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# Population Ecology

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### Population Ecology

1. 1. Today’s Lab: Last practical Revised syllabus No lab next week Species interaction lab: 9:30 am, Saturday July 18th Due July 18th: Wiki & pre-lab Population Ecology worksheet - due by Monday
3. 3. How to edit • How to edit – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_to_edit – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Tutorial • Create an ACCOUNT – http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&type=signup • Play in the SANDBOX – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_talk:Sandbox • How to upload pictures – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Uploading_images – Need to make 10 edits and be active for 4 days to upload pictures – Picture upload wizard (once you are autoconfirmed) – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Images_for_upload/Wizard/Autoconfirmed
4. 4. Human Population Clock • http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html
5. 5. Exponential Growth Curve
6. 6. Exponential Growth Curve Growth rate = dN/dt = rmaxN
7. 7. Reproductive Capacity of the Housefly (Musca domestica) Generation Number • 120 2 7,200 3 432,000 4 25,920,000 5 1,555,200,000 6 93,312,000,000 7 5,598,720,000,000
8. 8. Logistic Growth Curve K−N G = rmaxN  Equilibrium  K  G = growth rate Exponential rmax= intrinsic rate of increase Lag N = population size K = carrying capacity
9. 9. Examples of Density-dependent Factors
10. 10. Examples of Density-dependent Factors • Intra-specific • competition Within species competition for limited resources • Predators • Pathogens
11. 11. Population cycles in snowshoe hare and lynx
12. 12. St. Matthew Island reindeer Source: D.R. Klein (1968) http://dieoff.org/page80.htm
13. 13. Human population growth is an exponential growth phase WHY?
14. 14. Total births Total elderly
15. 15. Immigration Emigration
16. 16. Total population http://www.worldmapper.org/textindex/text_index.html ∆N = (births + immigrants) - (deaths + emigrants)
17. 17. Human appropriation of photosynthesis
18. 18. http://www.earthday.net/footprint/index.html The average American’s energy use is equal to the consumption of •2 Japanese 32 Indians •6 Mexicans 140 Bangladeshis 284 Tanzanians •13 Chinese 372 Ethiopians
19. 19. By 2015 nearly half of the world's population - more than three billion people - will be in countries lacking sufficient water
20. 20. Late Pleistocene Extinctions – Pleistocene & S America 13,000 years ago, N extinction Gomphothere
21. 21. Sixth extinction Golden Toad was last seen on May 15, 1989. Human action has transformed between one-third and one-half of the entire land surface of the earth. We have lost more than one-quarter of the planet's birds, and two-thirds of the Bali tiger - 1937 major marine fisheries are fully exploited, over-exploited or depleted. E.O. Wilson estimated that the planet is losing 30,000 species per year -- 100 to 1000 times the background rate of species extinctions
22. 22. What is the carrying capacity of Earth? What do you think life on earth (including humans) on earth will look like • in 50 years? • In 500 years? • In 5000 years? • In 50,000 years?
23. 23. Demography - age-specific population parameters A. Population Size B. Fertility C. Mortality D. Age structure
24. 24. Age structures of three nations
25. 25. Easter Island
26. 26. • Settled 700-800 AD • Overpopulation in 800-1600ad • 1722 – 1st Europeans • 1860’s slave raids, smallpox introduced, • Tuberculosis, wars • 1774 Captn Cook – statues toppling – All down by 1830’s
27. 27. Human Population Clock – http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html – How many people were added to the world population during THIS lecture?
28. 28. Computer simulations - Biology Labs Online To study aspects of human population demography and population ecology of sparrows. There are two parts to the worksheet (pg 123-128) Population Demography Population Ecology
29. 29. Due Saturday July 18th Wiki project - turn in list of participants in the group, and any additional information about how the page was edited that is not evident from reviewing the article (before & after) and reading the discussion page. You will receive a grade as a group. Species interaction pre-lab (pgs 153-155)