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3 3 energy in ecosystems

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  • 1. 3-3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • 2. Concept to UnderstandAs energy flows throughecosystems in food chains andwebs, the amount of chemicalenergy available to organisms ateach succeeding feeding leveldecreases.
  • 3. Fig. 3-8, p. 46Trophic LevelsAt each level energy is transferred to thenext but some energy is “lost” in the formof heat
  • 4. Energy Flow in EcosystemsFood chainSequence of organisms, eachof which serves as a source offood for the nextFood webNetwork ofinterconnected foodchainsMore complex than a foodchain
  • 5. Usable Energy by Trophic LevelEnergy flow follows the second law ofthermodynamics, which is……2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Energycannot be created or destroyed, butchanged.But as energy is changed, someenergy is lost in the form of heat.
  • 6. Usable Energy by Trophic LevelBiomass – dry weight of all organicmatter in plants and animals in anecosystem.Biomassdecreases withincreasingtrophic level
  • 7. Fig. 3-10, p. 47Ecological efficiency – typically 10%(10% rule)
  • 8. Two Kinds of Primary ProductivityGross primary productivity (GPP) – The rate at whichecosystems producers convert solar energy into chemicalenergy in the form of biomassSo the amount ofsolar energyconverted intocellskilocalories/squaremeter/year
  • 9. Two Kinds of Primary ProductivityNet primary productivity (NPP) – is what energy is left overfor the consumers in the ecosystem.GPP minus the energy the producer need to survive
  • 10. Two Kinds of Primary ProductivityPlanet’s NPP limits number of consumersHumans use, waste, or destroy 10-55% of earth’s totalpotential NPPHuman population is less than 1% of total biomass ofearth’s consumers
  • 11. Temperate forestAquatic EcosystemsOpen oceanContinental shelfLakes and streamsEstuariesTerrestrial EcosystemsExtreme desertDesert scrubTundra (arctic and alpine)Temperate grasslandWoodland and shrublandAgricultural landSavannaNorthern coniferousforest (taiga)Swamps and marshesTropical rain forestFig. 3-11, p. 48Average net primary productivity (kcal/m2/yr)800 1,600 2,400 3,200 4,000 4,800 5,600 6,400 7,200 8,000 8,800 9,600

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