Indirect Water End Use Sensing:        Consumption, Disaggregation, and FeedbackEric LarsonUNIVERSITY ofWASHINGTON
2 years ago…
hydrosense                                                  • single, screw-on sensor                                     ...
water tower          water          tower                              pressure regulatorincoming cold  water from  supply...
water tower          water          tower                              pressure regulatorincoming cold  water from  supply...
water tower          water tower                             plumbing layoutincoming cold  water from  supply lineutility ...
water tower          water tower                                                                     bathroom 1           ...
water tower          water tower                                                               toilet flushed             ...
water tower          water towertoilet                                                                  bathroom 1        ...
water tower          water towertoiletkitchen sink cold                                                               bath...
water tower          water tower                                                                               bathroom 1 ...
water tower          water tower                                                          bathroom 1                      ...
2 years ago… •End Use: 10 homes, staged •Water flow: 7 fixtures, max flow •Not in real time: no feedback         Where are...
feedbackwater flow   water end use                architecture                             interfaces
feedbackwater flow   water end use                architecture                             interfaces
water tower          water tower                                                                     bathroom 1           ...
80               bathroom sink pressure signal      70psi      60      50                         Cold Line               ...
80               bathroom sink pressure signal      70psi      60                        flow volume      50              ...
Bucket Trials • 9 Homes • 41   Fixtures • 541 trials
volume prediction% of actualvolume                                         gpm                                Neptune T-10...
hot and cold  • train on 4 trials,  • median error: 0.2 gpm  • 75th percentile: 0.42 gpm
feedbackwater flow   water end use                architecture                             interfaces
today‘s usage        shower      62.4 gallons                 bathroom sink 1   bathroom sink 2                           ...
today‘s usage: hot vs cold  shower 52.4 gallons         shower        10.4 gallons                          bathroom sink ...
hydrosenseexample pressure waves                         upstairs toilet flushbath open                              kitch...
natural water use                                                        toilet                 70   kitchen sink         ...
data collection                water tower                                                                           bathr...
5-week dataset                                                                      totals          days         33       ...
5-week dataset                                                                                                Avg     Fixt...
three levels of granularity          1 valve level             e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet hot water activated         ...
hydrosense classification results  real-world water usage data               one sensor 100%   80%   60%   40%   20%      ...
hydrosense classification results  real-world water usage data               one sensor                        two sensors...
hydrosense classification results  Classification Accuracies (%)                                  90                      ...
feedbackwater flow   water end use                architecture                             interfaces
Key Questions1 What are the key gaps in water usage    understanding?2    What aspects of disaggregated data are potential...
DESIGN SET 1: ISOLATING DESIGN DIMENSIONS       Design Dimensions        Data             Explored  Granularity           ...
DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESDesign Probes Explored                    Time-      Aquatic                    Series     Eco-...
DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESAquatic Ecosystem View            New water             Water                    “Frank” the   ...
DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESOther Design Probes          Geographic Comparisons       Dashboards         Metaphorical Unit ...
Eco-feedback displays do not just visualize consumption, they document household                activities
Jon Froehlich                       University of Maryland                             @jonfroehlich                      ...
feedbackwater flow   water end use                architecture                             interfaces
save process (local) update                        save to disk/cloud                        keep diary (sparse)          ...
Indirect Water End Use Sensing:             Consumption, Disaggregation, and FeedbackSensing and Architecture     Behavior...
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
ACEEE 2012
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ACEEE 2012

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My Presentation to the ACEE2012 Hot Water Forum. I love the message of this group and the work they do.

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  • hydrosense is a single screw on sensor that identifies water usage down to the fixture leveland provides estimates of water flow from each fixture
  • Cold water enters the home through a service line, typically at 40-100 pounds per square inch (psi) depending on such factors as the elevation and proximity to a water tower or pumping station.Pressure is important to the proper functioning of HydroSense because it’s a pressure-based sensing solution.------The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch:1 psi (6.894757 kPa) : pascal (Pa) is the SI unit of pressure.40 psi is 275.79 kilopascals100 psi is 689.47 kilopascals
  • Many homes have a pressure regulator that stabilizes the water pressure and also reduces the incoming water pressure to a safe level for household fixtures.From the regulator, most homes contain a combination of series plumbed and branched piping.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.
