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Introduction to Usability …
and a whole lot more



            Eric F. Shaver, Ph.D.
                May 24, 2010




   ...
Overview
 Introduction

 Overview of Human Factors & Ergonomics

 What is Usability?

 UX, UE, & UCD - How Do They Fit...
Who am I?
 Education
   • University of Idaho
        B.S. – Psychology
        M.S. – Human Factors Psychology
       ...
Who am I?, cont.
 www.thehumanfactorblog.com




                               4
Benchmark Research & Safety (BRS)
 Founded in 2000

 Locations: Moscow, Boise, Portland, & Grand Junction

 Educational...
BRS – Work We Do
   Human Factors & Ergonomics
   Usability & User Experience
   Web-Technology Development
   Researc...
Overview of Human Factors
& Ergonomics (HFE)




                            7
What is HFE?
 HFE is a unique scientific discipline that systematically
  applies the knowledge of human abilities and li...
Origins of HFE

                                                  Psychology


                         Industrial
       ...
Industries Benefiting from HFE
   Aerospace              Health care
   Automotive             Manufacturing
   Chemi...
What Value Does HFE Add?
 Increased                          Decreased
  • User experience &                 •   Develop...
What is Usability?




                     12
Usability Defined
 “Extent to which a product can be used by specified
  users to achieve specified goals with effectiven...
Usability Defined, cont.
 “Usability is an approach to product development that
  incorporates direct user feedback throu...
Not any more …




                 15
User Experience (UX)
 “UX is about technology that fulfills more than just
  instrumental needs in a way that acknowledge...
User Experience (UX), cont.



                    Environment

        User                            Technology
       ...
User Engagement (UE)
 It’s a category of user experience characterized by
  attributes of:
   •   challenge,
   •   posit...
19
So what’s a web designer
supposed to do?



                           20
The Way …
 Employ a user-centered design (UCD) approach,
  which incorporates human factors and ergonomics
  (HFE) princi...
User-Centered Design Process
 Phase 1 – Planning

 Phase 2 – Analysis

 Phase 3 – Design

 Phase 4 – Implementation

...
Phase 1 – Planning
 Identify key stakeholders

 Assemble a multidisciplinary team

 Identify the questions that need an...
Phase 2 – Analysis
 Users
  • Identify target audience
  • Create user profiles / personas
  • User requirements analysis...
Phase 2 – Analysis, cont.
 Review / Incorporate
   •   Standards
   •   Technical literature
   •   Customer service comp...
Phase 3 – Design
 Review design specification for UX issues

 Create prototypes

 Perform heuristic evaluation

 Condu...
Phase 4 – Implementation
 Work w/ implementation team to identify issues to
  resolve

 Perform ergonomic evaluations to...
Phase 5 – Evaluation
 Web analytics

 Expert evaluations

 Survey users for feedback

 Perform observational studies t...
Lets “drill down” on
evaluations methods



                       29
At a high level you have …
 Two types of data
   • Quantitative
       Defines
       “Measurable”
   • Qualitative
   ...
Web Analytics
 UX Engagement Metrics
   •   Hits
   •   Page views
   •   Visits
   •   Unique views
   •   Returning vis...
Expert Evaluations
 A HFE / usability expert reviews the technology to
  identify issues

 Other names: heuristic evalua...
Expert Evaluations – Examples
 Nielsen’s 10 Usability Heuristics
   •   Visibility of system status
   •   Match between ...
Expert Evaluations – Examples, cont.
 Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design
   •   Strive for consistency
   •...
Usability Testing
 A method to evaluate a product by having individuals
  use it.

