures · keep discussions of feelings confidential. 13. Staying in Control An appraisal interview can easily get out of control unless you consciously plan to stay on track. You know you're not on track if you find yourself re-living past arguments, getting into blame- and-condemnation cycles, criticising third parties not present and only discussing what went well. Research in 1983 by Kikoski and Litterer suggests that there are five ways to keep an appraisal interview on track. 1. paraphrase and summarise when you want to move on 2. focus on what's important 3. ask the right type of questions at the right points: open questions to open up, closed questions to close down 4. reflect feelings rather than skate round them 5. give feedback not just information. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 14 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 15. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 14. Empowering People Empowering others means letting go of the power you have in any situation so that others feel they can take personal responsibility for their own thoughts, plans and actions. · showing interest in others is an act of empowerment. · concentrated listening to what others say is an act of empowerment. · valuing their ideas is an act of empowerment. · supporting what they want to do is an act of empowerment. · giving them the go-ahead is an act of empowerment. · using phrases like "I like the way that you..." and "I think it's great that you..." is an act of empowerment. · asking them to summarise their performance before you do is an act of empowerment. · using words and phrases that encourage is an act of empowerment. 2. Responding to Change (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Change Management: 147 steps that will show you how to master the challenge of change and come out on top.) Our survival depends on responding to what is happening in our surrounding environment. If we ignore the needs and expectations of others, perhaps out of fear, insecurity, idleness, defiance, lack of awareness or too much looking back, we will find our attitudes and skills redundant. We will become casualties of change. If, on the other hand, we respond with courage, a new sense of security, application, humility and looking forward, we can not only survive but grow. We can be champions of change. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 15 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 16. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 15. Responding to Change Change can come to us in two guises: as something we originate or as something imposed from outside. When change originates with us, it may be because we see the need to develop ourselves, our teams or our organisations. We are then likely to be the principal change agent and it will be down to us to sell the change to others. When change is imposed from outside, it may come as a sudden unannounced shock, a half-expected development or as a welcome event. It is not surprising therefore that people normally respond to change in a variety of ways. For some, the standard response to change may be to bury their heads in the sand and do nothing; for others, it may be to do anything and, when this doesn't work, to panic and do everything. For some, it is to devise a strategy and manage the response. 16. Do Nothing The "do nothing" response to change is the response of Handy's frog that boiled alive in the heated-up water without moving. It is also the response of the Peruvian Indians of the 16th century who on observing the approaching ships of their Spanish invaders believed they were just sea monsters and wouldn't harm them. As a result, they were invaded, did nothing to protect themselves and were overrun and conquered. We may do nothing for a number of reasons... · we don't know there is a need to change · we know but pretend it's not important · we claim that everyone else is in the same boat as us so it doesn't really matter · we don't think we can do anything about it · we could act but don't know what to do · we aren't allowed to do anything. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 16 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 17. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 17. Reasons Not to Change The following are nine reasons why people, and organisations, do nothing to change. 1. we think our ways are right and so become complacent and routine-bound. 2. we dwell on the past and the emotional security of what is familiar. 3. we lack the originality to change until we see someone else doing it first. 4. we overplay the downside of change. 5. we prefer to stay with what we know and understand, not what we don't know and don't understand. 6. we rely on management as we've relied on them up to now. Unfortunately, management are often deeply committed to the existing ways of working. 7. we like the way things are now. 8. we live too much in the present and assume things can last for ever. 9. we simply cannot be bothered to make the effort. 18. Discounting Discounting is a term borrowed from Transactional Analysis in which we ignore any facts or evidence that conflicts with our view of things. An example of discounting may be a business that decides to do nothing about a steadily worsening market share. Its do-nothing thinking may be based on six discounting levels... 1. discounting the evidence by not having information. 2. discounting the problem by having evidence but not believing it is anything unusual. 3. discounting the will to change by saying "Yes, OK, but there's nothing we can do". 4. discounting the options because the remedy might be worse than the disease. 5. discounting the solutions by saying they won't work. 6. discounting the action because "they" won't wear it. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 17 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 18. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 19. Excuses, Excuses These excuses have been stifling change for years... 1. We've never done it before. Nobody else has done it before. We tried it before. They tried it before. 2. We've been doing things this way for years. Why change? Things are working okay. We're fine as we are. 3. It's too much trouble. I don't like it. It won't work. It's too radical. 4. They say it's impossible. It can't be done. The boss won't buy it. It won't work in our type of company. The Unions won't buy it. 5. We don't have the money. We don't have the time. We don't have the expertise. 6. It needs more thought. I'm not sure. Let's have a report first. Let's do a study on it. 7. You're right but we're not ready for it. That's not us. It's contrary to our policy. ...and so on and on. 20. Do Anything When recession hit large Western companies in the early 1990's, many companies rushed to grasp the latest guru thinking on how to save their businesses. One of the popular ideas at the time was business process re- engineering, part of which was the idea of "downsizing". The resultant re-organisation, reduction in costs, and reduced workforces seemed to be an answer to the problems of the day. Moreover, it could be implemented from outside using consultants with new computers to work out just how to pare organisations down to their core businesses. Edward Deevy estimated that $20 billion was spent each year on consultants during this period. However, for many organisations, the experience was a costly disaster. They had been grasping for a quick fix, looking for easy answers and doing anything rather than managing their need to change. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 18 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 19. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 21. Do Everything Frank Price in his book "Right Every Time" reminds us that taking major action to deal with change has long been a knee-jerk reaction of large organisations. He quotes Gaius Petronius describing yet another Roman Army re-organisation in AD 66... "We trained hard, but it seemed that every time we were begining to form up into teams, we would be re- organised. I was to learn later in life that we tend to meet any new situation by re-organising and a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress, while producing confusion, inefficiency and demoralisation." Not long after this period, the Roman Empire began a slow decline that was only reversed by surgical action by the emperor Hadrian, who abandoned the Eastern Provinces and shored up the defences in the outermost countries. 22. Change Indigestion Many organisations believe that change requires a constant stream of initiatives, new ideas and brilliantly-conceived strategies, all sent down from the top. This frequently fails to work because... · it is based on a mechanistic view of how organisations work · it requires others to change, not those at the top · the answers are believed to lie with those at the top · the amount of change becomes too great for those down the line to handle. "A contributory factor to failure is that many top managers are now so removed from their underlings that they wildly underestimate how long it takes to embed really fundamental change. All too often impatient managers signal a new direction before those at the bottom have had chance to digest the last one." (Simon Caulkin) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 19 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 20. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 23. Defy Change Defying inevitable change is an option undertaken by many organisations who think they are big enough and strong enough to resist what is happening around them. Defying the changes is not an option for most of us. It is the Canute-style of management. If we sit and defy the incoming waves, they will sooner or later devour us. Only a few organisations can point to defying change. One is Coca-Cola whose 100 plus year-old drink has the same taste, packaging and advertising today as it had when it started. However, Coca-Cola are still ready to meet change: they test- market a brand new soft drink every month. 24. Resistance to Change Changes are often introduced into organisations when a sensible case has been made out for them and the feasibility study shows they will work. Unfortunately, change needs hearts as well as minds. The Dvorak Simplified keyboard is a case in point. This was a new keyboard devised to replace the traditional typewriter keyboard when personal computers became popular. Its novel idea was to concentrate all the most popular letters of the alphabet on the middle row which would now read AOEUIDHTNS instead of ASDFGHJKL. Similarly, the number row, instead of reading 12345 etc would read 7531902468. The savings in operator efficiency were put at 40%. Unfortunately, few people were willing to change their skills or pay the cost of change. The Dvorak Simplified keyboard sank without trace. 25. Tinkering Around the Edges There are two different ways we can look at organisations: www.managetrainlearn.com Page 20 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 21. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · as machines with fixed parts which can be taken out and replaced without any affect on any other part, or · as growing plants where everything is part of a whole and change cannot happen to one part without affecting the rest. When change arrives, the "machine" organisations tinker around the edges. They seek out old parts that are rusty and past their best. These are disposed of and replaced. Other parts get up- graded or taken out for a while and given an overhaul - perhaps a crash training programme or a spot of re-organisation. Those who see their organisations like growing plants know that the answer to managing change lies in tending the soil of culture, management and growth. 26. Evolution Evolution as a way of handling change is the Darwinian approach to management: constant, gradual, incremental change. This can be a highly effective way of developing the organisation when there is time. For example, the biggest maker of buggy whips in America at the turn of the century is now the biggest maker of carburettors with an enviable record of keeping up with changes in technology, design, transport needs and fashion. But in turbulent times, even evolution may not be possible. "You think you understand the situation, but what you don't understand is that the situation just changed." (Putnam Investment advertisement) 27. Rely on Others Relying on others to guide you through times of change is a high- risk strategy. You expose yourself to two possible unwanted outcomes... www.managetrainlearn.com Page 21 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 22. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 1. Your leaders may be so immersed in the "old" order that they are unable to comprehend the need for change and do nothing. 2. Your leaders may try the "Cortes trick". The "Cortes trick" is the action which the Spanish conquistador Cortes took when he landed at Vera Cruz in Mexico in 1518. Faced with the might of the Tlascalan and Cholulan Indians, his soldiers favoured going home. So Cortes burnt the ships. 28. Manage Change The only viable option in responding to major change is to manage it. This means managing each of the following key strategies to take you through change. 1. Process: managing the change cycle 2. Structure: managing cores and peripheries 3. People and policies: managing paradox 4. Action: managing risk 5. Growth: managing learning 6. Personal development: managing the process of change 7. Information: managing uncertainty 8. Putting it all together: managing organisational change. 3. Dispositions of Counselling (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Skillful Counselling: 154 steps that will show you how to manage any staff problem with skill and finesse.) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 22 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 23. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management In learning best practice from professional counselling, the manager who counsels can adapt the skills, tools and techniques of the professionals. These skills centre on the ability to create an environment in which others feel able to explore and confront key issues in their life and work and be helped to find answers to them and move on. For some managers, these skills will come easily; for others they have to be learnt. 29. Dispositions We all have the potential inside us to reach out to others. With practice, these qualities can be honed into valued skills and dispositions. There are eight key qualities that are important for those who act in a counselling role: 1. warmth, the ability to relate positively towards others 2. empathy, the ability to feel with someone else's situation 3. specificity, the ability to deal with what another person feels and thinks here and now 4. genuineness, the ability to accept yourself and how you are in the counselling relationship 5. confidentiality, the ability to respect information given in confidence 6. professional distance, the ability to see your role as a helper and not get personally involved 7. the touch of integrity, the ability to act as one 8. self-renewal, the ability to find personal refreshment. 30. Warmth Warmth is also known as an unconditional positive regard for others. Warmth towards others results when we... · believe that people are capable of doing their best · believe that people have basically good intentions · believe that everybody can be likeable. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 23 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 24. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Managers with a history of workplace relationships involving perhaps conflict, disagreement and mistrust, may find it hard to demonstrate warmth unconditionally or non-selectively. Warmth is necessary to move a one-to-one relationship from cold formality through thaw to growth and fruition. 31. Empathy Psychoanalyst Carl Rogers has described empathy in different ways as: · "...entering the private perceptual world of the other and becoming thoroughly at home in it." · "...being sensitive moment to moment to the changing felt meanings which flow in this other person." · "... communicating your sensings of his or her world as you look with fresh and unfrightened eyes at elements of which the individual is afraid." When we empathize with another person, we try to see the world through their frame of reference. We try to understand how the situation we see is seen by them, what meanings they give it and what values they place on it. 32. Empathy is not Sympathy Empathy is similar to, but distinctly different from, sympathy, as their etymologies show: · pathos = Greek for "feeling" · empathos = "pathos" meaning "feeling" and "em" meaning "in" ie "feeling in..." · sympathos = "pathos" meaning "feeling" and "sym" meaning "with" ie "feeling with..." A man fell into a large hole. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 24 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 25. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management An uncaring person walked past, looked down and told the man how silly he was to find himself in the hole. A sympathetic person walked past, and feeling sorry, jumped in the hole with him. An empathetic person walked past, saw both the hole-dwellers and, having ascertained that neither wanted to be in the hole, fetched a ladder and helped them out. 33. Do It Anyway These words from Mother Teresa of Calcutta are a reminder that counselling is a selfless act with no rewards except the knowledge that you are trying to help others. "People are unreasonable, illogical and self-centred; love them anyway. If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives; do good anyway. If you are successful, you win false friends and true enemies; succeed anyway. The good you do today will be forgotten tomorrow; do good anyway. What you have spent years building may be destroyed overnight; build anyway. People really need help, but may attack you if you help them; help people anyway. Give the world the best you have and you will get kicked in the teeth; give the world the best you have anyway." 34. Specificity Specificity is also known as "concreteness". In counselling, specificity means sticking to specific facts, feelings and views which are here and now in the present. This means that counsellors should not concern themselves with the causes and meanings of people's situations, but rather with ways in which current behaviour can be changed. It is about "how?" rather than "why?" Why do you feel this way? Answer: Because I do. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 25 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 26. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Why did you break up? Answer: Because we did. Why is your performance bad? Answer: Because it is. "Why?" questions are associated with critical and aggressive stances, possibly throwbacks to childhood scenes, such as "I've dropped the plate and broken it". "Why did you drop it?" asks the parent crossly. "I don't know. It was an accident..." "But why? That was my best china." And so on. 35. Don't Ask Why? Asking "why?" questions in counselling is often a pointless exercise. People who may be already confused when they come to counselling may find it difficult to give reasons for how they feel or what they did. Even if they know and can tell you, this may not help you to move on. "There are several difficulties with "why?" questions. One problem is that they lead to a search for the prime cause, the supreme answer that will unlock the mysteries of behaviour and effect instant behaviour change. This path leads to quicksand. Second, "why?" is too easily answered by "because" responses that place responsibility on external or unknown loci of control. A third problem with "why?" questions is that they often lead to figuring things out in a cognitive, problem-solving fashion that rarely enhances the understanding of emotions." (W.R.Parsons) 36. Gestalt Therapy An understanding of Gestalt therapy helps to underscore the importance of specificity in counselling. Gestalt therapy was developed by Fritz Perls as a counter to the analytical and theoretical methods used by Sigmund Freud and others. Its aim is to make the individual self-supporting by making him aware of himself in the present as a whole. "Gestalt" is German for "whole structure". Gestalt therapy believes... 1. that human beings are responsible for themselves 2. that each person functions as a whole, not in parts www.managetrainlearn.com Page 26 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 27. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 3. that the organism works best if it is in balance 4. that the important questions about human experience are How? not Why? 5. that the past carries with it business that must be finished and that the future is only present expectation. 37. Here and Now Fritz Perls, founder of Gestalt Therapy, believed that people could become more healthy by focusing on what was happening to them in the present. To be fully in the "here and now" means: · avoiding conceptualising and theorising about why something is happening and focusing instead on what you can do about it · avoiding giving reasons Not: "you're doing this because of what happened to you as a child"; But: "you seem to be frightened." · avoiding blame Not: "They don't like my work." But: "I feel insecure because they don't seem to like my work." 38. Genuineness Egan describes "genuine" people as being "at home with themselves in all their interactions". Genuineness means being yourself. To enter a counselling relationship and feign interest is not just dishonest, but misleading. We cannot expect others to accept themselves if we cannot first accept ourselves. Part of genuineness is consistency between what a counsellor says with what he or she conveys in their tone of voice, body expressions and behaviour. There must be an absence of masks and little or no attempt at self-presentation. Revealing genuineness through genuine interest, genuine concern, genuine admission of faults and weaknesses, genuine www.managetrainlearn.com Page 27 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 28. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management ignorance and genuine limits enhances the counselling relationship. 39. A Genuine Relationship These thoughts by a client describe a "genuine" counsellor-client relationship... What she says never conflicts with what she feels. She is herself in our relationship. I don't think she hides anything from herself that she feel with me. She doesn't avoid anything that is important in our relationship. I feel I can trust her to be honest with me. She is secure in our relationship. She doesn't try to mislead me about her own thoughts and feelings. She can be impatient at times. She is sometimes upset at what I say. She can look as worried as I feel. (William Stewart) 40. Confidentiality Confidentiality is a key requirement in a manager who counsels others. You should not undertake counselling if you have an urge to share information with others, to impress them or to do it for personal gain. However, not everything that is said in a counselling session can be guaranteed to remain confidential. Matters that affect others, that perhaps breach a contract of employment, that break the law or could do others harm may all have to be reported. You should, however, never breach confidentiality of feelings. The bounds of your confidentiality undertaking should be spelled out at the contract stage of a counselling session and repeated if and when something borderline arises during discussion. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 28 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 29. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 41. Three Secrets Employees in a counselling session may sometimes only be prepared to discuss issues if they are kept secret. Some counsellors distinguish three types of secrets... · the private secret, which if revealed would cause the person harm · the pledged secret which when shared is expected to remain confidential · the entrusted secret which either implicitly or explicitly is understood to remain unrevealed. Since one of the aims of counselling is to promote the free, unforced expression of facts and feelings, there should be no sharing of secrets unless it is absolutely necessary. 42. Professional Distance There is a certain point in the helping process when you have enough emotional involvement to understand others. Any more and you are too involved, any less and you are not involved enough. This point can only be experienced through remaining sensitive to the client's situation. It is the point of professional distance. This point allows you to understand others but also to remain distant enough to offer objective insight, suggestions and support. Donald S. Winnicott, the British psychoanalyst, described "professional distance" in these terms: "The counsellor is not frightened nor overcome with guilt feelings when the client goes mad, or disintegrates or runs out in the street in a nightdress, or attempts suicide and perhaps succeeds." The counsellor is caring and careful, supportive, contains and holds anxiety, maintains an unshocked and unshockable position. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 29 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 30. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 43. The Touch of Integrity The TOUCH of integrity is a mnemonic which stands for the five ingredients that help you to "act as one". They are: · T for Trust. An employee needs to trust you fully and will do so only if your past record shows you are trustworthy · O for Openness. The counsellor models openness to the client by not seeking to control the client, not listing "do's and don'ts", not hiding their own thoughts and feelings · U for Understanding. Understanding means being prepared to listen even when the subject may not be of interest but accepting the value of it to the other person · C for Confidentiality. · H for Honesty. Just as there must be integrity between counsellor and client, so there should be integrity between the counsellor and the organisation which employs them both. 44. Confronting Confronting is one of the most difficult helping skills to get right. Confronting, if handled badly, can raise the temperature of a relationship and may destroy it altogether. Confronting is necessary in counselling when clients have a problem that they have been unable to resolve by themselves. They may be avoiding it, pretending it doesn't exist, hoping it goes away by itself. Unless the counsellor confronts them with their reluctance to resolve the matter, there can be no progress. Confronting skills include: · identifying what the real problem is · timing the confrontation so that the client isn't offended · avoiding blame and condemnation · not allowing feelings to get in the way · seeking ways to help people resolve the problem. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 30 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 31. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 45. Self-Renewal Burn-out is the exhaustion felt by carers and counsellors who undergo excessive or prolonged counselling of others. Burn-out is characterised by: · chronic low energy levels · defensive behaviour · emotional distancing from people. Studies by Cartwright found high burn-out rates in the nursing profession. Studies by Gaines and Jermier found high burn-out rates amongst the police. Fortunately, burn-out is mainly a temporary phenomenon and a complete break from dealing with people problems can help. Long-term strategies for support and physical, mental, emotional and spiritual self-renewal are essential. 46. Five Golden Rules Here are five golden rules for carers to care for themselves: 1. have someone else to talk to for support 2. build contacts with other professionals. Learn how they cope with the threat of burn-out. 3. don't expect your efforts to bear fruit every time. Much as you try, you will occasionally meet impenetrable resistance. 4. put things into a wider perspective. People can be slow to change. Your helping may not have any kind of meaning for them until much later on. 5. get away from it all regularly. Find a place to go where you can relax, let go and switch off. A self-renewal programme can incorporate elements of physical relaxation, such as exercise and a good long walk and mental respite and spiritual refreshment. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 31 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 32. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 4. DIY Empowerment (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Dynamic Delegation and Empowerment: 160 steps that will show you how to bring your management skills into the 21st century.) If we rely on our organisations to give us the power to become responsible in what we do, then we are never fully empowered. The ultimate power remains with managers whose gift it still remains. To be properly empowered and add value to what we do, we must empower ourselves. This means self-reliance, self- motivation, self-discipline and self-direction. It means turning any job we do into a chance to develop. It means Do-It-Yourself Empowerment. 47. DIY Empowerment Just as managers have to change the way they look at work when they embark on empowerment, so individual employees have to change the way they look at work when they embark on Do-It-Yourself Empowerment. There are 10 attitudes that can help you to do it yourself. These are: 1. break free of the chains that others place on you 2. work with others but don't rely on them to do it for you 3. be committed to the job and the organisation 4. own the job as if it were your own business 5. be a continuous learner throughout your life 6. be the best at whatever you do 7. do the job because you want to not for the rewards 8. get absorbed in your work 9. add value to everything you do 10. liberate yourself from the fear of not being good enough. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 32 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 33. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 48. Break Free The power that comes from do-it-yourself empowerment is the freedom that comes from breaking away from dependence on others. In his book "The Success Factor", Dr Harry Stanton described six of these "chains from others". They are... 1. the morality of others (you must; you should...) 2. others' concept of your success (But your car's not as big as ours) 3. the identity that others want to give you ("You don't behave like a manager!") 4. others' version of what it takes to be happy ("You mean you haven't dated anyone for six months!") 5. your possession or lack of possession of traditional power ("she's just a clerk"); 6. the group's codes of behaviour ("that's the way men should behave") 49. Never Wait For Them While other people are important in the way we work, we can in the final analysis only rely on ourselves to do what we need to do for our own development and ultimate success. "I remember standing outside the boss's door as a trainee in my first job. I was up for my review. I was very nervous. Along came Jock, the elder statesman of the office. "What are you doing out here, laddie?" he asked, peering at me. "I'm waiting to go and see what they've got lined up for me." "Them?" he boomed, incredulously. "Them! If you wait for them, laddie, you'll wait forever. Never wait for them." "The best motivation is self-motivation. The guy says: "I wish someone would come along and turn me on." What if they don't show up? You've got to have a better plan for your life." (Jim Rohn) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 33 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 34. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 50. Self-Empowerment Only when we stop letting others determine how we feel, what we do and how we see things, do we really become empowered. This change is reflected in the way we talk about work. From: "a 9 to 5 kind of dying" To: "a chance to excel for ourselves" From: "work as a chore, a must, a have-to" To: "work as a preference, a liking, a love." From: "doing it, but thinking about something else." To: "total absorption in it." Self-empowered individuals take responsibility for how they feel about their work. It is no longer something that is controlled and directed by others, but the place where they can discover their own true potential themselves. 51. The Meaning of Commitment Commitment is the quality that comes from individuals who empower themselves at work. There are different ways of understanding what is meant by "commitment": · in World War II, the US Army discovered that 5% of all its parachutes didn't work properly due to manufacturers' defects. The Army were not prepared to put lives at risk, so they asked the parachute makers to test the parachutes first themselves. Quality quickly rose to 100% and defects to zero. That's commitment! · commitment is the missing ingredient that produces excellence. Commitment plus skill equals excellence. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 34 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 35. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · commitment is like sex: everyone wants it, it is more talked about than done; and you've got to give it to get it in return. 52. Own the Job If you owned your own business, you would plan it, work at it, invest everything you could in it, develop it, be proud of it, nurture it and enjoy every second of it. With a change of focus, you can do the same for any job you do. Who do you work for? I work for the company. I work for the boss. I work for the team. I work for my family. I work for me. In 1750, 95% of the population were self-employed or owner- managers. This figure went down to 50% by 1900 and just 10% in 1980. By 1990, it had risen again to 20% and on present trends will reach 50% again by 2025. "Make every decision as if you owned the whole company." (Robert Townend, Avis) 53. Self-Development Continuous learning in times of change offers huge scope for taking responsibility for our own development. It means: · actively seeking opportunities to learn both informally and formally · becoming more curious about the way we work · always having a learning activity "on the go" whether related to the job or not · learning how we like to learn and practising more of this · learning what it is like to learn something new and coping with frustration, failure, challenge, ignorance. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 35 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 36. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management In a recent survey of organisations that encouraged their staff to enrol at local education classes, those organisations with employees on education courses consistently performed better than those with fewer enrolled employees. 54. Be the Best The self-empowered individual is someone who has three qualities: · he knows where his talents, skills, strengths, vocation and potential lie · she works to find the place where she can exercise these talents for the benefit of herself and others · he excels in the performance of these skills. "If a man is called on to be a street sweeper, he should sweep streets even as Michaelangelo painted, or Beethoven played music or Shakespeare wrote poetry. He should sweep streets so well that all the hosts of heaven and earth will pause to say, here lived a great street sweeper who did his job well." (Martin Luther King) 55. Zen It "Zen" is a word from Oriental thinking which stands for total absorption, fascination and concentration on the job in hand. To "zen" a job means to do it for the sake of it, not for what it is for or leading to. In their book "Thank God it's Monday", Charles Cameron and Suzanne Ellusor describe seeing a Zen monk sweeping snow from the steps of a temple. The more it snowed, the more he swept. The monk did not expect to clear the steps of snow or achieve any objective. There was reason enough to be doing it. Because it didn't matter. The simplicity of his actions was enough to make it worth doing: process rather than end result, being rather than completion. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 36 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 37. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management ""Zenning" it is at the heart of all success. It is a matter of being present at your own life, not just showing up for the roll call." (Charles Cameron) 56. Concentration When we become absorbed in our work, we attain a state of total concentration that is known as "flow". It means forgetting oneself in a heightened state of awareness. It means having a clarity for cues and outside stimuli. It means having the skills to meet the demands of the moment. It means finding a rhythm to our work in which hours pass like minutes and minutes like hours. Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihaly of the University of Chicago studied 1000 workers and found that nearly a third regularly experienced "flow" at work. "Flow is a state of self-forgetfulness, the opposite of rumination and worry. Instead of being lost in nervous pre-occupation, people in flow are so absorbed in the task at hand that they lose all self-consciousness, dropping the small pre-occupations - health, bills, even doing well - of daily life." (Daniel Coleman) 57. A State of Flow One of the most celebrated descriptions of the state of self- absorption known as "flow" is that given by John Brodie, an American football player: "Often in the heat and excitement of a game, a player's perception and co-ordination will improve dramatically. At times and with increasing frequency now, I experience a kind of clarity that I've never seen adequately described in a football story. Sometimes, for example, time seems to slow down in an uncanny way as if everyone were moving in slow motion. It seems as if I have all the time in the world to watch the receivers run their patterns and yet I know the defensive line is coming at me just as fast as ever. I know perfectly well how hard and fast those guys are coming and yet the whole thing seems like a movie or a dance in slow motion. It's beautiful." www.managetrainlearn.com Page 37 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 38. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 58. Adding Value When we take responsibility for our own work, we can add value in any of the following ways: 1. find the best method for doing the job added value: productivity 2. find profitable connections with others added value: 2 + 2 = 5 3. find more chances to succeed in the eyes of others added value: prizes, awards, accolades 4. find a way to produce outstanding quality added value: customer delight 5. find new ways to do things added value: innovation 6. find the quickest, safest, most reliable way to do the job added value: efficiency 7. find the simplest way to work added value: smooth, stress-free working. 59. Shine Your Light When we achieve a sense of empowerment, something magical happens inside us. We no longer depend on others for what happens to us. We may still work as we did before; but at last we can let our own light shine. "Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light not our darkness that most frightens us. We ask ourselves: "Who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented and fabulous?" Actually, who are you not to be? You are a child of God. Your playing small doesn't serve the world. There's nothing enlightening about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We were born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us. It's not just in some of us; it's in everyone. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others." (Nelson Mandela) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 38 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 39. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 5. Empowering People (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Empowering Facilitation Skills: 162 steps that will show you how to become an expert at leading groups to greater awareness and power.) In many traditional experiences of being and working in groups - the family, the school classroom, the work team - we have become used to hierarchical models of authority. So we have become used to fitting in, adjusting to others, letting the experts decide, doing what we're told. As a result, many of us live lives of quiet desperation: alienated, frustrated, defensive, powerless. The process of facilitation aims to restore, unleash and release that lost power and put it back where it belongs: with people. 60. Being Open The first step in creating an empowered climate in a group is to model aspects of openness. There is a continuum of empowerment options that ranges from being relaxed with people at one end to letting people feel free to be themselves at the other. Openness is at the heart of this range. Modelling openness is like presenting an open page on which you invite the group to write its own story. "The world is your exercise book, the pages on which you do your sums. It isn't your reality, although you can express reality there if you wish. You are also free to write nonsense, or lies, or to tear the pages up." (Richard Bach) 61. Time and Space Being relaxed about rules on time and space in a group is a way of inviting people to set their own rules. · don't force people to sit where you want www.managetrainlearn.com Page 39 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 40. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management them to sit · don't force people to go where you want them to go · don't force people to work to your pace · don't force people to meet your deadlines. Empowerment is an act of trust and invites trust in return. Some control-oriented managers will point to the abuses that are possible if you empower people who are not ready for responsibility. But in the hands of a skilled facilitator even an abuse can be used as an opportunity to explore personal growth. "The more open I am to others and myself, the less I want to rush in and fix things." (Carl Rogers) 62. Freedom One of the most important functions of facilitation is to encourage the group to be themselves. This means allowing the group the freedom to make their own choices and to face up to the consequences of those choices. You can show you value free choice by... · allowing people to express views which are unorthodox, unpopular, or minority views, without them being derided or judged · allowing people to choose not to take part in activities or discussions if they so choose · allowing people to take their time in learning as a way of acknowledging that not everyone learns at the same pace as everyone else. 63. Language Everything you say and do as facilitator can underline your own openness and your invitation to others to be open. How you speak · Use OSCAR, a mnemonic for Open, Simple, Clear, Assertive, and Relevant language · avoid "musts" and "shoulds" · avoid judgment, criticism and put-downs. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 40 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 41. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management How you address people · be relaxed, still and attentive · only speak when you have something worth saying · sit or stand with open body language signals: face people, uncross your arms and legs · keep gestures and expressions in neutral and under control. 64. Tolerance Your demonstration of tolerance to what people say and do is one of the strongest acts of group empowerment. When people see that their behaviour and views are taken seriously, they also begin to take them seriously. An empowered workgroup is open to anything anyone does or says: this means not filtering it through the organisation's version of what is acceptable, the department's version or your own. It also means tolerating mistakes and failures, the raw material for learning and growth. "The leader judges no one and is attentive to both "good" and "bad" people. It does not even matter whether the person is telling the truth or lying." (John Heider: "The Tao of Leadership") 65. Valuing People sometimes feel powerless in groupwork because they have lost the trappings of their institutional power: they cannot use their title, their status, or their power to reward or threaten others. Facilitators work with a different kind of power: the power that comes from being important in your own right. In this way everyone is valued in the group. These are some of the ways to model valuing: · value others by being courteous, quiet and using first names · value their ideas by listening quietly and attentively whenever they speak · value what they do by showing interest even if the subject is otherwise not one you would normally be interested in www.managetrainlearn.com Page 41 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 42. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · value their emotional state by being supportive and appreciative when they confide in you. 66. Owning It is the facilitator's task to guide the group into taking ownership of their needs and wants. This process can be reflected in small but significantly empowering ways when we help individuals change the way they speak. · speaking for others. When someone claims to speak for others, eg "I think we all want a break", ask him or her to check it out with the others first. · blaming. When someone blames another person for how they feel, eg "He makes me angry", ask him to own his feelings, ie "I feel angry when he says that". · speaking directly. When someone speaks indirectly, eg "Does anyone want a drink?", suggest they speak directly, ie "I would like a drink". · making choices. When someone says they must do something, eg "I have to go", ask her to check that it isn't their choice rather than a requirement, ie "I want to go". 67. Never Say You Have To In his book "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People", Stephen Covey recounts the story of the student who avoided owning his choices. One time a student asked me: "Would you excuse me from class? I have to go on a tennis trip." "You have to go?" I asked. "I really have to," he exclaimed. "What will happen if you don't?" "Why, they'll kick me off the team." "How would you like that?" I asked. "I wouldn't." "In other words, you choose to go because you want the consequences of staying on the team. But if you don't come to class, what would be the natural consequence?" "I guess I'll miss the learning." "That's right. So you have to weigh that consequence against the other consequence and make a choice. I know if it were me, I'd www.managetrainlearn.com Page 42 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 43. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management choose to go on the tennis trip. But never say you have to do anything." "I choose to go on the tennis trip," he meekly replied. 68. Not Doing It For Them In traditional forms of groupwork, group leaders are often placed in the role of expert, rescuer and problem-solver. In this role, they are seen as question-masters with the answers to problems tucked up their sleeves or as helpers who will step in and do things if the group gets stuck. Playing the part of rescuer, while it may make us feel good and overcome a temporary difficulty, merely results in dis- empowering those in the group. We send the message that when things get difficult, they can opt out and do nothing. There is no growth in that route. When opportunities to intervene arise or we are tempted to take the easy route and do it for them, we should stop, bite our lips and do nothing. 69. Boomerang Questions The boomerang question, also known as the "elastic question", has become a cliche of facilitation, practically its hallmark. You use the boomerang question to send back questions to their owners. Susan: "What exactly is facilitation, Malcolm?" You: "Well, what do you think it is, Susan?" The boomerang question invariably works because, in asking a question in the first place a group member usually has an idea of an answer which he or she wants to test, explore or confirm but is not sure about. Your response tells the person that it is OK to voice what they think. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 43 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 44. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 70. Answer A Question With A Question Boomerang questions work best when they make people think. Here are 7 responses that make people do just that. 1. “I would never want to do that.” “What would you want to do?” 2. I wouldn’t like to do this.” “What would make it more attractive?” 3. “This will never work.” “What would work better?” 4. “There are too many problems for it to work.” “What are the main problems?” 5. “There are lots of changes needed.” “Such as…” 6. “It’s a good plan but I have some niggling doubts.” “What would put your mind at rest?” 7. “It’s unlikely to work in its present form.” “What changes would you suggest?” 71. Weaving Weaving is an alternative technique to the boomerang question. Instead of sending a question back to the questioner, you thread it into the group, inviting others to reply or referring to what others have already said. In this way, you signal that the group, not you, is the place to turn to for answers. "I don't understand the question..." "Can anyone else help John?" or "Rachel, you expressed a view on this earlier..." Weaving doesn't have the same impact as the boomerang question because it allows the questioner a way out of finding their own answers to their questions. 72. Sharing One of the more humorous cliches of facilitation, and often mimicked by groups, is the expression: "Would you like to share www.managetrainlearn.com Page 44 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 45. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management that with us?" Sharing is a useful neutral word that a person can interpret in whatever way they think best. It could mean sharing an experience, sharing feelings, sharing thoughts, sharing know- how. The sharing cliché hides an important feature of facilitation and that is the willingness of members of a group to be open about their experiences, thoughts and feelings. Through the patience of the facilitator and the support of the rest of the group, people can be encouraged to put their thoughts and feelings into words and trust them to the rest of the group. Review questions also encourage sharing. These include: How do you feel about what just happened? What did you learn from that? What do you need to do now? 73. Releasing Their Power Not intervening to rescue people is most important when the group hits a problem and turns to you, the facilitator, to help them out. You can turn the problem back to them by using these three steps: 1. Point out what the problem is 2. Show what the consequences could be to everyone 3. Invite them to do something about it. Tom: "I think it means doing nothing..." Julie: "I don't agree..." You: "OK so we have a fundamental difference of opinion. This could lead to serious problems, of course. How can we go about producing a definition that we can all put our names to?" 74. Volunteering Asking for volunteers to do things should be an ever-present feature of facilitative leadership. Anything you feel tempted to do yourself can always be done by others. This includes... www.managetrainlearn.com Page 45 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 46. