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3 4 ecosystem cycles

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  • 1. Concept to UnderstandMatter, in the form of nutrients, cycleswithin and among ecosystems and in thebiosphere, and human activities arealtering these nutrient cycles.
  • 2. Nutrient CyclesDriven by solar energy and gravityReservoirs – storage sites where nutrientsaccumulate and remain there for sometimeConnect all organisms through timeNutrient Cycles - Water, Carbon,Nitrogen
  • 3. Hydrologic (Water) Cycle Water cycle is powered by the sun 1. Evaporation 2. Transpiration - evaporates from plant surfaces 3. Condenses (in atmosphere) 4. Precipitation
  • 4. Hydrologic Cycle Water vapor in the atmosphere comes from theoceans 84% Over land, ???% of water reaching the atmospherecomes from transpiration 90% Only 0.024% of water is available for human use (toosalty, ice, too deep underground)
  • 5. Animation: Hydrologic Cycle
  • 6. Increasedfloodingfrom wetlanddestructionCondensationEvaporationfrom oceanClimatechangeInfiltrationand percolationinto aquiferCondensationOceanLakes andreservoirsIce andsnowSurfacerunoffSurface runoffAquiferdepletion fromoverpumpingPointsourcepollutionReduced recharge ofaquifers and floodingfrom covering landwith crops andbuildingsGroundwatermovement (slow)RunoffPrecipitationto landPrecipitationto oceanTranspirationfrom plantsEvaporationfrom landFig. 3-12, p. 49ProcessesProcesses affected by humansReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  • 7. Carbon Cycle Carbon – basic building block of organic molecules(carbohydrates, fats, protein, DNA) Carbon dioxide (CO2) also controls warming and cooling ofthe Earth.
  • 8. Carbon Cycle Major cycle processes Photosynthesis – remove from air make sugars Aerobic respiration – release CO2 into air Burning Fossil fuels add CO2 to the atmosphere andcontribute to global warming
  • 9. Animation: Carbon Cycle
  • 10. RespirationForest firesDeforestationDiffusionCarbon dioxidedissolved in oceanCarbonin limestone ordolomite sedimentsMarine food websProducers, consumers,decomposersTransportationCarbon dioxidein atmosphereCarbonin animals(consumers)Plants(producers)Animals(consumers)DecompositionRespirationCompactionCarbonin fossilfuelsCarbonin plants(producers)Burningfossil fuelsPhotosynthesisFig. 3-13, p. 51ProcessesReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  • 11. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen- needed for proteins and DNAMulticellular plants and animals cannotutilize atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2)So how do we get Nitrogen?Eating other organisms
  • 12. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen fixation- lightning, somebacteria, and legumes (beans) (convert Nto ammonia then Nitrate)Nitrate is fertilizer
  • 13. Nitrogen Cycle Added to soil by farmers – runs off causingproblems for local streams or lakes
  • 14. Nitrogenin atmosphereNitrogenloss to deepocean sedimentsNitrogen oxidesfrom burning fuelNitratesfrom fertilizerrunoff anddecompositionNitrogenin oceansediments Ammoniain soilVolcanicactivityElectricalstorms Nitrogenin animals(consumers)BacteriaNitratein soilNitrogenin plants(producers)Nitrificationby bacteriaDenitrificationby bacteriaUptake by plantsDecompositionFig. 3-14, p. 52ProcessesReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathway
  • 15. Animation: Nitrogen Cycle