 Questions to ask:
   •   What do you...
Usability Testing, cont.
 Performance metrics
   •   Task success
   •   Time-on-task
   •   Errors
   •   Efficiency
   ...
Usability Testing, cont.
 Self-reported metrics
   • Ease of use
   • Satisfaction
   • Likelihood of use; purchase


 E...
Subjective
Usability
Scale
(SUS)




http://hell.meiert.org/core/pdf/sus.pdf
                                          38
Usability Testing, cont.
 Behavioral and Physiological Metrics
   •   Facial expressions
   •   Eye tracking
   •   Pupil...
Usability Testing, cont.
 Remote / Online




                           40
Ten Steps to Usability Test (Hansen)
   Do your homework
   Write the test plan
   Design the test
   Arrange a test l...
Top Ten Myths About Usability (Tullis)
   Usability is just common sense.
   Usability is just about making things look ...
And now for some real
life examples…



                        43
Examples
 Heuristic Evaluation
   • Purpose
        Assessed OoBE
        Evaluated critical tasks
        Appraised s...
Examples, cont.
 Website Usability Study
   • Purpose
       User performance (time on
        task, completion rate, et...
Examples, cont.
 User Experience Study
  • Purpose
      Ease of use
      Strengths & weaknesses of
       similar dev...
Examples, cont.
 3D Exploration Study
   • Purpose
       3 types of glasses technology
        (anaglyph, polarized, & ...
Questions???




               48
Additional Resources
 Measuring the User Experience
   • http://www.measuringux.com/


 Journal of Usability Studies
   ...
50
Contact Information
 Eric F. Shaver, Ph.D.

