HeatWave CHI2011

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We present HeatWave, a system that uses digital thermal imaging cameras to detect, track, and support user interaction on arbitrary surfaces. Thermal sensing has had limited examination in the HCI research community and is generally under-explored outside of law enforcement and energy auditing applications. We examine the role of thermal imaging as a new sensing solution for enhancing user surface interaction. In particular, we demonstrate how thermal imaging in combination with existing computer vision techniques can make segmentation and detection of routine interaction techniques possible in real-time, and can be used to complement or simplify algorithms for traditional RGB and depth cameras. Example interactions include (1) distinguishing hovering above a surface from touch events, (2) shape-based gestures similar to ink strokes, (3) pressure based gestures, and (4) multi-finger gestures. We close by discussing the practicality of thermal sensing for naturalistic user interaction and opportunities for future work.

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HeatWave CHI2011

  1. 1. Heatwave: Thermal Imaging for Surface Interaction Eric Larson, Gabe Cohn, Sidhant Gupta Xiaofeng Ren, Dieter Fox, Beverly Harrison Shwetak Patel UbiComp LabDesign Use Build Laboratory of Ubiquitous ComputingUniversity of Washington University of Washington Intel Research 1
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  4. 4. LCI Interactive Floor- 55 Merthyr Terrace, Barnes, London, SW13 8DL - Telephone: +44(0) 20 8741 5747 - Email: contact@lci-uk.com - Website: www.lci-uk.com Intel oasis SmartBoards 4
  5. 5. 12 34 5678 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. What is thermal infrared imaging? 8
  9. 9. Solar Reflection Thermal Radiation Intensity Source343332 RGB Depth Thermal313029282726 UV Visible Near InfraredFar Infrared25 0.1um 1um 10 um 100 um Wavelength 9
  10. 10. $1 M$100k$10k $1k$100 $10 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 10
  11. 11. $1 M$100k$10k 11
  12. 12. $1 M 1950 >$200k 1980$100k$10k 12
  13. 13. $100k1991 $10k 2000 13
  14. 14. 2003 ~$2-8k 2005 2010 •30 fps •50mK •384x288 ~$250M 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. ~$50 >200 fps2015 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. $1 M$100k$10k $1k$100 $10 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 18
  19. 19. $1 M$100k$10k •30 fps •50mK •384x288 $1k$100 50mK ? $10 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 19
  20. 20. o ~6 C50mK levels 120 o 20 levels C 20
  21. 21. skin temperature o 29-35 Croom temperature o 18-26 C 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Touch down Motion 24
  25. 25. ThermalCamera Overhead projector 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Heat HeatAbsorption RetentionHeat Transfer? 30
  31. 31. Conductivity T 31
  32. 32. Thermal Conductivity >100 1.1 0.4 0.50.04 0.23Foam Plastic Wood Skin Glass Aluminum 32
  33. 33. Touch Release Cooling/Warming Down Touch period 50ms 200ms 100sHand 34 Temperature (C) 33 Skin 32 31 30 29 28 Foam Surface 27 26 40-50sRoom 25 1ms 10ms 100ms 1s 10s 100s Time (log scale) Foam Plastic Wood Skin Glass Aluminum 33
  34. 34. Touch Release Cooling/Warming Down Touch period 50ms 200ms 100s 34 Temperature (C) 33 32 31 Skin 30 29 28 27 26 Aluminum SurfaceRoom 25 1ms 10ms 100ms 1s 10s 100s Time (log scale) Foam Plastic Wood Skin Glass Aluminum 34
  35. 35. Touch Release Cooling/Warming Down Touch period 50ms 200ms 100s 34 SkinTemperature (C) 33 32 31 30 29 28 Wooden Surface 27 26 2-3s 25 1ms 10ms 100ms 1s 10s 100s Time (log scale) Foam Plastic Wood Skin Glass Aluminum 35