  • The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The cold water supply branches to the individual water fixtures (e.g., toilets/sinks/showers) and into the water heater.The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • The plumbing system forms a closed loop pressure system with water held at a relatively stable pressure throughout the piping. This is why, when you open a faucet, water immediately flows out.
  • bath tubs, showers, kitchen sinks and bathroom sinks10 – 20 samples from each fixturevaried flow rate and temperature for each sample taken
  • To show how these rates compare I will show versus the graph. The black line is the curve associated with the water meter. The red line shows the volume error for the E-kNN within Fixture model, the green lines show the error for the minimal calibration and the yellow bars show the error for typical flow rate analysis. The flow trace meter typically adds a +/- 1% error to the error associated with the inline meter. The Within model is comparable to the flow trace error while the minimal calibration is larger but still within 5% for flow rates greater then 0.5gpm.
  • To show how these rates compare I will show versus the graph. The black line is the curve associated with the water meter. The red line shows the volume error for the E-kNN within Fixture model, the green lines show the error for the minimal calibration and the yellow bars show the error for typical flow rate analysis. The flow trace meter typically adds a +/- 1% error to the error associated with the inline meter. The Within model is comparable to the flow trace error while the minimal calibration is larger but still within 5% for flow rates greater then 0.5gpm.
  • To motivate these transformations, we need to return to the plumbing system. When we activate a fixture in the plumbing system, the entire system responds instantaneously, like letting the air out of a balloon. Depending on where we activate the water in the system, different resonances will be excited – so it will be important which resonances are activated and, as you can see from these examples, how quickly those resonances die out over time.
  • how to know ground truth?
  • so in addition installing the hydrosense system, we need to install a wireless network of sensors at every fixture that uses water in the home so we can label the water usage we see from the hydrosense system.
  • and in the end the deployment sites looked like this, here is a subset of the sinks we instrumented
  • toilets
  • and showers. Notice that we also had to instrument the diverter valve to know whether the bath or shower was running, in addition to secondary shower handles.
  • here is a clothes washer. We also tied a thermistor on the drain valve of the washer in order to know whether the homeowner used a hot/cold or cold/cold cycle.
  • and even instrumenting things like the refidgerator water dispenser.
  • and at the end of the labeling process we ended up with 156 days of water use spread out among 5 deployment sites and almost 15000 water usage labels to evaluate our hydrosense system. One thing that was quite surpirsing was that 22% off all the pressure waves we collected were compound events, that is, more than one water source was on at the same time.
  • and at the end of the labeling process we ended up with 156 days of water use spread out among 5 deployment sites and almost 15000 water usage labels to evaluate our hydrosense system. One thing that was quite surpirsing was that 22% off all the pressure waves we collected were compound events, that is, more than one water source was on at the same time.
  • but we can break the results down by granularity of the sensing. we can talk about results at the valve level, so knowing the exact bathroom sink hot valve that was activated.or at the fixture level, so knowing that the bathroom faucet was activated, but we don’t care about the temperature state. If you do activity inference, this might be your main interest because it gives you location.and finally we can talk about the fixture category level – so knowing only that a faucet was activated, but not where. For sustainability you might be interested in one or all of these levels of accuracy.
  • here are the results shown only for using all terms. Recall that we installed two pressure sensors
  • The addition of a second sensor resulted in a marginal to medium (but significant) increase in classification accuracies across the board, surpassing 80% at the valve level all the way up to almost 98% at the category level.But lastly let’s delve a little further into the 90% accuracy at the fixture level.
  • The design space is huge—how does one structure the design process to effectively design for this data?
  • One key insight that we had while performing this work is to realize that eco-feedback displays do not just visualize consumption, they document household activitiesConsequently, designers have to account for how their designs expose otherwise latent household routines and how this may affect underlying social dynamics in a household. Our findings suggest that these issues could affect whether a display will be accepted into the home.
  • As you’ve noticed, we used the same visual representation—bar graphs—to isolate the affect of each dimension on the designs
  • We explored six design probes
  • The aquatic ecosystem uses fish and plant life to depict water usage information in an artistic and ambient manner.The display is intended to be attractive and appealing to children and adults who prefer a less ‘data-centric’ design. Unlike our other designs, which focus on tracking consumption, this display focuses on water savings and reaching water savings goals for different fixtures in the home
  • Finally, we had other design probes including geographic-based comparisons, dashboard designs, metaphorical unit designs and recommendation systems. These are beyond the scope of this talk.