  Benchmark Research & Safety, Inc.
  3355 N. Five Mile Road, #277
  Boise, I...
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  1. 1. Introduction to Usability … and a whole lot more Eric F. Shaver, Ph.D. May 24, 2010 1
  2. 2. Overview  Introduction  Overview of Human Factors & Ergonomics  What is Usability?  UX, UE, & UCD - How Do They Fit Together?  Evaluation Methods  Additional Resources 2
  3. 3. Who am I?  Education • University of Idaho  B.S. – Psychology  M.S. – Human Factors Psychology – Risk compensation and personality differences: Identifying differences between risk compensators and non-risk compensators. • North Carolina State University  Ph.D. – Ergonomics Psychology – Evaluating the influence of presentation modality on the communication of pharmaceutical risk information in direct-to- consumer (DTC) television commercials  Professional Involvement • Affiliate Assistant Professor of Psychology (U of I) • HFES 3
  4. 4. Who am I?, cont.  www.thehumanfactorblog.com 4
  5. 5. Benchmark Research & Safety (BRS)  Founded in 2000  Locations: Moscow, Boise, Portland, & Grand Junction  Educational backgrounds • Psychology  Human Factors & Ergonomics  Experimental • Engineering  Mechanical  Electrical • Computer Science • Anthropology 5
  6. 6. BRS – Work We Do  Human Factors & Ergonomics  Usability & User Experience  Web-Technology Development  Research  Product & Occupational Safety  Litigation Support & Expert Testimony  Training & Education  Program Administration 6
  7. 7. Overview of Human Factors & Ergonomics (HFE) 7
  8. 8. What is HFE?  HFE is a unique scientific discipline that systematically applies the knowledge of human abilities and limitations to the design of systems with the goal of optimizing the interaction between people and other system elements to enhance safety, performance, and satisfaction.  In simpler terms, HFE focuses on designing the world to better accommodate people. 8
  9. 9. Origins of HFE Psychology Industrial Anthropology Design Operations Applied Research Physiology Human Factors & Ergonomics Environmental Statistics Medicine Computer Engineering Science 9
  10. 10. Industries Benefiting from HFE  Aerospace  Health care  Automotive  Manufacturing  Chemical  Mining  Computer  Nuclear  Consumer products  Petroleum  Construction  Telecommunications  Defense  Textile  Forestry 10
  11. 11. What Value Does HFE Add?  Increased  Decreased • User experience & • Development costs engagement • Need for redesign & recall • Ease of learning & use • Support & services costs • Satisfaction, trust & loyalty • Training time • Repeat purchases • Maintenance costs • Sales & market share • Accidents, injuries & • Stock value illnesses • Productivity & quality • Lost workdays • Safety & health • Error rates • Absenteeism & turnover • Labor costs • Equipment damages • Insurance rates 11
  12. 12. What is Usability? 12
  13. 13. Usability Defined  “Extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” • “Guidance for Usability” - ISO 9241-11 (1998) 13
  14. 14. Usability Defined, cont.  “Usability is an approach to product development that incorporates direct user feedback throughout the development cycle in order to reduce costs and create products and tools that meet user needs.” • Usability Professionals' Association  But … is a “usable” website sufficient??? 14
  15. 15. Not any more … 15
  16. 16. User Experience (UX)  “UX is about technology that fulfills more than just instrumental needs in a way that acknowledges its use as a subjective, situation, complex and dynamic encounter. UX is a consequence of a user’s internal states (e.g., predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the characteristics of the design system (e.g., complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc.), and the context (or the environment) within which interaction occurs (e.g., organizational / social setting, meaningfulness of the activity, voluntariness of use, etc.).” (Hassenzahl & Tractinsky, 2006, p. 95) 16
  17. 17. User Experience (UX), cont. Environment User Technology ( Interaction)  User engagement is one aspect of UX 17
  18. 18. User Engagement (UE)  It’s a category of user experience characterized by attributes of: • challenge, • positive affect, • endurability, • aesthetic and sensory appeal, • attention, • feedback, • variety/novelty, • interactivity, and • perceived user control. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. So what’s a web designer supposed to do? 20
  21. 21. The Way …  Employ a user-centered design (UCD) approach, which incorporates human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles, to facilitate the creation of an optimal user experience (UX) to maximize user engagement (UE) when interacting with a given technology. 21
  22. 22. User-Centered Design Process  Phase 1 – Planning  Phase 2 – Analysis  Phase 3 – Design  Phase 4 – Implementation  Phase 5 – Evaluation 22
  23. 23. Phase 1 – Planning  Identify key stakeholders  Assemble a multidisciplinary team  Identify the questions that need answering 23
  24. 24. Phase 2 – Analysis  Users • Identify target audience • Create user profiles / personas • User requirements analysis  Technology  Tasks • Task analysis • Develop user scenarios  Environment • Where & how will the technology be implemented? 24
  25. 25. Phase 2 – Analysis, cont.  Review / Incorporate • Standards • Technical literature • Customer service complaints • Evaluations of earlier generation technology • Competitor evaluations • Subject matter experts 25
