3 4 ecosystem cycles

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3 4 ecosystem cycles

  1. 1. Concept to UnderstandMatter, in the form of nutrients, cycleswithin and among ecosystems and in thebiosphere, and human activities arealtering these nutrient cycles.
  2. 2. Nutrient CyclesDriven by solar energy and gravityReservoirs – storage sites where nutrientsaccumulate and remain there for sometimeConnect all organisms through timeNutrient Cycles - Water, Carbon,Nitrogen
  3. 3. Hydrologic (Water) Cycle Water cycle is powered by the sun 1. Evaporation 2. Transpiration - evaporates from plant surfaces 3. Condenses (in atmosphere) 4. Precipitation
  4. 4. Hydrologic Cycle Water vapor in the atmosphere comes from theoceans 84% Over land, ???% of water reaching the atmospherecomes from transpiration 90% Only 0.024% of water is available for human use (toosalty, ice, too deep underground)
  5. 5. Animation: Hydrologic Cycle
  6. 6. Increasedfloodingfrom wetlanddestructionCondensationEvaporationfrom oceanClimatechangeInfiltrationand percolationinto aquiferCondensationOceanLakes andreservoirsIce andsnowSurfacerunoffSurface runoffAquiferdepletion fromoverpumpingPointsourcepollutionReduced recharge ofaquifers and floodingfrom covering landwith crops andbuildingsGroundwatermovement (slow)RunoffPrecipitationto landPrecipitationto oceanTranspirationfrom plantsEvaporationfrom landFig. 3-12, p. 49ProcessesProcesses affected by humansReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  7. 7. Carbon Cycle Carbon – basic building block of organic molecules(carbohydrates, fats, protein, DNA) Carbon dioxide (CO2) also controls warming and cooling ofthe Earth.
  8. 8. Carbon Cycle Major cycle processes Photosynthesis – remove from air make sugars Aerobic respiration – release CO2 into air Burning Fossil fuels add CO2 to the atmosphere andcontribute to global warming
  9. 9. Animation: Carbon Cycle
  10. 10. RespirationForest firesDeforestationDiffusionCarbon dioxidedissolved in oceanCarbonin limestone ordolomite sedimentsMarine food websProducers, consumers,decomposersTransportationCarbon dioxidein atmosphereCarbonin animals(consumers)Plants(producers)Animals(consumers)DecompositionRespirationCompactionCarbonin fossilfuelsCarbonin plants(producers)Burningfossil fuelsPhotosynthesisFig. 3-13, p. 51ProcessesReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  11. 11. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen- needed for proteins and DNAMulticellular plants and animals cannotutilize atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2)So how do we get Nitrogen?Eating other organisms
  12. 12. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen fixation- lightning, somebacteria, and legumes (beans) (convert Nto ammonia then Nitrate)Nitrate is fertilizer
  13. 13. Nitrogen Cycle Added to soil by farmers – runs off causingproblems for local streams or lakes
  14. 14. Nitrogenin atmosphereNitrogenloss to deepocean sedimentsNitrogen oxidesfrom burning fuelNitratesfrom fertilizerrunoff anddecompositionNitrogenin oceansediments Ammoniain soilVolcanicactivityElectricalstorms Nitrogenin animals(consumers)BacteriaNitratein soilNitrogenin plants(producers)Nitrificationby bacteriaDenitrificationby bacteriaUptake by plantsDecompositionFig. 3-14, p. 52ProcessesReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  15. 15. Animation: Nitrogen Cycle

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