  36. 36. M arble Ti Pap er le Rubb Salt y er C la ite Bran Plast r G Po ic lym k Wate ers er r ass exi -gl PlFoam Plastic Wood Skin Glass Aluminum 36
  37. 37. Touch Release Cooling/Warming Down Touch period 50ms 200ms 100s 34Temperature (C) 33 32 31 30 Derivative 29 28 C Absolute C 27 26 25 1ms 10ms 100ms 1s 10s 100s Time (log scale) x x > 37
  38. 38. x10PlasticWoodPaperTable Top 38
  39. 39. Accuracy 100% 100% detection accuracyplastic wood paper table top 0% 0% 39
  40. 40. Pressure 34Temperature (C) 33 32 Contact Time, 50-200ms 31 30 29 4N 28 2N 27 26 0.5 N 25 1ms 10ms 100ms 1s 10s 100s Time (log scale) Pressure C Derivative Absolute C 40
  41. 41. 3 pressure levels = 96% Accuracy 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. {Derivative~166ms 25ms{ 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. strokes hand prints chording multi-user pressurecurves 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. an interactive surface 48
  49. 49. an interactive surface... 49
  50. 50. Heatwave: Thermal Imaging for Surface Interaction eric.cooper.larson@gmail.com Eric Larson ubicomplab.cs.washington.eduGabe Cohn, Sidhant GuptaXiaofeng Ren, Dieter Fox, Beverly Harrison *Ryder ZiolaShwetak Patel UbiComp LabDesign Use Build Laboratory of Ubiquitous ComputingUniversity of Washington University of Washington Intel Research 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. thermal input image Otsu spatial smoothing video segmentation (median filter) buffer hand segmentation (Otsu thresholding) temperature trajectory feature hand trajectory finger tip calculation search analysis temporal derivative No surface Yes calibrated? background subtraction bayesian classify pressure not heat trace - inference (trees classifier) is heat trace - -high pressure -medium pressure detect lines -low pressure save heat traces -hand (Hough transform) -not heat tracedetected heat trails user interface engine detected lines 52
  53. 53. Categorization with Temperature Distribution of the Human Hand SurfaceHideyuki Kokubo, Mikio Yamamoto, Masahiko Hirasawa and Junko Taniguchi 53
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  55. 55. Figure 15 Thermal reflections of a person from a wooden wall. left: visual image; right: close up view with LW IR camera.Figure 16. Suppression of thermal reflections from varnished) wood as observed through an IR polarizer oriented perpendicular or parallel to the plane of incidence.InfraMation 2004, Proceedings Volume 5, 287-298 (2004) 9 55
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igure 15 Thermal reflections of,K! B&! 6D#H8)G!from a wooden wall. # D&$8,+8H! D$,K8I&0! ! (&#6F$&%&)6! a person D#$#%&&$E! !"" $ % & ! 4*%678)E! 8)+8H#&+! B#! B&! %&#)! 6D#H8)G! ,K! B&! $8+G&6! 86! )*+,"-./ ! left: visual image; right: close up view with LW IR camera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igure 16. Suppression of thermal reflections from varnished) wood as observed through an IR P,%&)!8)!678)!B8H7)&66!V12W!,$!B#$+)&66!V1.W0! ! polarizer oriented perpendicular or parallel to the !"" plane of incidence. % # $ & ! +"#,-./012#03$.2#450621,537# )*+,"-./ ! & ! :5/*+%&>(&?"6%+5"$&2*+,"-%&6%<4%+"6*+%&+%24.12%&8*+51/&-.16"-6& *&M&$#I! D#$#%&&$6! )&&+! ,! O&! H#IHFI#&+! O&K,$&! D&$K,$%8)G! B&! & 68%FI#8,)! F68)G! B&! B&$%#I! %,+&I0! QB&! B&$%#I! H,)#H! & $&686#)H&! F6&+! 8)! B86! 68%FI#8,)! P#6! &68%#&+! F68)G! B&! %&#)! &InfraMation 2004, Proceedings Volume 5, 287-298 (2004) 9 58
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