  26. 26. Phase 3 – Design  Review design specification for UX issues  Create prototypes  Perform heuristic evaluation  Conduct preliminary in-house usability testing  Develop documentation 26
  27. 27. Phase 4 – Implementation  Work w/ implementation team to identify issues to resolve  Perform ergonomic evaluations to verify optimal implementation of technology 27
  28. 28. Phase 5 – Evaluation  Web analytics  Expert evaluations  Survey users for feedback  Perform observational studies to see technology in use  Conduct usability testing w/ actual users 28
  29. 29. Lets “drill down” on evaluations methods 29
  30. 30. At a high level you have …  Two types of data • Quantitative  Defines  “Measurable” • Qualitative  Describes  “Observable”  Two ways to collect it • Passive • Active 30
  31. 31. Web Analytics  UX Engagement Metrics • Hits • Page views • Visits • Unique views • Returning visitors • Registered users • Customers • Frequencies • Time on site • Daily active users  http://52weeksofux.com/post/548149897/ux- engagement-metrics 31
  32. 32. Expert Evaluations  A HFE / usability expert reviews the technology to identify issues  Other names: heuristic evaluation; usability inspection  Strengths • Cost effective • Identifies the “low-hanging fruit” to fix  Weaknesses • Relies on the knowledge and expertise of the evaluator • Often doesn’t identify missing functionality 32
  33. 33. Expert Evaluations – Examples  Nielsen’s 10 Usability Heuristics • Visibility of system status • Match between system and the real world • User control and freedom • Consistency and standards • Error prevention • Recognition rather than recall • Flexibility and efficiency of use • Aesthetic and minimalist design • Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors • Help and documentation  http://www.useit.com/ 33
  34. 34. Expert Evaluations – Examples, cont.  Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design • Strive for consistency • Enable frequent users to use shortcuts • Offer informative feedback • Design dialog to yield closure • Offer simple error handling • Permit easy reversal of actions • Support internal locus of control • Reduce short-term memory load  http://www.cs.umd.edu/~ben/ 34
  35. 35. Usability Testing  A method to evaluate a product by having individuals use it.  Questions to ask: • What do you want to know? • What do you want the users to do? • How many users will be needed? Recruitment? Payment? • Where will the testing be performed? Lab, field, or remote? 35
  36. 36. Usability Testing, cont.  Performance metrics • Task success • Time-on-task • Errors • Efficiency • Learnability  Issues-based metrics • Focuses on identifying problems 36
  37. 37. Usability Testing, cont.  Self-reported metrics • Ease of use • Satisfaction • Likelihood of use; purchase  Example: Subjective Usability Scale (SUS) 37
  38. 38. Subjective Usability Scale (SUS) http://hell.meiert.org/core/pdf/sus.pdf 38
  39. 39. Usability Testing, cont.  Behavioral and Physiological Metrics • Facial expressions • Eye tracking • Pupillary response • Skin conductance • Heart rate 39
  40. 40. Usability Testing, cont.  Remote / Online 40
  41. 41. Ten Steps to Usability Test (Hansen)  Do your homework  Write the test plan  Design the test  Arrange a test location and equipment  Conduct a dry run  Recruit users  Set up the test room  Conduct the test  Compile and analyze the results  Take action Hansen, M. (1991). Ten steps to usability testing. Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Systems Documentation, p. 135-139. 41
  42. 42. Top Ten Myths About Usability (Tullis)  Usability is just common sense.  Usability is just about making things look nice.  Usability can’t be measured.  Usability means usability for the “average” person.  Usability doesn’t have any real impact on our world.  Usability costs too much.  This must be usable because we built it in Flash, Ajax, etc.  Usability is a fad. This too shall pass.  Usability doesn’t impact the bottom line.  Usability is only applies to computers and web sites. http://www.measuringux.com/UsabilityMyths/UsabilityMyths.pdf 42
  43. 43. And now for some real life examples… 43
  44. 44. Examples  Heuristic Evaluation • Purpose  Assessed OoBE  Evaluated critical tasks  Appraised strengths & weaknesses • 3 usability heuristics  Nielsen’s 10 principles  Cognitive workload  Mobile phone-specific 44
  45. 45. Examples, cont.  Website Usability Study • Purpose  User performance (time on task, completion rate, etc.)  User satisfaction  Differences between user types (HHO, SMB & LEB) • Evaluated  Three homepage designs • Six shareholders w/competing needs 45
  46. 46. Examples, cont.  User Experience Study • Purpose  Ease of use  Strengths & weaknesses of similar devices • Deliverables  Overall comparison  User-Based Guidelines for a Usable UMD 46
  47. 47. Examples, cont.  3D Exploration Study • Purpose  3 types of glasses technology (anaglyph, polarized, & active)  Computer & TV • Evaluated  Preference of glasses  Perceived comfort, quality, willingness to purchase, etc. 47
  48. 48. Questions??? 48
  49. 49. Additional Resources  Measuring the User Experience • http://www.measuringux.com/  Journal of Usability Studies • http://www.upassoc.org/upa_publications/jus/index.html  Handbook of Usability Principles • http://www.luckydogarts.com/dm158/docs/posit.pdf  Want Magazine • http://wantmag.com/ 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Contact Information  Eric F. Shaver, Ph.D. Benchmark Research & Safety, Inc. 3355 N. Five Mile Road, #277 Boise, ID 83713 208-407-2908 eshaver@benchmarkrs.com www.thehumanfactorblog.com @ericshaver 51
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