Figure 1-4: Degradation of normally renewable natural resources and services in parts of the world, mostly as a result of rising population and resource use per person.
Figure 1.8: Natural capital use and degradation: total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2003, humanity’s total or global ecological footprint was about 25% higher than the earth’s ecological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s ecological capacity by 2050. Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s ecological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing exponentially? (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network)
Figure 1-7: Connections: simple model of how three factors—number of people, affluence (resource use per person), and technology—affect the environmental impact of populations in developing countries (top) and developed countries (bottom). While many people in affluent countries over-consume, many poor people in developing countries suffer from not having enough resources.
1 2 ecological footprint
1-2 How Are Our1-2 How Are OurEcologicalEcologicalFootprintsFootprintsAffecting theAffecting theEarthEarthBy Mr. “pizza mmmm” ChapmanBy Mr. “pizza mmmm” Chapman
Voc WordsVoc Words PerpetualPerpetual resourceresource – renewed continuously (Solar– renewed continuously (Solarenergy)energy) Renewable resourceRenewable resource – days to centuries (water, air,– days to centuries (water, air,forests,forests, soilsoil, fish populations), fish populations) NonrenewableNonrenewable – fixed quantities (fossil fuels, metals,– fixed quantities (fossil fuels, metals,minerals)minerals) Environmental degradationEnvironmental degradation -- exceeds naturalexceeds naturalreplacement rate.replacement rate. As our ecological footprints grow, we deplete andAs our ecological footprints grow, we deplete anddegrade more of the earth’s natural capital.degrade more of the earth’s natural capital.
Ecological FootprintEcological Footprint Ecological footprintEcological footprint The amount of land and water needed to supplyThe amount of land and water needed to supplypeople in a given area with renewable resourcespeople in a given area with renewable resourcesforever.forever. Also includes the land and water necessary toAlso includes the land and water necessary toabsorb and recycle wastes and pollutionabsorb and recycle wastes and pollution
Ecological FootprintEcological Footprint Per capita ecological footprintPer capita ecological footprint Average ecological footprint of anAverage ecological footprint of anindividual in a given area (takes intoindividual in a given area (takes intoaccount number of people)account number of people) China – large ecological footprint because soChina – large ecological footprint because somany peoplemany people China – small per capita footprint each personChina – small per capita footprint each persononly contributes a littleonly contributes a little
Ecological FootprintEcological Footprint Ecological deficitEcological deficit Total ecological footprint greater than whatTotal ecological footprint greater than whatthe earth can supportthe earth can support 2008 study: at least 30% global excess2008 study: at least 30% global excess Humans currently need 1.3 earthsHumans currently need 1.3 earths 88% for high-income countries88% for high-income countries Need 6 earths if everyone lived likeNeed 6 earths if everyone lived likeAmericansAmericans
Fig. 1-7, p. 13Environmentalimpact of population(I)Developing CountriesPopulation (P)Developed CountriesConsumptionper person(affluence, A)Technological impactper unit ofconsumption (T)
Developed CountriesDeveloped CountriesHave Higher ImpactsHave Higher Impacts Developed countries (1Developed countries (1ststworld)world) United States, Japan, New Zealand,United States, Japan, New Zealand,most of Europe, some othersmost of Europe, some others 19% world population19% world population Use 88% of world’s resourcesUse 88% of world’s resources Create 75% of world’s pollutionCreate 75% of world’s pollution
Developing CountriesDeveloping Countries (2(2ndndWorld)World) 81% world population81% world population Middle income: Brazil, China, IndiaMiddle income: Brazil, China, India
Least DevelopedLeast Developed (3(3rdrdworld)world) Countries: Haiti, Nigeria, NicaraguaCountries: Haiti, Nigeria, Nicaragua Use far fewer resources per capita (perUse far fewer resources per capita (perperson) than developed countriesperson) than developed countries Smaller per capita ecological footprintSmaller per capita ecological footprint
Tragedy of theTragedy of theCommonsCommons Environmental degradation of openlyEnvironmental degradation of openlyshared renewable resourcesshared renewable resources Users focus on their own selfish, short-Users focus on their own selfish, short-term gainterm gain Works when only a small number ofWorks when only a small number ofusersusers Big part of why humans now liveBig part of why humans now liveunsustainablyunsustainably
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