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · routine features of groupwork, such as distributing handouts; serving coffee; operating video cameras · aspects of groupwork such as writing up the results of a group exercise on a flipchart · giving input to groups. You can trigger people's desire to be involved by inviting them in, using gentle persuasion and kindly provocation. One way to judge how facilitative a group has been is to compare the amount of time you sit and observe against the amount of time you spend on your feet doing. 75. Non-Rescuing A fine distinction needs to be drawn in facilitating other people's processes between those times when someone needs to be rescued and those when they don't. You should throw a lifeline to people who are clearly in difficulty and drowning, but where people are merely looking for an easy way out, it is often better to encourage them to swim a bit harder by themselves. Jill: "I couldn't possibly do that!" You: "Go on, Jill, I know you can..." or You: "Who would you like to help you?" When people see that they are not going to be offered the easy way out, they invariably do something for themselves. This alone can be a valuable lesson in personal growth. 76. Offering Options One of the most valuable themes of group facilitation is the sequence of Offering Options. It is an alternative to solving someone else's problems. 1. When someone asks you to do something, eg answer a question or sort a problem out, listen empathically. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 46 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 47. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 2. Tune in to where the problem is coming from. 3. Confirm the boundaries of what you agreed to do and what others agreed to do. 4. Ask questions to help people explore the problem, eg "What is missing here?"; "What can you do?" 5. Generate options with them until they see one they can take off with. "The leader who knows when to listen, when to act and when to withdraw can work effectively with nearly everyone." (John Heider) 77. Letting Them Grow Letting people learn at their own pace and in their own way is the ultimate act of empowerment. People don't grow because we tell them they have to or because we threaten them if they don't; they only grow if we provide the right conditions in which growth can take place. "A Zen master once asked an audience of Westerners what they thought was the most important word in the English language. After giving his listeners the chance to think about such favourite words as love, truth, failure, success and so on, he said: "No, it's a three-letter word. It's the word, "let". Let it be. Let it happen."" (W.Timothy Gallwey) 78. Letting Go To let go doesn’t mean to stop caring; It means I can’t do it for someone else. To let go is not to cut myself off, It’s the realization that I can’t control another. To let go is not to enable, But to allow learning from natural consequences. To let go is to admit powerlessness, Which means the outcome is not in my hands. To let go is not to try and change or blame another; www.managetrainlearn.com Page 47 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 48. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management I can only change myself. To let go is not to care for, but to care about; To let go is not to fix but be supportive. To let go is not to judge; But allow another to be a human being. To let go is not to be in the middle arranging all the outcomes; But to allow others to affect their own outcomes. To let go is not to be protective; It is to permit another to face reality. To let go is not to deny, but to accept; To let go is not to nag, scold or argue, But to search out my own shortcomings and correct them. To let go is not to adjust everything to my own desires; But to take each day as it comes and cherish the moment.” (Anon) 79. Levels of Learning Groupwork affords people the opportunity to learn on three different levels. Level 1: Technical learning Technical learning is the nuts and bolts of any subject you wish to master. For example, this programme provides technical information about facilitation skills. In groupwork, technical information is based on the formal inputs people receive. Level 2: Interpersonal learning Interpersonal awareness is what you learn from interacting with others. It includes the ability to communicate, to influence, to lead, to serve, to follow. It follows from technical learning. Level 3: Personal awareness Personal awareness is perhaps the greatest prize of facilitated groupwork and includes personal insights about the way we learn. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 48 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 49. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 80. Learning How to Learn Learning how to learn is a longer-lasting benefit from the self- learning process of groupwork than simple technical learning. It enables us to speed up our own future learning rate. Learning how to learn includes the following skills: · admitting what we don't know and can't do · recognising possibilities inside us · letting go of old ways · trying out new ways without fear of failure · developing non-judgmental curiosity · getting back up when things don't work out and trying again · overcoming the mental blocks that say "I know all that!" or "I'm too old to learn!" or "It's too hard, I'll never learn that!" 81. Bateson’s Dolphins In "Steps to the Ecology of Mind", the anthropologist Gregory Bateson describes how he saw dolphins learning how to learn in a dolphinarium. On the first day of a new routine, the dolphins were taught a new trick. If they performed it correctly, they were rewarded with a fish. The next day, when they performed the trick, no fish were given. Fish were only given when a new trick was mastered. This continued for two weeks. Then on the fourteenth day, the dolphins performed four new tricks they hadn't been shown before but had learnt by themselves. The dolphins had learnt that learning, not tricks, is what gets rewarded. 82. States of Personhood Our learning has no end. Once we start to develop ourselves, we can plumb ever-deeper levels that can take us through six states of personhood: www.managetrainlearn.com Page 49 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 50. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 1. the unaware personality: blind, no growth, no change 2. the stuck personality: fixated; confined; excessive; obsessive; stuck in routines; repetitive 3. the conventional personality: habitual; reactive; responds to the environment; lives a life in tramlines 4. the creative personality: steady change, using personal gifts to perform and grow in the present environment 5. the artistic personality: reaches beyond what went before to find new forms of self-expression 6. the self-transfiguring personality: discovering new powers. "Before asking someone to do something, you have to help them to be someone." (The Service Master Company) 83. Man’s Divinity This re-telling of an ancient Hindu legend comes from Christian Godefroy, author of "Mind Power". There was a time when all men were gods. But they so abused their divinity that Brahma decided to deprive them of their divine power. The only problem was where to hide this power so that man would not find it. An assembly of minor gods was called to discuss the problem. "Let's hide it in the earth," they said. "No," said the Brahma, "they will dig it up." "What about the ocean depths?" they suggested. "Not much better, " said the Brahma. "Sooner or later man will explore every region of the world and the universe." After a lot of discussion, it was concluded that there was no safe place to hide man's divine power. Then Brahma said. "This is what we'll do. We'll hide it in the one place man will never think of looking for it: in the very depths of man himself." And that's what the gods did. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 50 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 51. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 6. Working with Conflict (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Deal-Winning Negotiation Skills: 178 steps that will show you how to win every deal you make.) The essence of negotiations is conflict. Conflict manifests itself in differences of view, differences of opinion and differences of interest. When one party wants what another party has; when one group fails to agree on how to divide up shared resources; when one person does not see eye-to-eye with another; then there is conflict. Conflict, however, need never be the cause for unresolved dispute. If viewed in a positive way, as a start not an end position, it holds within itself the promise of new possibilities from which all sides can gain. Without conflict, there is nothing to resolve and so no negotiation; without facing up to conflict, there is no creative tension; and without the need to resolve conflict, there is no progress. 84. The Negative View of Conflict When we perceive conflict negatively, we tend to see it as a threat. Our knee-jerk reactions are instinctive and emotional: to attack the reasons for the conflict or avoid facing up to them. These are some of the common negative reactions to conflict... "It's their fault, not mine..." "If I ignore it, it might go away." "It's best not to get involved." "If we stick our nose in, someone will get hurt." "We'll just argue and argue over who said what, when and to whom." "I can't let them win." "Let them get on with it." www.managetrainlearn.com Page 51 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 52. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 85. The Positive View of Conflict When we perceive conflict positively we tend to see it as an opportunity. Most successful advances in business occur when two sides with different interests put their heads together to work out a new way forward. Positive views of conflict are rational and non-emotive. These are some of the rational ways we might look at conflict positively... · many differences can't be settled quickly, but the differences themselves produce a valuable creative tension · when two different forces come together, the result can be more than a sum of the parts. This is the principle of synergy. · when people are in disagreement this is a positive sign that they care and want things to improve · those against us are still part of us: having differences is like a family discussion. 86. Options in Conflict There are always just six options in handling conflict: 1. no deal 2. I win - you lose 3. I lose - you win 4. win at all costs 5. compromise 6. win-win. The most sensible strategy in negotiations is option 6, win-win. This is the belief that in any negotiation it is possible for both sides to come out having gained something of value. Even though the compromise option is often the way negotiations turn out, it should never be part of a game plan. "Opposition brings concord. Out of discord comes the greatest harmony." (Heraclitus of Ephesus, 535 - 475BC) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 52 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 53. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 87. No Deal A no-deal outcome to a conflict means that the status quo is confirmed and nothing changes. No-deal is rarely a successful end to a conflict unless during discussions it becomes clear there is no advantage for you in continuing. No-deal, in the sense of walkaway power, can also be used tactically at any stage of the proceedings. To make sure you are not disadvantaged if your bluff is called when you threaten "No deal!" make sure you have a good second-best BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) to fall back on. Tactical "no-deal" should be used right up to and including the last stage of a negotiation. 88. I Win, You Lose The "I win you lose" approach to conflict is also known as the World War One solution. At the end of World War One, the victorious Allies decided that, such were the horrors of the war, the defeated Germans should be humiliated and never again allowed to threaten their neighbours. The denigrating peace terms were completely one-sided but, as in all win-lose solutions, the losing side harboured deep resentment. It was only a matter of time before resentment led to a desire for revenge and the outbreak of a further war in 1939. When you use "win-lose" on others, you encourage them to find ways to use "win-lose" back on you. 89. The Peace of Conquest Whether in international relationships or personal relationships, winning by making others lose is the quickest route to renewed conflict. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 53 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 54. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management "The peace of conquest, where the victim is still in existence and must be dominated is, as peace, a negation: the suffering of the conflict has ceased but the figure of awareness is not alive with new possibilities, for nothing has been solved; victor and victim and their relations continue to fill the news. The victor is watchful, the victim resentful. In social wars, we see that such negative peace is not stable, there are too many unfinished situations." (Perls, Hefferline and Goodman, "Gestalt Therapy") 90. I Lose, You Win The "I lose, you win" approach to conflict should never be considered as a strategy. This is the route of appeasement, a quiet life and letting others have their way: sooner or later they will come back for more. "I lose, you win" may be used as a tactical ploy after you have given a concession which has cost you nothing. By emphasising the benefits of the concession to the other side, you can imply that since they have won something, you have lost something and it is now their turn to reciprocate. 91. Win At All Costs Win-at-all-costs is a negotiating strategy that is based on the belief that you are not responsible for the conflict and therefore will not budge an inch to the other side. You must be seen to win. There are a number of reasons why people feel they have to win at all costs: · they are convinced they are right, so everyone else must be wrong · they equate giving in with weakness · they are frightened that their constituents will give them a hard time if they submit www.managetrainlearn.com Page 54 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 55. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · they are in a position of power and fear an opening of the floodgates if they look weak ("give them an inch...") · they are not used to having their views challenged · they believe they cannot lose face in the eyes of themselves and their constituents. 92. The £5 Auction A simple demonstration of win-at-all-costs thinking is the £5 auction game. A group of people are invited to bid for a £5 note. They are allowed to bid in steps of 50p starting at 50p itself. Naturally bidding is brisk up to £4.50 and £5.00, as one person tries to beat the other. But, more often than not, the bidding will pass the £5.00 mark and go to £5.50 or even higher. Winning now matters more than the prize itself. Only when the "winner" realises that he or she loses money after the bidding passes £5, do they see the stupidity of "win-at-all- costs" thinking. 93. Compromise Although the end result of many negotiations is a coming together of positions and a settlement somewhere in the middle of extremes, compromise should not be a pre-planned strategy. This is because... · it encourages a spirit of concession · the other side will interpret your concessions as weakness and try to push you further · negotiation is not about trying to be nice to one another · your case may merit better than a compromise; their case may merit worse. Compromise is often the outcome of going to third party mediators whose interest is not in the fairness of the arguments or who has the greatest power but in getting a settlement. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 55 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 56. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 94. Win-Win Win-win is the only strategy worth pursuing in negotiations. Just because the other side wins as well as you does not mean that your gain is any less. Win-win encourages constructive conflict: the belief that to come out on top does not only happen by destroying the opposition. "It is as inappropriate to ask "who's winning?" in a successful negotiation as it is to ask "who's winning?" in a successful marriage. The answer, of course, is: we both are." Two four-year-old boys were playing soldiers together. "I want to be leader," said one. "But I want to be leader," said the second. "OK. You be the leader in front and I'll be the leader behind," said the first boy. "OK," said the second boy. 95. Working With Conflict When you represent others in negotiations, there are three possible sources of conflict: (a) there is the public conflict between yourself and the other side (b) there is the semi-public conflict between yourself and your own side who may want you to be tougher or softer (c) there is the private conflict you may have with your own team in how to respond to proposals and offers with short-term tactics. This is why the most successful negotiators are invariably the strongest team who are prepared to support one another despite what others may do to break them up. 96. Power Negotiations Power negotiations are high-profile negotiations in which teams of representatives come together to make or re-negotiate www.managetrainlearn.com Page 56 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 57. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management important agreements. There are 9 identifiable steps in the classic power negotiation... 1. opening remarks by the chair; aims and hopes 2. side A states its case, its demands, its claims 3. side B responds by arguing its case and claims 4. sides identify areas not in dispute 5. sides discuss disputed areas, with each side trying to win the other over 6. breakdown due to final positions not being bridgeable 7. search for possible ways forward resulting in breakthrough 8. hard bargaining over details and implementation 9. agreement. 97. Positional Negotiations Position-taking is the predominant theme in the first half of formal negotiations. This is where you take up a stand based on your ideal outcome and refuse to budge. In this period, your chief objective is to satisfy the demands of your constituents. Positional negotiating is characterised as being: · entrenched · all-or-nothing · stubborn · argumentative · problem-oriented · emotional. Your success in the positional phase depends on how far you can push the other side back towards your favoured view before breakdown occurs. 98. Principled Negotiations Principled negotiations take over once negotiations break down. Having pushed the other side back as far as they can go, you now seek some principles on which to base a win-win agreement. Your chief objective now is to satisfy the demands of both your side and your opponents. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 57 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 58. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Principled negotiating is characterised by being: · open · joint · mature · rational · purposeful · solution-oriented · imaginative. Your success at this stage depends on finding a solution that everyone is happy with. 99. The Three Phases As well as the nine steps of the classic power negotiation, and the two distinct halves of positional and principled negotiating, there are three distinct phases in a negotiation: · phase 1 is the opening phase and is more ritual than substance. It is a time to take up a position, sound out your opponents, test them and guess what their real needs are. · phase 2 is the cut-and-thrust phase where you are jockeying for position and consolidation before the inevitability of breakdown. · phase 3 is the latter phase where you agree to re-open talks in order to find a joint solution which will meet both sides' needs. 7. People Builders (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Quality Leadership Skills: 164 steps that will show you how to become a leader of class.) 100. How to Build People If managers make the most of their people, leaders add value to them. There are seven ways in which leaders build people value: www.managetrainlearn.com Page 58 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 59. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 1. sowing good habits 2. coaxing out skills 3. building the team 4. removing the limitations 5. educating them 6. empowering them 7. working with time. "The testosterone model of leadership - based on warfare and sport - is giving way to consensual models in which leadership is seen as a service to others. The new approach is closer to a client-supplier relationship than an employer-employee relationship." (Karl Albrecht) 101. Sowing Habits By gentle persuasion, personal example and helpful feedback, leaders encourage people to acquire the many small habits that, taken by themselves may be insignificant, but when added together can transform a team and its performance. Leaders sow good habits. · if you want to learn how to stop smoking, refrain from doing it. · if you want to learn how to make good presentations, do lots of them. · if you want to learn how to sell yourself on the phone, make more phone calls. "Excellence is an art won by habitation and training. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence is not then an act, but a habit." (Aristotle) 102. The Habit Score Nobody knows exactly how many times you need to repeat an action to make it a habit. Some people think that an action needs to be consciously repeated 20 times before it becomes automatic. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 59 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 60. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management The wastepaper basket test is a good way to find out your habit score. Move your wastepaper basket to a new position well away from its old position. Now count up the number of times you either go back to the old place or have to think consciously where it is. The first time you throw anything into the basket in its new place without thinking is your habit score. "If you want to do something, make a habit of it. If you want not to do something, refrain from doing it." (Epictetus, 89AD) 103. Coaxing Out Skills Leaders know that the potential to perform well lies half-dormant in most people. To bring skills out requires coaxing and coaching. These are the steps required in a coaching programme: · describe the end behaviours required; for example how to handle a difficult customer complaint, how to work effectively in the team, how to solve problems · break the behaviour down into key steps · now, both off-the-job and on-the-job, practise and give feedback, practise and give feedback, practise and give feedback, until the responses are habitual. "Sow a thought and you reap an act; Sow an act and you reap a habit; Sow a habit and you reap a character; Sow a character and you reap a destiny." (Charles Reade) 104. Coaching Coaching is the surest way to build people's skills. It is not a process without pain or frustration which is why people need help to get through it. Stage 1 - Push: Motivation to learn is initially high but dives along with performance when progress is slower than expected. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 60 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 61. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Stage 2 - Hard slog: This is the time of hard slog when nothing seems to work. The skills don't come off, you have more failures than successes and you wonder why you ever started. The coach keeps up your self-belief. Stage 3 - Crossing the magic line: Having persisted, things gradually start to fall into place. There are even encouraging successes which breed more successes. Stage 4 - On their own: Things now fall into place. The job makes sense and you discover a rhythm to it. The coach withdraws to the sidelines and is available for help. 105. Building the Team You build a team by taking a group of people from unshared certainty to shared uncertainty. Phase 1 - Unshared certainty: people work on their own without any concern for others. Being self-reliant means being safe. This is an organisation that follows rules and procedures and minds its back. Phase 2 - Functional co-operation: people build formal links with others but only on job-related matters. Phase 3 - Common cause: people find things they want to do together and start working as a team. Phase 4 - Shared uncertainty: people are willing to join together to undertake challenging tasks with uncertain outcomes. "Give your people the only two gifts you can give them: the roots to grow and the wings to fly." (From a Jewish wedding blessing) 106. Removing Limitations Many people who work well within themselves are like fish in a plexiglass tank: they swim around within the limitations imposed on them. When the glass is raised, or a bigger tank found, new heights are possible but, without confidence-boosting leadership, the fish, like the people, often stay within their habitual limits. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 61 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 62. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management One of the most important tasks that people-builders can perform is to get people to remove their limitations and believe in themselves. CAN = CAN'T - T. 107. The Pygmalion Effect A team does as well as you and the team think they can. In an experiment at a British school, teachers were given assorted ratings about a new set of intakes, ranging from "excellent prospect" to "unlikely to do well". These ratings were arbitrary and bore no relation to the pupils' true abilities. In tests at the end of the year, there was an astonishing degree of correlation between how pupils performed and the random ratings given to the teachers. The relationship between expectation and performance is sometimes called the Pygmalion effect after Pygmalion, a king of ancient Cyprus. Pygmalion fell in love with an ivory image of a young maiden. Such was his love for the image that he begged the goddess Aphrodite to breathe life into it and make her his own. This she did and Pygmalion married her and became by her father of Paphos. 108. Leading Out Most organisations do not go further in building skills than a mix of on-the-job training and off-the-job training. The result is that immediate skill deficiencies are met, but not necessarily those of tomorrow or the next day. People-builders go one step beyond training. They know that educating people - the word "educating" means "leading out" - involves people in all aspects of the business, the community and the world around them. An educated employee re-pays your trust a hundred-fold by becoming a better worker and a better representative of the organisation. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 62 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 63. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management "If you are planning for a year, sow rice; if you are planning for a decade, plant trees; if you are planning for a lifetime, educate people." (Chinese proverb) 109. Where Training Leads A consultant was visiting a top Japanese industrialist on a fact- finding mission. He was curious to find out how the Japanese workforce achieved such huge productivity gains over their counterparts in the West. "First, we train, " said the industrialist. "Then what?" asked the consultant. "We train," said the industrialist. "And next?" "We train." Smiling, the consultant asked: "What do you do next? Train?" "No," said the industrialist. "We educate." "OK," said the consultant. "And then what?" "Then we succeed," said the industrialist. 110. Empowering When you have power and release it in others, it comes back to you with credit. Empowering those you lead means: · respecting them as individuals in their own right · encouraging them through showing interest and support · letting them own their jobs and take as much control as they can · seeking their views and contributions · making people feel good about what they do · restoring pride in their workmanship · not treating them in ways you would hate to be treated yourself. "Make a careful list of all the things done to you that you abhorred. Don't do them to others, ever. Make another list of all the things done to you that you loved. Do them to others, always." (Dee Hock) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 63 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 64. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 111. The Builder One popular image of the successful leader is the person who, by force of willpower, charisma and personality takes over an ailing enterprise and magically turns it around, transforming failure into success, loss into profit and disaster into triumph. The reality is that there are very few examples of such leadership. And yet there are many examples of leaders who come into an enterprise, set themselves and their teams a vision of what is possible and then bit by bit, through hard times and good build towards the vision. "The great successful men and women of the world have used their imaginations; they think ahead and create their mental picture and then go to work materialising that picture in all its details, filling in here, adding a little bit there, altering this bit and that bit, but steadily building, steadily building." (Robert Collier) 112. Working with Time Building the team does not happen overnight, nor can the pace of real individual development be forced. There is a plant called the Chinese bamboo plant which, when planted, shows no signs of growth for four years. Nevertheless, it must be tended, fed and watered with care throughout this time. Then, in its fifth year, it starts to grow and inside six weeks reaches a magnificent height of ninety feet. Sometimes, people are like the Chinese bamboo plant. Ray Treen, chief executive of Cornhill Insurance, says: "I am a long-distance runner, not a sprinter. What I lack in charisma, I more than make up for in persistence. If you're passionate about your goals, persistence and patience are the keys." www.managetrainlearn.com Page 64 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 65. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 113. The Leader Withdraws When leaders have created and coached the team, built them into an interdependent unit, removed the limitations to what they believe they can do, and empowered them to stand on their own, then the team can perform without the leader's presence or leadership. It doesn't matter whether it is on the battlefield or the business park. "If you're a rifle company commander, or one of our team leaders, you may well be a casualty of the first bullet. If that happens, and if the unit that you trained has the discipline and the character to accomplish its objective without you, then that's a reflection of your commitment and your contribution. Ultimately, the most effective measure of a leader is the performance of his unit in his absence." (J. Schoomaker, quoted in the Ninth House Network). 8. Positivity (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Maximising Your Potential: 158 steps that will show you how to discover and use your own hidden talents.) Positive ways of thinking and behaving have become synonymous with self-development and are the trademark of all those who want to achieve their goals in life. Positivity means rejecting those things which hold us back and keep us grounded in the present or the past. Our positive spirit is the Adventurer in us. It is the part of us that glimpses what we are capable of. Through learning how to think positively about our goals, and to act positively in our daily habits, we attract to ourselves all the means which make our goals achievable. In this way, positivity has in itself the quality of magic. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 65 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 66. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 114. What is Positivity? Positivity is not a Pollyanna-ish rose-coloured view of things which ignores reality. It is about seeing things as they are and about making choices in how to perceive, interpret and respond. If you can choose between big goals and small ones, choose big ones; If you can choose between the best interpretation and the worst, choose the best; If you can choose between a good deed and a bad, choose the good deed; If you can choose between being happy and being sad, choose to be happy; If you can choose between liking and disliking, choose liking; If you can choose between loving and not loving, choose loving. 115. The Faces of Positivity There are seven faces of positivity: 1. create a positive self-image. A positive self-image is the image you have of yourself succeeding in your goals. 2. talk in terms of positive goals. You cannot achieve a negatively-defined goal 3. have positive expectations. Whenever you think of the future, look to experience the very best results. 4. always review positively. A positive review is one which starts and ends on a high note, remembering what you gain from each experience. 5. mix with positive people. People who think positively are uplifting, encouraging and fun to be with. 6. use positivity to feel good. Positive thinking is good medicine. 7. get the positivity habit. Introduce a note of positive thinking into everyday habits. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 66 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 67. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 116. The Self-Image Maxwell Maltz, one-time cosmetic surgeon turned psychoanalyst, relates that many clients with facial disfigurements consulted him to undergo major surgery to correct something wrong with how they looked. But in many cases, people felt no better after the treatment than before. Maltz concluded that it is the imagined self-image that determines how we feel about ourselves not the actual image. We are who we think we are regardless of how we actually are or how we appear to the rest of the world. So, if we can choose between a negative self-image and a positive one, we should choose the positive one that emphasises our achievements, our successes and our strengths. As Maltz demonstrated, all lasting change starts on the inside and works its way out. 117. Gold "What I am giving you is gold. Mothers, fathers, managers, bosses, superintendants, company presidents, everybody, heed this: raise your own self-esteem to where it belongs and good things will happen, both for you and others. How do you do that? You do it through your self-talk. You must think well of yourself. You must know you're good. Start by controlling your own self-talk. From here forward, it is out of place in your life or your business to be devaluative, belittling, or sarcastic. Such junk has no place in a high-performance organisation just as it has no place in a high- performance individual. What you will do is start looking for ways to boost your morale with your self-talk. You are going to do it regularly. You are going to do it every day: morning, noon and night." (Louis Tice) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 67 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 68. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 118. Positive Goals Our brains need images of positive goals to work towards. They become confused if we even talk in terms of avoiding a negative goal. Research into giving up smoking has discovered that one of the most effective ways to stop smoking is to feed the brain images of situations when you are not smoking. Not: I want to stop smoking. But: I want to enjoy a pleasant evening at the pub, have a couple of cool drinks, a tasty meal, lively conversation; and all the time breathe in fresh, clear, pure, uncontaminated air. As well as thinking positively, this goal can be turned into a present-tense affirmation: "I love being in a pub in nice clean air" or a visualisation: "I can see myself sitting in a pub with nice clear air." 119. Positive Expectations There have been numerous experiments to confirm the truth that when you expect the best, you usually get the best and when you expect the worst, you usually get that too. This is known as the self-prophesying principle. Kelly conducted research in colleges to show that, when some students were told that their new lecturer was "warm and friendly", and others were told that she was "cold and aloof", these were the impressions people had after the first lecture. So at the start of any new enterprise, or at the start of any new job, or the start of any new day, we should look forward with expectations of the very best. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 68 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 69. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 120. Salutation to the Dawn The following verse reflects positive expectation. Look to this day: For it is life, the very life of life; In its brief course Lie all the verities and realities of your existence: The bliss of growth, The glory of action, The splendour of beauty. For yesterday is but a dream, And tomorrow is only a vision; But today well liv'd makes every yesterday a dream of happiness And every tomorrow a vision of hope. Look well therefore to this day! Such is the salutation to the dawn. (Kalidasa - Indian dramatist) 121. Positive Review If we can be positive at the start of an enterprise, we should be equally positive at the end. We often don't look back at all when we reach a milestone in our progress. We take it for granted that we have made progress or, worse, dwell on the things that didn't go too well. Being critical by picking out the things that we didn't do well or failed at is the scourge of the perfectionist. We will never be satisfied and will become discouraged. There are gems in every situation if we only look hard enough. So, when we look back we should use positive phrases and words to emphasise what went well. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 69 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 70. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 122. Giving Positive Feedback John had just completed his first game in goal for the school under-12's. They had lost 4-1. John's head was as low as it could get on his mud-splattered jersey. His Dad met him as he trudged wearily from the goalmouth. He crouched down so that their two faces met. "Chin up, John," his Dad said. "You've just finished one of the toughest games you'll face this year. They're a good side, one of the best and you managed to put a really good goal past them." "But they put four past us!" said John tearfully. "Great!" said his Dad. "You can learn just how they managed to get them past you and work out how to plug the gaps in future. Now you know how to stop them in the replay." "You think so?" asked John. "I know so," said his Dad. 123. It's In the Words How we perceive something often depends on the words we use to describe it. One organisation that undertook a culture change programme decided to change the way employees at all different levels felt about each other. When they started looking at the way people expressed themselves, they found people's language littered with hierarchical words, such as "superiors" for managers and "subordinates" for the staff. By changing such words to "team- leaders" and "the team", a start was made to more positive attitudes. A tough problem is not difficult or depressing, but "interesting" and "a nut we're going to enjoy cracking". A setback is not a disaster, failure or catastrophe, but a chance to learn, an interesting development or a chance to assess. An obstacle is not a barrier but a challenge. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 70 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 71. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 124. Igniters & Chloroforms Igniters are words that make us spark; cholroforms are words that deaden the nerve ends. Examples of Igniters: · That's great! ·Good job! · I made a mistake. I'm sorry; can you help me? · Fantastic! · Well done! · Go for it! Examples of chloroforms: · Yes, but it won't work. · It's all my fault. · Who do you think you are! · How dare you? · If it were any good, someone would have thought of it. 125. Mix with Positive People Surrounding yourself with people who think positively is easier said than done, but, given time and a change in habits, the most negative person can become positive. Allan Pease recalls how one of his colleagues, Alan, was conducting a seminar on communication. One student would make for him during each break and find any excuse to complain. He would complain about the rain, about his football team, about how he was being treated by his ex-wife and so on and on. Alan decided that he would ignore every single negative comment. He just looked elsewhere, picked at his lunch or read the newspaper. When however the odd positive comment cropped up, Alan's face would light up and he would engage in normal conversation. After using this technique for a while, the student started to communicate good-naturedly with Alan while reverting back to pessimism with everyone else. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 71 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 72. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 126. The Electricity of Life Enthusiasm is the common thread that links all positive people. Gordon Parks called it "the electricity of life" and Charles Kingsley said that what everyone needed in life was not comforts but "something to be enthusiastic about". The composer Mozart has been described as "psychotically positive". In one letter that he wrote to his wife about the opening performance of one of his operas, he enthusiastically described all the positive aspects of the performance. Only at the end of the letter and by way of after-thought did he explain that the opera had received no critical acclaim and the audience had numbered only ten! "You can do anything if you have enthusiasm. It is the yeast that makes our hopes rise to the stars. With it, there is accomplishment, without it there are only alibis." (Henry Ford) 127. Good Medicine Some of the most interesting work on positivity has been in the area of positivity and health. One study by Dr George Gallup in the 1960's looked at people who passed the age of 95. Gallup wanted to find out what their secret was. Along with "staying busy" and "eating in small quantities", a majority of the respondents said that they had something positive to look forward to, whether this was a trip they were planning, a task they wanted to complete or people they wanted to see. It is as if the body just doesn't want to think unhealthily if it has valuable goals to achieve and positive things to do. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 72 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 73. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 128. Positivity as Pain-Relief Emile Coué, the founder of auto-suggestion, recommended the following positivity technique for dealing with mental or physical pain. "Every time during the course of a day that you experience some suffering, affirm to yourself immediately that you will get rid of it. Then isolate yourself, close your eyes and laying your hand on the affected part of the body, or the forehead if it is a mental problem, repeat these words as quickly as possible: "It's going away; it's going away; it's going away"...until the pain goes away. With practice you can get rid of any kind of pain in about 20 seconds." 129. The Positivity Habit Good habits are as easy to make as are bad habits. If we can choose to be positive in our daily routines, then we might as well make positive habits and feel happy as make negative ones and feel sad. Here is a checklist of daily positive habits: · dress the best you can · smile at others and watch what happens · try to genuinely like others · use positive strokes · when you meet a stranger, be the first to shake hands · be interested in the world around you · give others the most precious gift you have: some of your time · take time over your personal grooming to look your best · give yourself treats for work well done. 130. What You Think You Can... Some years ago a major oil company decided to find out why some of their engineers were creative and others were not. A team of psychologists spent three months in the organisation studying the engineers and asking them questions. At the end of www.managetrainlearn.com Page 73 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 74. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management the investigation they produced a report. The conclusion was simple. There was no difference in qualifications, training, education, experience, general skills, nor in company position, between the creative engineers and the non-creative ones. The only difference was that the creative engineers thought that they were creative while the non-creative thought they weren't. In life you get what you believe you'll get. 9. Teamwork (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Magical Teamwork: 136 steps that will show you how to turn groups into teams.) In all strong teams, there is evidence of behaviour which is aimed at strengthening the way the team works as a team. It can be seen when the team interacts whilst carrying out their normal business. At first, these behaviours may have to be consciously learnt and applied, since some of them - sharing, for example, - are not instinctive behaviours. In time, these strands of interacting are observed, tested and repeated by others in the team until they become a way of team life. 131. Acts of Teamwork Acts of teamwork are those things which the members of a team do to encourage the interdependence of the team. In teams that are already well-developed and successful, these acts may appear to happen spontaneously and naturally. In teams which are at earlier stages of development, they may need to be consciously applied. Eight key acts of teamwork that will foster interdependence and the team's development are: 1. sharing, ie sharing of ideas, plans, and feelings www.managetrainlearn.com Page 74 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 75. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 2. asking for help from others in the team 3. building a positive can-do climate 4. making people feel important in the team 5. trust in those on whom you rely 6. giving constructive feedback 7. convergent rather than divergent thinking 8. taking risks together. 132. Sharing It is a uniquely human characteristic to give and receive. A six- month old baby that receives things from its mother will, by the time it is nine months old be handing them back to her as well. Teams become stronger not just when we share goals, information and ideas, but when we share personal things such as feelings, fears, values and needs, as well. Open acts of sharing are the mainstay of good teams. They break down the barriers of defensiveness and tell others that the team is more important than any individual on their own. 133. Sharing Goals Goals can exist in different time frames, from daily goals to lifetime goals; and in different dimensions, from personal goals to shared goals. When people focus on goals that are big, exciting and reachable only through combined efforts, then a new and powerful motivation enters teamwork. Three people were working on a construction site. All were doing the same job but when each one was asked what he was doing, the answers varied. "Breaking rocks", said the first. "Earning a living," answered the second. "Helping to build a cathedral," replied the third. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 75 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 76. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management (Peter Schultz, Porsche) 134. Living Goals When groups have a clear knowledge of the goal they're working towards, and are committed to it, they become a team. Team- builders can assist this process if they... · have a goal that is simply stated · communicate it to everyone in the team especially newcomers · make it a living daily goal, not a far-off dream · check that it means something to everyone · make the goal worthwhile · take every opportunity to repeat it, re-phrase it and re-frame it. "When xne key xn the typewriter dxesn't wxrk prxperly, it's like xne persxn in the team nxt playing their full part. It destrxys the whxle effect." 135. Asking for Help Seeking help from others is a sign of a maturing team. Instead of pretending that we know it all, we are honest to admit we don't know everything and need help. We often hesitate to ask for help because we think we should know the answers, or because we fear being rejected. It may also be the culture of the organisation that people are judged on their own abilities and so asking for help is a sign of weakness; only losers need help. That way does not build teams. One way to encourage mutual reliance is to get each team member to work for a period of time with each other team member in turn. This helps people to appreciate the strengths of others in the team and to learn from them. In larger organisations, people from one function should spend time with people from other functions. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 76 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 77. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 136. Geese In Flight Geese fly in a V shape to protect members of the flock and to conserve energy. As the bird in front travels forward, it leaves a gap behind it called a vortice. This means that its following teammates have less air resistance to fly against. When the leader gets tired, it moves to the back of the V and all the geese move up the formation so that each of them gets a turn at leading. The formation allows all the geese to keep an eye on each other. This care and the technique of flying means that a flock of geese can cover 70% more distance than a bird flying on its own. Because each bird maximizes its strength, it is also much harder for predators to single out any bird for attack. This ensures the survival of the flock. 