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Sensing for Sustainability: Disaggregated Sensing of Electricity, Gas, and Water
 

Sensing for Sustainability: Disaggregated Sensing of Electricity, Gas, and Water

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    Sensing for Sustainability: Disaggregated Sensing of Electricity, Gas, and Water Sensing for Sustainability: Disaggregated Sensing of Electricity, Gas, and Water Presentation Transcript

    • Sensing for Sustainability disaggregated sensing of water, electricity, and natural gas University of Washington Eric Larson PhD Candidate in School of Electrical and Computer Engineering UbiComp Lab electrical engineering computer science presented at December 7th, 2012 Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • per capita electricity usage in U.S. ~39.3 kWh/p/delectricity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • per capita electricity usage in U.S. ~39.3 kWh/p/d 2 times Japan Germany 1.5 times Taiwan France UK electricity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • its not just electricity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • its not just electricity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • its not just electricity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • smarter infrastructure consumer awareness informed public policy Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Pool Pump 31% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Pool Pump 31% DVRs 11% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • toilet 78.4 gallons shower 62.4 gallons bath 6.5 gallons today‘s usage bathroom sink 1 4.2 gallons bathroom sink 2 0.8 gallons Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Professor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Ele Engi ElectriSense CoughSense SpiroSmart ElderCare GasSense HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • regulator Saturday, December 8, 12
    • regulator Saturday, December 8, 12
    • regulator relief vent Saturday, December 8, 12
    • regulator relief vent Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • rks Microphone Senses Gas Hissing Regulator Hisses When Gas Flows ks Microphone Senses Gas Hissing Regulator Hisses When Gas Flows Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ophone Senses Gas Hissing Filters Background Noise How It Works Gas Appliance in Home is Turned On Microp Ga Regulator Hisses When Gas Flows Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ophone Senses Gas Hissing Filters Background Noise How It Works Gas Appliance in Home is Turned On Microp Ga Regulator Hisses When Gas Flows Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise slope Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Detects and Identifies Gas Events Filters Background Noise step change slope Saturday, December 8, 12
    • slope step change Saturday, December 8, 12
    • slope step change k-nearest neighbor classifier Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in nine homes Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in nine homes 496 staged gas events from 6 appliance types Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in nine homes 496 staged gas events from 6 appliance types 321 trials used in compound Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in nine homes 496 staged gas events from 6 appliance types 321 trials used in compound ~95% accuracy Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in nine homes 496 staged gas events from 6 appliance types 321 trials used in compound ~95% accuracy ~87% accuracy, minimal calib. Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • mplabN G T O N N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SqueezeBlock LightW GripSe Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Supply Load Inductor Switched Mode Power Supply Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Supply Load Inductor Switched Mode Power Supply Saturday, December 8, 12
    • switching generates high frequency Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) Supply Load Inductor EMI Switched Mode Power Supply Saturday, December 8, 12
    • EMI Saturday, December 8, 12
    • EMI Saturday, December 8, 12
    • EMI Saturday, December 8, 12
    • capture system Saturday, December 8, 12
    • capture system any electrical outlet Saturday, December 8, 12
    • capture system any electrical outlet Power Line Interface (High Pass Filter) Corner frequency: 36.7 kHz Flat response: 50 kHz - 30 MHz High voltage capacitors for isolation Saturday, December 8, 12
    • capture system any electrical outlet Power Line Interface (High Pass Filter) Digitizer & Frequency Transform Corner frequency: 36.7 kHz Flat response: 50 kHz - 30 MHz High voltage capacitors for isolation Sampling Frequency: 1 MHz ADC: 12-bits FFT width: 4096 Bin width: 244 Hz Saturday, December 8, 12
    • capture system any electrical outlet Power Line Interface (High Pass Filter) Digitizer & Frequency Transform Event Processor & Classifier Corner frequency: 36.7 kHz Flat response: 50 kHz - 30 MHz High voltage capacitors for isolation Sampling Frequency: 1 MHz ADC: 12-bits FFT width: 4096 Bin width: 244 Hz Saturday, December 8, 12
    • time frequency Saturday, December 8, 12
    • time frequency Saturday, December 8, 12
    • what EMI on the power line looks like PC Lamp time(s) frequency (kHz) Saturday, December 8, 12
    • features Laptop Unplugged Lamp TV time(s) frequency (kHz) PC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • LampPC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • LampPC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Difference Vector LampPC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Difference Vector LampPC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Difference Vector Center: 52 Width: 2 Amplitude: 23 Center: 104 Width: 1.5 Amplitude: 16 for each peak are extracted.three features LampPC Saturday, December 8, 12
    • event classification three features Saturday, December 8, 12
    • event classification three features nearest neighbor classifier K-Nearest Neighbor K=1 Euclidean distance metric Inverse weighting Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in seven homes Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in seven homes 2576 staged electrical events Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in seven homes 2576 staged electrical events 10-20 devices per home Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in seven homes 2576 staged electrical events 10-20 devices per home ~94% accuracy Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Evaluated system in seven homes 2576 staged electrical events 10-20 devices per home ~94% accuracy ~89% accuracy, minimal calib. Saturday, December 8, 12
    • future work Saturday, December 8, 12
    • future work Saturday, December 8, 12
    • future work Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • U N I V E R S I T Y O F WA S H I N G T O N Professor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI Static E- CoughSense SpiroSmart ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation GasSense HydroSense InnerSol Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • toilet 78.4 gallons shower 62.4 gallons bath 6.5 gallons today‘s usage bathroom sink 1 4.2 gallons bathroom sink 2 0.8 gallons Saturday, December 8, 12
