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5 1 species interactions


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  • 1. Species InteractionsSpecies InteractionsBy Mr. “I got worms” ChapmanBy Mr. “I got worms” Chapman
  • 2. Concept to UnderstandConcept to Understand• Species interactions affect the resourceuse and population sizes of the species inan ecosystem.
  • 3. Species InteractionsSpecies Interactions• Symbiosis – interactions between species.• Ex. Predation, parasitism, competition,mutualism, and commensalism.
  • 4. Interspecific CompetitionInterspecific Competition• 1. Competition – the most common interactionbetween species• No two species can share vital limited resourcesfor long (no same niche).
  • 5. Interspecific CompetitionInterspecific Competition• Resolved by:– Migration – move somewhere else– Shift in feeding habits or behavior – eat something else– Population drop – fewer individuals– Extinction – die out
  • 6. Intense competition leads toIntense competition leads to resource partitioning –resource partitioning –each species becomes more specializedeach species becomes more specializedCape MayWarblerBlakburnianWarblerBlack-throatedGreen WarblerYellow-rumpedWarblerBay-breastedWarblerFig. 5-2, p. 81
  • 7. InteractionsInteractions• Competition – when 2 or more speciesuse the same limited resources.– Competitive Exclusion
  • 8. PredationPredation• Predation – one individual, the predator,captures, kills, and consumes anotherindividual, the prey.
  • 9. PredationPredation• Predation influences where and howspecies live and is an effective way toregulate population size.
  • 10. Predator TechniquesPredator Techniques• 1. Ambush(lions)• 2.Camouflage(prayingmantis)• 3. Chemicalwarfare(poisonoussnakes)
  • 11. Prey TechniquesPrey Techniques• 1. Evasion (birds – fly away)• 2. Alertness – highly developed senses (fly –compound eye)
  • 12. Prey TechniquePrey Technique• Mimicry – a type of defense whereharmless species resemble a poisonousspecies.
  • 13. Prey TechniquesPrey Techniques• Protection – shells, bark, spines, thorns (turtle,porcupines)• Camouflage (leaf insects)
  • 14. Prey TechniquesPrey Techniques• Warning coloration (poisonous dart frogs,taste bad)• Behavioral strategies – puffing up(blowfish)
  • 15. CoevolutionCoevolution• Predator and prey Relationship• Intense natural selection pressure on each other• Each can evolve to counter the advantageous traitsthe other has developed called Coevolution.– Bats and moths
  • 16. ParasitismParasitism• Parasitism – one individual, known asparasite, feeds on another individual,known as the host.• Parasites promote biodiversity – help keeppopulations of hosts in check
  • 17. InteractionsInteractions• Mutualism – is a cooperative relationshipwhere both species benefit.–Ex. Clown fish and anemone
  • 18. MutualismMutualism• Both species benefit– provides food, shelter, or some other resource• Nutrition and protection• Gut inhabitant mutualism
  • 19. InteractionsInteractions• Commensalism – is interaction whereone species benefits and the other is notaffected.–Movement of buffalo and birds eatinsects and lizards
  • 20. CommensalismCommensalism• Benefits one species with little impact onother
  • 21. Animation: How SpeciesAnimation: How SpeciesInteractInteractPLAYANIMATION