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6 1 urbanization

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  • 1. 6-1 Urbanization
  • 2. 6-1 Learning Goal How long we can continue increasing the earth’s carrying capacity for humans without seriously damaging the life- support system that keeps us and many other species alive.
  • 3. Human Population Growth  Exponential growth (J-curve) in past 200 years
  • 4. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 1. Ability to expand into diverse habitats
  • 5. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 2. Emergence of agriculture
  • 6. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 3. Sanitation systems and control of infectious diseases decreased death rates
  • 7. How Long Can the Human Population Grow Rate slowing, 1.22% but still exponential Uneven global growth (9x’s faster in developing countries) Most growth in developing countries, least likely to cope No population can grow indefinitely 2050: 9.5 billion people at current growth rates
  • 8. Population Growth  Cultural carrying capacity – the max number of people the earth could support at a reasonable level of comfort and freedom indefinitely
  • 9. Population Change  Population change = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)  Immigration – people enter country  Emigration – people leave country
  • 10. World Populations 2009: Top 3 countries 1.China, 1.3 billion people (1 in 5 people on earth) 2. India, 1.1 billion people (1 in 6 people on earth) 3. USA, 306 million people (1 in 22 people)
  • 11. Population Change Fertility rate – average number of children a woman has. Fertility Rates in 2009: 1.6 in developed countries 6.5 in developing countries
  • 12. Population Change  Why has the fertility rate in the US decreased, but population has increased? Give me specific reasons.
  • 13. 77 years Life expectancy 47 years 1900 2000 Married women working outside the home 8% 81% High school graduates 15% 83% Homes with flush toilets 10% 98% Homes with electricity 2% 99% Living in suburbs 10% 52% Hourly manufacturing job wage (adjusted for inflation) $3 $15 Homicides per 100,000 people 1.2 5.8 Stepped Art Fig. 6-5, p. 99