    • toilet 78.4 gallons shower 10.4 gallons bath 0.0 gallons bathroom sink 1 1.2 gallons bathroom sink 2 0.8 gallons shower 52.4 gallons bath 6.5 gallons bathroom sink 1 3.2 gallons bathroom sink 2 2.4 gallons today‘s usage: hot vs cold Saturday, December 8, 12
    • water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) hydrosense sensor stream water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) hydrosense sensor stream water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) hydrosense sensor stream water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) hydrosense sensor stream water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • hydrosense sensor stream water tower water tower thermal expansion tank hose spigot utility water meter pressure regulator laundry bathroom 1 hot water heater bathroom 2 dishwasher incoming cold water from supply line kitchen Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream 15 Hz Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream 15 Hz 200 ms Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream 15 Hz 200 ms kitchen sink Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream 15 Hz 200 ms kitchen sink upstairs toilet downstairs toilet Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Campbell, T., et al. Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure- based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, (2010). Froehlich, J., Larson, E., Campbell, T., Haggerty, C., Fogarty, J., and Patel, S.N. HydroSense: infrastructure-mediated single-point sensing of whole-home water activity. Proceedings of the 11th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Citeseer (2009), 235–244. hydrosense sensor stream 15 Hz 200 ms kitchen sink kitchen sink hot upstairs toilet downstairs toilet cold Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi features: single instance 15 Hz 200 ms Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 10 psi 7.32 psi features: single instance 15 Hz 200 ms Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) features: single instance Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) features: sequence Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) features: sequence Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 10 sec features: sequence Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 10 sec compound features: sequence Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 10 sec compound features: sequence time of day Saturday, December 8, 12
    • y1 y2 y3 y4 y5 y6 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 CRF: conditional random field sequence model Saturday, December 8, 12
    • classification 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) Saturday, December 8, 12
    • kitchen sink kitchen sink toilet bathroom sink classification 70 50 30 pressure(psi) 70 50 30 pressure(psi) Saturday, December 8, 12
    • evaluation Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • totals days 33 33 30 27 33 156 events 2374 3075 4754 2499 2578 14,960 events/day 71.9 93.2 158.5 92.6 78.1 95.9 compound 22.2% 21.8% 16.6% 32% 21.3% 21.9% data collection Larson, E., Froehlich, J., Saba, E., et al. A Longitudinal Study of Pressure Sensing to Infer Real- World Water Usage Events in the Home. Pervasive Computing, Springer (2011), 50–69. Saturday, December 8, 12
    • accuracy Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture category level e.g., a faucet accuracy Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture category level e.g., a faucet accuracy ~95% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet fixture category level e.g., a faucet accuracy ~95% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet fixture category level e.g., a faucet accuracy ~95% ~92% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet fixture category level e.g., a faucet valve level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet, hot valve accuracy ~95% ~92% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • fixture level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet fixture category level e.g., a faucet valve level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet, hot valve accuracy ~95% ~92% ~80% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • valvelevelaccuracy(%) training amount (days) ~80% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 2 4 6 8 10 55 60 65 70 75 80 valvelevelaccuracy(%) training amount (days) 10 fold cross validation, CRF ~80% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 2 4 6 8 10 55 60 65 70 75 80 valvelevelaccuracy(%) training amount (days) 10 fold cross validation, CRF ~80% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • 2 4 6 8 10 55 60 65 70 75 80 valvelevelaccuracy(%) training amount (days) 10 fold cross validation, CRF 300 events 500 events 700 events 900 events ~80% Saturday, December 8, 12
    • need a semi-supervised approach Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense Saturday, December 8, 12
    • sor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart GasSense uToSNUPI GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense future work Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • cycles Saturday, December 8, 12
    • cycles heated dry Saturday, December 8, 12
    • cycles heated dry washing dishes Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ~7:30AM Saturday, December 8, 12
    • filling coffee pot coffee pot running ~7:30AM Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Saturday, December 8, 12
    • bathroom usage Saturday, December 8, 12
    • bathroom usage leaky flapper valve Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart re GasSense HydroSense uToSNUPI Static E-Field GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense InnerSol Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart re GasSense HydroSense uToSNUPI Static E-Field GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense InnerSol low-cost, disaggregated sensing Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart re GasSense HydroSense uToSNUPI Static E-Field GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense InnerSol low-cost, disaggregated sensing working towards semi-supervised training Saturday, December 8, 12
    • ElectriSense InGen SNUPI ense mart re GasSense HydroSense uToSNUPI Static E-Field GasSense HydroSense ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation HydroSense InnerSol low-cost, disaggregated sensing working towards semi-supervised training possible to sense usage activity Saturday, December 8, 12
    • Sensing for Sustainability disaggregated sensing of water, electricity, and natural gas University of Washington Eric Larson PhD Candidate in School of Electrical and Computer Engineering UbiComp Lab electrical engineering computer science eclarson.com eclarson@uw.edu @ec_larson presented at December 7th, 2012 ubicomplabU N I V E R S I T Y O F WA S H I N G T O N Professor Shwetak N. Patel Computer Science & Engineering Electrical Engineering design + use + build ElectriSense InGen SNUPI Static E-Fiel CoughSense SpiroSmart ElderCare Mobility Rehabilitation GasSense HydroSense ElectriSense InGen uTouch WalkTy SNUPI Static E-Field CoughSense SpiroSmart ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation GasSense HydroSense InnerSol CoughSense ElderCare Lullaby Mobility Rehabilitation GasSense HydroSense InnerSol Gabe Cohn Sidhant Gupta Jon Froehlich Saturday, December 8, 12