137. A Can-Do Climate Strong teams have an unshakeable belief that they and everyone else are going to win from being in the team. · goals are described in terms of what the team can achieve not what it can't · people look for the best points in each other and build on them · when one member has a setback, the whole team feel it and rally round · supportive and encouraging phrases outnumber knocking and denigrating phrases · the team's vision is described repeatedly and in clear achievement images www.managetrainlearn.com Page 77 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 78. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · the success of one team member is shared equally and without envy by all team members. 138. The 3 A's, not the 3 C's Jim and Sid are two team leaders on a manufacturing site. They work on different shifts but their teams do the same job. Jim has a great team; Sid has a poor team. Jim and Sid rarely have time to meet and discuss their teams, until they find themselves together at coffee on day one of a training course. Sid: Jim, you're so lucky having such a good team. I'd willingly swap yours with mine. Jim: Wouldn't make any difference, Sid. Sid: How's that? Jim: It's not about who you've got; it's about how you think about them and what you do. Sid: What do you mean? Jim: Well, take yourself and Ian, your deputy. You're full of the 3 C's. Sid: The what? Jim: The 3 C's: criticising, complaining, and condemning... Sid: Too right. Jim: ...whereas we ban the 3 C's and try to use the 3 A's. Sid: What are they then? Jim: Accept, acknowledge and appreciate. We try to let everyone on the team know they belong to the team, even the poor performers. That's "accepting". Then we acknowledge them. We use their names a lot and we let them know they're important. Lastly, we let them know we appreciate them. That's because we do. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 78 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 79. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 139. Valuing Others We all need to feel important. When we are valued, we take pride in who we are and what we do. The acts of valuing others can be taken by anyone in the team. Know who the team members are. Use their name. Remember personal things about them. Show interest. Don't judge others. Give them strokes of recognition. Listen to them. Accept them for who they are. Warren Bennis is professor of business administration at the University of Southern California. The campus is in what he describes as a "dry, crack-infested part of LA". But, he says, every morning is a delight because the grounds of the university are kept so green and fresh forming a contrast to the surrounding city. "It makes a big difference to me, but I wonder if anyone has reminded the gardeners of the importance of their work." 140. The Familiarity Curve The "Familiarity Curve" throws some interesting and amusing light on how we address others in a large team. · close familiarity, as expressed in pet names, nicknames or abbreviated names, is usually reserved for those nearest, and curiously, for those furthest away, (eg "Joe") · those who are not so close, nor so distant, are more formally addressed, though still with some friendliness, (eg "Joseph") · those who occupy the middle ground between closeness and distance are often addressed most formally (eg "Mr Brown" or "Brown"). www.managetrainlearn.com Page 79 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 80. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 141. Trust Trust is the invisible glue of strong teams. In teams which live with danger - firefighters, rescue teams, the armed forces, circus troupes - your life may depend on others. You need to trust them as much as they have to trust you. You can't make people trust you but you can create a trusting climate by... · showing unconditional trust in your fellow team members · not withdrawing trust even when others let you down · keeping your promises · disclosing weaknesses and parts of yourself that are vulnerable · working to eliminate secrecy, selfishness, hidden agendas and politicking. 142. Constructive Feedback We find it easier to give criticism than to give praise. This is often in the mistaken belief that we can change people if we point out what they are doing wrong rather than point out what they are doing right. Constructive feedback is a way to tell others in the team what we like about what they are doing and at the same time suggest ways in which they can do even better. Its premise is that there is always something in a person's performance that you can praise and build on. "Rachel, I thought your handling of that customer was really good. I liked the way you showed him you were listening. Your body language was really spot on. I wasn't sure about threatening to report him for the swearing. I would have ignored it myself. But I'm going to try out your listening tactics myself." www.managetrainlearn.com Page 80 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 81. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 143. Convergent Thinking In a discussion in which divergent listening predominates, people's views go off into space and are lost forever. In convergent listening, the team captures everything that is said. They look for and find connections and links between what one person says, what another has said, what has gone before and what might come after. This is because they spend more time listening to others than they do to themselves. Instead of pushing their own viewpoint, as happens in divergent listening, they seek to add to what others say, link it to other viewpoints and so build on it. "That's an interesting idea, Ann; it ties in with what Jimmy was just saying. It doesn't go as far as Ron's point. Maybe we should hear if anyone else can bridge the gap..." 144. Groups and Teams Groups are defined as collections of individuals who come together in order to put forward their own views. They are principally interested in coming up with the best individual idea rather than a group idea. Groups are therefore essentially competitive. Teams, on the other hand, work together. Peter Honey has studied the behaviours of groups and the behaviours of teams. According to his findings, team behaviours are noticeably more convergent than group behaviours: · teams spend more time seeking ideas, suggesting ideas, building on ideas, supporting ideas and seeking information · groups spend more time proposing their own ideas, disagreeing with what others say, pointing out the problems in others' ideas and clarifying what has been said. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 81 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 82. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 145. Taking Risks The team's unique capacity for support comes to the fore when the team takes risks and navigates its way through change. Risks and change occur in the natural development of teams but are also an unavoidable feature of the modern world of work. Teams can support each other when changes are imposed from outside. The strength of a good team also means that when change is undertaken from within the team, the burden of risk is shared if it all goes wrong. Teams allow us to take greater and bigger risks than we could afford to take alone. "Great discoveries and improvements invariably involve the co- operation of many minds." (Alexander Graham Bell) 146. A Model of Change Elisabeth Kubler-Ross has developed a model of risk-taking change in which she signposts seven stages where the team's support is crucial. Any team facing externally-imposed or self- imposed change may go through these stages before the change is fully accepted. Stage 1: shock: "This is hard!" Stage 2: denial: "I can't handle this!" Stage 3: frustration: "Nothing works properly any more." Stage 4: depression: "This is hopeless. I can't see a way out." Stage 5: experimentation: "Maybe if...; it might work if..." Stage 6: decisions: "I think I'll try it this way..." Stage 7: integration: "It works!" 147. Team Morale Morale shows itself as a state of mind radiating confidence in people. Where each member feels sure of his own niche, stands on his own abilities and works out his own solutions knowing he is part of a team. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 82 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 83. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Where no person feels anxiety to be better than anyone else. Where there exists a sharing of ideas, a freedom to plan, a sureness of worth and a knowledge that help is available for the asking. To the end that people grow and mature, warmed by a friendly climate. 10. Time Travellers (Note: This module is taken from Step by Step to Balanced Time Management: 155 steps that will show you how to balance your time and manage your life.) No time management programme can be complete without recognizing the effect of personality on attitudes towards time. Our deep-rooted personalities play a part in determining whether we are workaholics, work-avoiders, procrastinators, dreamers, achievers, socialisers, idlers, analysers or work fanatics. Being aware of how personalities affect time management means being able to accept not just how we are but how others are too. 148. Time Tendencies None of us can ever fully master time, just as none of us can ever fully master our lives. We are subject to the imperfections of being human and in particular, the constraining personality traits which we both inherit and acquire as we grow up. Our individual personalities colour our attitude towards time in one of two directions: doing too much or too little. · the tendency to do too much: ie, those who over-focus and overwork and create imbalance in their lives. An example is the workaholic who lives for nothing but his or her career or the hyperactive who is never still. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 83 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 84. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management · the tendency to do too little: ie, the lazy, the fearful and the melancholic. An example is the procrastinator who fears making a mistake and the risk-taker who loves the thrill of leaving things to the last minute. 149. Nine Time Travellers Our different personalities create within each of us a particular atttitude towards time. Each personality type has positive as well as negative characteristics; no type has a monopoly on the best approach to time management; but all have the potential to grow and change. The nine Time Travellers are: 1. the perfectionist who likes to plan each moment 2. the socialiser who likes to spend time with others 3. the achiever who likes to be winning all the time 4. the artist who likes to fully experience each moment 5. the analyser who likes to observe each moment 6. the doubter who likes to be sure of each moment 7. the hurrier who likes to rush each moment 8. the rebel who likes to live intensely in each moment 9. the wanderer who likes to be free in each moment. 150. The Perfectionist The Perfectionist is typically a workaholic who spends time working hard to achieve what he or she regards as the perfect piece of work. Characteristics: conscientious; sets large challenges; works hard in order to avoid failure; believes in high standards; works to a set routine; pleased with praise; upset by criticism. Good at: planning each day; self-development; finding solutions. Poor at: making decisions (in case he or she gets it wrong); knowing when enough's enough; relaxing by doing nothing. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 84 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 85. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Time management symbol: the 3 o'clock clock. Jean-Paul Sartre described the 3 o'clock clock as "too early or too late" for anything you want to start or finish: the typical dilemma of work- obsessed perfectionists. 151. A Perfectionist's Time The Perfectionist doesn't believe he or she has a problem with time management: after all, they find time planning second- nature, have the capacity for hard work and do achieve work of a high standard. The Perfectionist is typified by playwright George Bernard Shaw who wrote mechanically every day of his life at set times and to given targets. He later said: "When I was a young man, I observed that nine out of ten things I did were failures. I didn't want to be a failure, so I did ten times more work." To others: To others, perfectionists are unbalanced in their zeal for work. Many people feel there is a holier-than-thou attitude towards time management by perfectionists. For balance: For a more balanced management of their time, perfectionists need to see that perfection is unattainable and that "good enough" is usually good enough. 152. The Socialiser The Socialiser likes to spend their time in contact with others. This can work in their favour as time managers because they can build valuable relationships that help get things done. It can also work against them if they overdevelop the purely social side of their working life at the expense of achieving useful work. Characteristics: friendly; sociable; talkative; gossipy; warm; caring; excitable; nurturing; nervous. Good at: creating positive ambiences in which others work; persuading others to do things with or for them; working for others selflessly. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 85 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 86. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Poor at: planning their own lives; making personal changes; sticking to routines. Time management symbol: the phone, which is the umbilical cord for the Socialiser to the world outside. 153. A Socialiser's Time Without strong personal ambitions, Socialisers are not good time planners. Work is about being with others, not personal achievement. The most favourite milieu for the Socialiser is the meeting room. Meetings involving the Socialisers are always sociable affairs since they will worry as much about how others are as about what's on the agenda. To others: To others, Socialisers can be frustrating time managers: they have few ideas, ambitions or techniques of their own and prefer to do what others want rather than work out what they want. For balance: For a more balanced approach to managing their time, Socialisers need to see the positive work benefits in their relationships with others, not just the social benefits. 154. The Achiever The Achiever is a highly ambitious person who prizes work for the success it brings. Achievers want to impress others and see work as a way of doing this. They will therefore volunteer to do any job and take any task if it promises a reward. Characteristics: ambitious; popular; attractive; sexy; good- looking; successful; smart; confident; fit; energetic. Good at: making jobs look easy; accommodating themselves to others; juggling high levels of work. Poor at: knowing their limits; saying "No"; delivering their promises; depth to their work. Time management symbol: the promotion ladder: Achievers rate work as the highest priority closely followed by organisational success. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 86 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 87. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 155. An Achiever's Time Achievers know that they are good at what they do. They have few self-doubts about their abilities. They are quite ready to take on any job and have high workloads. They collect jobs willingly if this will make them look good in other people's eyes. To others: Superficially, the Achievers seem to come close to the perfect time manager: suave, relaxed, debonair, hard- working, successful, someone you'd want on your team. However, there may be a different story under the surface: jobs collected may not get done; jobs may lack originality and depth; success may just be show. For balance: Instead of volunteering to do everything, Achievers can be more productive when they stick to what they're good at. "I think knowing what you can't do is more important than knowing what you can do." (Lucille Ball) 156. The Artist The Artist is a figure who doesn't quite fit into organisational life. He or she may be a loner, may not dress, speak or act like others in the workplace and is likely not to want to conform to the rules, standards and norms that everyone else has to follow. Characteristics: different; special; sensitive; feels deeply; sympathetic; thoughtful; appreciative; empathetic; creative. Good at: unique insights; working beyond the call of duty at something they believe in; innovative work. Poor at: being on time; following procedures; routine work. Time management symbol: the colour purple: Artist personality types share Alice Walker's comment in the film "The Color Purple": "I think it pisses God off if you walk by the colour purple in a field somewhere and don't notice it." 157. An Artist's Time Artists have a cavalier attitude to time which they regard as a constraint and restriction. They thus arrive late and stay late; reluctantly follow rotas, and frequently miss deadlines. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 87 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 88. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management To others: Artists can be frustrating members of the workforce because of their bucking of systems. Their saving grace is that they allow us to see the value of an alternative view of work that is not based on following the conformist route but is personal, individual and deeply felt. When they succeed, they remind us that time at work can still be spent on creating things of real value and beauty. Advice for balance: Artists who work in organisations need to cultivate their patch with hard work as well as reminding us, as they do, that now and again, we need to stop and watch the flowers grow. 158. The Analyser The Analyser is a great student of work rather than a great participant in it. They are gifted at reading, understanding and interpreting situations; and can cast light on complex problems and relationships for others. They make good agony aunts, counsellors and listeners. Characteristics: thoughtful; inquisitive; curious; well-read; analytical; amusing; uninvolved; hate the spotlight; deflect attention; bookish. Good at: working things out in their heads; standing back from problems; putting concepts into words. Poor at: acting on their own advice; getting involved; self- development. Time management symbol: the monastic ivory tower where time stands still. 159. An Analyser's Time The Analyser has a touch of the absent-minded professor about them. They can easily get so wrapped up in their thoughts and ideas or in conversation with others that they can forget the routine details of daily life - such as preparing a meal, going to bed on time, keeping appointments. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 88 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 89. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management To others: Analysers can be valuable for their intellectual contributions but may prefer it when others do the work. "Thinking is easy, acting is difficult, and to put one's thoughts into action is the most difficult thing in the world." (Goethe) Advice for balance: Analysers need to beware of the danger of "analysis paralysis": spending more time chewing things over than getting results. 160. The Doubter The Doubter is a person who hesitates to act because he or she is unsure whether they should. It may be because something hasn't been decided, or information isn't yet available or because a higher authority hasn't sanctioned it. Doubters are the great procrastinators, questioners and hesitators. Characteristics: loyal to others; good in teams; likes leadership; seeks protection; wants certainty; unsure. Good at: following instructions to the letter, Doubters will arrive not just on time but very early; handling responsibility to others; working in a team. Poor at: taking his or her own decisions; risk and change; self- belief. Time management symbol: the question mark: Doubters always need to know a bit more before they will act. 161. A Doubter's Time Doubters make very good organisational men and women because they believe that their time belongs to others whom they are contracted to work for. They will therefore drop anything at any time if asked to, no matter what the cost in piled-up work or stress. To others: Doubters are often highly competent, well-adjusted, loyal and dependable servants of companies but they frequently don't make it to the top. In Bill Cosby's words, it may be because they are attuned to others' needs more than their own: "I don't www.managetrainlearn.com Page 89 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 90. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody." Advice for balance: For balanced time management, Doubters need to regularly re-assess how much time they give to others and how much time they keep to themselves. 162. The Hurrier The Hurrier is a person who manages to combine a wide range of activities in a short space of time. Everything they do is done at a quick pace: they move quickly, talk quickly, think quickly. In an age of short attention spans and busy living, Hurriers appear dynamic time managers. Characteristics: cheerful; busy; active; versatile; never short of something to do; smiling; quick-paced; frenetic. Good at: any kind of activity; energy to do many things; organising. Poor at: prioritising workloads; being easily distracted; sticking to one thing for long. Time management symbol: the hare, as in the fable of the tortoise and the hare; or the indigestion tablet: Hurriers rarely have time to eat a full meal or not be doing something else while they're eating. "He who sows in a hurry reaps indigestion." 163. A Hurrier's Time Hurriers believe they have a positive attitude to time: they appear to know a lot, achieve a lot, leaving others for dust. This is fine for work that is fast-paced but less so for work that needs more depth, care and sensitivity. "The trouble with life in the fast lane is that you get to the other end in an awful hurry." (John Jensen) To others: Hurriers are often loners who work at a pace which others simply cannot match. Their value in a team is that they www.managetrainlearn.com Page 90 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 91. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management will often volunteer to do work that nobody else wants to do - and do it. Advice for balance: Rushing through life may mean you get to the end quicker than you'd planned - through burn-out, exhaustion and illness. Hurriers can learn that slowing down has its benefits too. 164. The Rebel The Rebel is one of life's fighters whose passion is the heat of battle. They are defenders of the weak; empassioned challengers to anything unfair; chargers on white horses. Rebels are reactive to the moment: they come to life by living to the full in the moment, whether in an argument, a piece of work or a party with friends. Characteristics: loud; confident; dynamic; leaders; outgoing; extrovert; battling; argumentative; entrepreneurial; strong. Good at: squeezing every last minute out of time; living life on the edge; defying deadlines; acting spontaneously and instinctively. Poor at: learning from the past; planning for the future; suiting other people's plans; going at other people's pace. Time management symbol: the candle that burns at both ends. 165. A Rebel's Time Rebels believe that time is something to be challenged and beaten. They thus like to run late for deadlines, coming to life in the tension this creates and knowing that they will beat it in the end. They push time to the limit. "My candle burns at both ends; It will not last the night. But, ah, my foes and oh, my friends: It gives a lovely light." (Edna St Vincent Millay) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 91 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 92. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management To others: To others, Rebels sometimes seem blessed with an uncanny ability for timeliness: they appear to bend time to their will. When others give in to time, they believe they can conquer it. Advice for balance: Because they live intensely in the moment, Rebels ignore both the past and the future. They can thus fail to learn from their past experiences and occasionally fail because of their reluctance to plan. 166. The Wanderer The Wanderer is a person who loves the freedom to go where they want. He or she believes life should be simple and without commitment. They are thus frequently absent - both in body and spirit. They are usually elsewhere when you want them and, if you can tie them down, they find it hard to concentrate for long on one thing. Characteristics: relaxed; easy-going; peacemakers; no problem; at ease with the world; unambitious; content; likeable. Good at: enjoying what life brings; going with the flow; keeping things simple; avoiding confrontation. Poor at: committing themselves to time and place; staying around for long; exerting themselves. Time management symbol: the empty desk and chair - where the Wanderer was until they took off. 167. A Wanderer's Time Wanderers are more in tune with natural cycles than with the artificial timescales of the workplace. They tend to go with the mood. On the other hand, they tend to want to avoid excessive commitments, so will despatch their duties as early, quickly and as simply as they can. Wanderers are not ambitious but they manage to achieve a high level of contentment. "Nice guys finish last, but we get to sleep in." (Evan Davis) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 92 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 93. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management To others: Wanderers can be frustrating when they miss appointments or fail to turn up. The compensation is that business is always despatched simply with a Wanderer. Advice for balance: If others can teach Wanderers about commitment, Wanderers can teach the workaholics about enjoyment. "All the animals except man know that the principal business of life is to enjoy it." (Samuel Butler) www.managetrainlearn.com Page 93 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 94. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management End of the Step by Step Sampler ------------------- Other Books In This Series Now that you’ve worked through this sampler, why not fully develop your team’s skills with the full versions of the books in the MTL Step by Step Series? Order any individual book to learn a specific skill, or order the full set. It could be the best investment you ever make in you and your team. To order any books in the Step by Step Series, contact any ManageTrainLearn re-seller, or visit http://www.managetrainlearn.com www.managetrainlearn.com Page 94 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 95. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management Books In The MTL “Step By Step” Training Series Now that you’ve worked through this coursebook, why not fully develop your skills with other books in the MTL “Step By Step” Training Series? Order any individual book to learn a specific skill, or order the full set. It could be the best investment you ever make in you and your team. Here is the full MTL Step by Step Training Series. 1. Turn Your Team Into Top Performers – Even The Dullards! Step by Step to Perfect Appraisals Don’t waste your greatest asset and allow your competitors to walk all over you. Acquire the know- how to take your team to the top through the skills of performance coaching and appraisal. 2. Assert Yourself And Re-Discover Your Hidden Self-Confidence Step by Step to The Real Assertive You It’s true! When you learn the skills of assertiveness, something amazing happens to you. You re-discover that inside, you really are as confident and assured as you want to be. 3. Master The Challenge Of Change! Step by Step to Change Management Are you up to the challenge of change, or content to be another casualty? Master what experts call “the most difficult skill that managers face” and come out of change on top. 4. Write Your Own Paycheck! Step by Step to Masterful Communications Have you noticed how nearly every job for a manager requires communication skills? And have you also noticed that good communication skills are as rare as hen’s teeth? Which means if you learn to communicate like an expert every day is payday. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 95 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 96. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 5. Solve People Problems…Don’t Paper Over The Cracks! Step by Step to Skilful Counselling Skills When your people have problems, so do you! If you ignore them, they just fester and get worse. Learn how to manage them intelligently. The way the experts do. 6. Get A-Plus Grades From Every One Of Your Team! Step by Step to Wow! Customer Care In today’s business world, you can’t rely on a few of your staff to deliver the goods while the rest just coast along. So get wise. Turn every one of your team into customer service champs. 7. If You’re Not Delegating…Or Empowering…You’re Not Managing! Step by Step to Dynamic Delegation and Empowerment Discover the secrets of 21st century management, before your competitors do. Then sit back and watch your profits grow. 8. Don’t Ever Punish Your Staff Again! Step by Step to Effective Discipline If you’re still punishing your staff when they do something wrong, it could be costing you more than you think in poor morale, poor workmanship and expensive legal claims. Instead learn how to manage discipline the way effective managers do. 9. Psst! Wanna Know The Secret Of Great Managers? Step by Step to Understanding Personality Types The secret is out! Surveys of the world’s top managers show that great managers are great because they know what makes their people tick. Take your first step towards greatness. Learn to manage personalities. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 96 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 97. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 10. Don’t Push The River Upstream! Step by Step to Empowering Facilitation Skills When you stop forcing people to go where you want them to go, and go where they want to instead, you end up somewhere better. That’s the beauty of facilitation: sheer management magic. 11. How Often Are You Shark-Bait? Step by Step to Deal-Winning Influencing and Negotiating Skills If you frequently find yourself on the losing side of deals then wake up. Negotiating and getting what you want is a game and it’s won by the best players. Learn the rules and the skills. Become a shark not shark-bait. 12. Don’t Believe What They Tell You! Leaders Aren’t Born… They’re Made! Step by Step to Quality Leadership Skills When you learn and practise the skills of leadership, you’ll think you’ve grown another 12 inches. People will trust you more. Follow you more. And look up to you more. 13. When You Follow Your Dreams, God Probably Smiles Knowingly To Himself Step by Step to Maximising Your Potential Discover the true meaning of success and happiness by learning how to make the most of your natural strengths and gifts. 14. Present Like A Pro! Step by Step to Professional Presentation Skills Imagine what it must be like to stand in front of an audience and hold them in the palm of your hand taking them where you want them to go and feeling great when you see their admiration and hear their applause. Simple really. Presentation Skills. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 97 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 98. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 15. Hire The Very Best! Step by Step to Exceptional Recruitment and Selection When you recruit to your team, you want the very best. But recruitment is a minefield for the unwary and unprepared. One wrong move such as poor groundwork…or bad interview technique and you could blow yourself up. Just think of the costs of a tribunal case…or worse…a badly-made choice. Spare yourself the horrors of hiring…and learn to do it right. 16. Why Settle For Stress Relief…When You Can Have Super-Health? Step by Step to Stress Management That Works! Most people today manage stress the way they manage a headache: wait till it comes along and then pop a pill. As the real and imagined pressures of our complex world increase, you need more than a quick fix. You need a holistic programme that will deliver you super-health. 17. We Are All Angels With Only One Wing Step by Step to Magical Teambuilding When one day a group of people suddenly becomes a team, something magical happens. An experience they’ll never forget. A spiritual bond. Synergy. And “you-won’t-believe-what-we-can-do” performance. So add your own touch of magic today. Learn to build a team. 18. Turn Your Brain Into A High-Performing Business Asset! Step by Step to Creative Thinking Skills If you want to know what the most valuable commodity in the Industrial Age was it was brawn: power, strength and might. If you want to know what the most powerful commodity in the Information Age is and will be it’s brains. Get ahead while you can: learn how to use thinking skills now. www.managetrainlearn.com Page 98 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!
  • 99. The Step By Step Free Sampler: Appraisal Skills to Time Management 19. Don’t Trust A Time Management System…That Gives You More Work! Step by Step to Balanced Time Management There are hundreds of time management systems on the market today many of them promising to make you more efficient if you just do a bit more work! We don’t do that! Our “Four Elements” Time Management system works with the way you are. No extra work. Just natural, simple and devastatingly effective. 20. The Most Successful Organisations Of The Future Will Be Learning Ones Step by Step to Resourceful Training Skills If your organisation or team, isn’t a learning organisation or team, you might as well be history. To succeed in the information age, you need everyone to be a learner and everyone to be a coach. Nothing less will do. Are you prepared? To order any books in the Step by Step Training Series, contact any ManageTrainLearn re-seller, or go to www.managetrainlearn.com www.managetrainlearn.com Page 99 of 99 Get the MTL Experience!