  • One key insight that we had while performing this work is to realize that eco-feedback displays do not just visualize consumption, they document household activitiesConsequently, designers have to account for how their designs expose otherwise latent household routines and how this may affect underlying social dynamics in a household. Our findings suggest that these issues could affect whether a display will be accepted into the home.
  • One key insight that we had while performing this work is to realize that eco-feedback displays do not just visualize consumption, they document household activitiesConsequently, designers have to account for how their designs expose otherwise latent household routines and how this may affect underlying social dynamics in a household. Our findings suggest that these issues could affect whether a display will be accepted into the home.
  • ACEEE 2012

    1. 1. Indirect Water End Use Sensing: Consumption, Disaggregation, and FeedbackEric LarsonUNIVERSITY ofWASHINGTON
    2. 2. 2 years ago…
    3. 3. hydrosense • single, screw-on sensor • senses pressure in real timeFroehlich et al., UbiComp2009; Larson et al., PMC2010, Larson and Froehlich et al. Pervasive 2011
    4. 4. water tower water tower pressure regulatorincoming cold water from supply lineutility water pressure meter regulator
    5. 5. water tower water tower pressure regulatorincoming cold water from supply lineutility water pressure meter regulator
    6. 6. water tower water tower plumbing layoutincoming cold water from supply lineutility water pressure meter regulator
    7. 7. water tower water tower bathroom 1 hose spigot kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    8. 8. water tower water tower toilet flushed bathroom 1 hose toilet spigot kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    9. 9. water tower water towertoilet bathroom 1 hose kitchen sink cold spigot kitchen sink cold open kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    10. 10. water tower water towertoiletkitchen sink cold bathroom 1 hose kitchen sink spigot hot kitchen sink hot open kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    11. 11. water tower water tower bathroom 1 hose spigot kitchen sink hot open kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    12. 12. water tower water tower bathroom 1 hose spigot kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply lineutility water pressure meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    13. 13. 2 years ago… •End Use: 10 homes, staged •Water flow: 7 fixtures, max flow •Not in real time: no feedback Where are we now?
    14. 14. feedbackwater flow water end use architecture interfaces
    15. 15. feedbackwater flow water end use architecture interfaces
    16. 16. water tower water tower bathroom 1 hose spigot kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2
    17. 17. 80 bathroom sink pressure signal 70psi 60 50 Cold Line Pressure… open close 40 0 4.5 9 time (s)
    18. 18. 80 bathroom sink pressure signal 70psi 60 flow volume 50 Cold Line Pressure… open close 40 0 4.5 9 time (s)
    19. 19. Bucket Trials • 9 Homes • 41 Fixtures • 541 trials
    20. 20. volume prediction% of actualvolume gpm Neptune T-10 Water meter Training on all fixtures Only kitchen + bath Flow Trace Meter
    21. 21. hot and cold • train on 4 trials, • median error: 0.2 gpm • 75th percentile: 0.42 gpm
    22. 22. feedbackwater flow water end use architecture interfaces
    23. 23. today‘s usage shower 62.4 gallons bathroom sink 1 bathroom sink 2 4.2 gallons 0.8 gallons bath 6.5 gallons toilet 78.4 gallons
    24. 24. today‘s usage: hot vs cold shower 52.4 gallons shower 10.4 gallons bathroom sink 1 bathroom sink 1 bathroom sink 2 3.2 gallons 1.2 gallons 0.8 gallons bath bath bathroom sink 2 6.5 gallons 0.0 gallons 2.4 gallons toilet 78.4 gallons
    25. 25. hydrosenseexample pressure waves upstairs toilet flushbath open kitchen sink kitchen sink hot open open dishwasher open cold downstairs shower toilet downstairs open flush
    26. 26. natural water use toilet 70 kitchen sink kitchen sink bathroom sinkpressure (psi) 50 30
    27. 27. data collection water tower bathroom 1 hose spigot kitchenincoming cold water from dishwasher supply line thermal expansionutility water pressure tank meter regulator hot water heater laundry bathroom 2 Larson and Froehlich, et al., Pervasive 2011
    28. 28. 5-week dataset totals days 33 33 30 27 33 156 events 2374 3075 4754 2499 2578 14,960 events/day 71.9 93.2 158.5 92.6 78.1 95.9 compound 22.2% 21.8% 16.6% 32% 21.3% 21.9%Larson and Froehlich, et al., Pervasive 2011
    29. 29. 5-week dataset Avg Fixtures Cnt Total Hot Cold Mixed Compound Duration KitchenSink 5 5494 (36.7%) 44.4% 25.8% 29.9% 9.9% 22.4 secsM. Bathroom Sink 7 3934 (26.3%) 53.7% 32.9% 13.4% 41.8% 27.2 secsM. Bathroom Toilet 5 1886 (12.6%) 0.0% 100% 0.0% 10.8% 43.6 secsS. Bathroom Sink 4 1369 (9.2%) 45.1% 46.5% 8.3% 35.6% 30.9 secsWashing Machine 4 430 (2.9%) 21.6% 75.6% 2.8% 18.1% 1.6 minsM. Bathroom Bath 5 423 (2.8%) 53% 8.3% 38.8% 25.2% 43.4 secsS. Bathroom Toilet 3 341 (2.3%) 0.0% 100% 0.0% 9.4% 27.2 secs M. Bathroom 5 261 (1.7%) 21.1% 1.5% 77.4% 15.3% Shower 8.7 mins Dishwasher 3 261 (1.7%) 100% 0.0% 0.0% 5.7% 1.2 minsS. Bathroom Bath 2 59 (0.39%) 8.5% 0.0% 91.5% 6.8% 20.7 secs S. Bathroom 2 47 (0.31%) 23.4% 0.0% 76.% 2.1% Shower 9.4 mins Totals 53 14960 5870 (39.2%) 6087 (40.7%) 3003 (20.1%) 21.9% 49.1 secs
    30. 30. three levels of granularity 1 valve level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet hot water activated 2 fixture level e.g., upstairs bathroom faucet activated 3 fixture category level e.g., faucet activated
    31. 31. hydrosense classification results real-world water usage data one sensor 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 75.5% 89.5% 95.9% 0% valve fixture fixture category*error bars = std error *10-fold cross validation, 15000 events
    32. 32. hydrosense classification results real-world water usage data one sensor two sensors 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 75.5% 82.4% 89.5% 93.5% 95.9% 97.7% 0% valve fixture fixture category*error bars = std error *10-fold cross validation, 15000 events
    33. 33. hydrosense classification results Classification Accuracies (%) 90 fixture level 80 70 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Days of Training Data
    34. 34. feedbackwater flow water end use architecture interfaces
    35. 35. Key Questions1 What are the key gaps in water usage understanding?2 What aspects of disaggregated data are potential users interested in and what sort of reactions do the visualizations provoke?3 How might these visualizations impact behavior?Froehlich, et al., CHI2012
    36. 36. DESIGN SET 1: ISOLATING DESIGN DIMENSIONS Design Dimensions Data Explored Granularity Individual Fixture Fixture Category Activity Hot and Cold Time Granularity So Far Today So Far This So Far This Week Month Comparison Self Comparison To Others To A Goal Social/SelfMeasuremen t Unit In Gallons In Dollars Dollars / Gallons Including
    37. 37. DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESDesign Probes Explored Time- Aquatic Series Eco-system Spatial Rainflow Per- Other Occupant
    38. 38. DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESAquatic Ecosystem View New water Water “Frank” the savings goal savings goal fish meets his watersavings met met matetracker display is “Frank” also the fish interactive so Frank and fish respond his mate to touch have and so on… children
    39. 39. DESIGN SET 2: DESIGN PROBESOther Design Probes Geographic Comparisons Dashboards Metaphorical Unit Designs Recommendations Froehlich, et al., CHI2012
    40. 40. Eco-feedback displays do not just visualize consumption, they document household activities
    41. 41. Jon Froehlich University of Maryland @jonfroehlich jonf@cs.umd.eduFroehlich, et al., CHI2012
    42. 42. feedbackwater flow water end use architecture interfaces
    43. 43. save process (local) update save to disk/cloud keep diary (sparse) infer activity laterinstall for two weeksstream to cloudupdate global models
    44. 44. Indirect Water End Use Sensing: Consumption, Disaggregation, and FeedbackSensing and Architecture Behavior Change Product DevelopmentEric Larson Jon Froehlich Kevin Ashtoneclarson@uw.edu jonf@cs.umd.edu Kevin.Ashton@belkin.com@ec_larson @jonfroehlich @kevin_ashtoneclarson.com cs.umd.edu/~jonf UNIVERSITY of WASHINGTON
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