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Lab 8 - Spatial Relations

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  • 1. Spatial RelationsBSC 2011L
  • 2. Distribute yourselves!
    Plant in the desert – need to have your roots reach water.
    Poison arrow tree
    Algae in deep ocean
    Mushrooms on a rotting log
    Mayfly mating frenzy
  • 3. Spatial relations
    1. Clumped
    3. Random
    2. Even/Uniform
    Distribution of individuals within a population
    how individuals are arranged in space
    Random
    Not random
    ---Even/Uniform
    ---Clumped
    Which is most common?
  • 4. Non-random – Clumped
    “Patchy” Physical, chemical, and environmental conditions
    Hiding places (prey or predators)
    Limited dispersal of juveniles,
    seeds, larvae, baby birds
    Social Factors
    Selfish herd
    Family groups
  • 5. Non-random -- Uniform
    Distances between individuals are maximized
    strong competition for a resource
    Ex. Allelopathy
    Other examples?
    nest distribution of blue tilapia in sewage treatment ponds
    creosote bushes in southwest
  • 6. Random
    The location of one individual bears no relationship to the locations of other individuals
    Usually found:
    in homogeneous environments
    individuals neither attract nor repel one another
  • 7. Distributions may change:
    seasons as resources change
    spatial scale is very important
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Collect data for 3 tests.
    2 tests of species distribution (clumped, even, or random)
    -- Clark-Evans nearest neighbor method
    -- Variance/Mean ratio
    1 test of Interspecific Association
  • 11. Clark-Evans nearest neighbor method – Ant Lions
    Measure to 4 nearest neighbors
    Estimate area in cm2
  • 12. Clark-Evans nearest neighbor method – ant lions
    Measure distance to ‘nearest neighbor’
    Calculate RATIO of measured / expected
    • R = 1  RANDOM
    • 13. R > 1  EVEN
    • 14. R < 1  CLUMPED
    • 15. Do t test to test if the R value is ‘significantly different that 1 (at alpha level of 0.05)
  • Variance/mean ratio method
    Colocasia esculenta
    (Araceae)
    50 hoop tosses (for our class)
    COUNT NUMBER OF PLANTS
  • 16. Variance/mean ratio method
    If v/m near 1  random
    If v/m &lt;1  even distribution
    If v/m &gt;1  clumped
    TEST for significance using t test
  • 17. Interspecific association
    At same time as above, record presence or absence of species B in quadrant.
    Justicia americana
    (Acanthaceae)
    50 hoop tosses (for our class)
    For each hoop toss, record presence or absence of each species
  • 18. Interspecific Association
    Record number of hoop tosses in each category (W,X, Y, Z)
    N = number of total hoop tosses
    If W x Z &gt; X x Y, positive association
    If W x Z &lt; X x Y, negative association
    Do Chi-squared test
  • 19. You will be doing this worksheet at home. *Remember this sheet is worth 15 points
    Pgs. 147-148 in the lab manual
    Do not do computer version on bioviewer!
  • 20. Due Wednesday
    1. Spatial Relations datasheet (pgs 147-148 using data collected in lab Saturday) (15 pts).
    2. Quiz 4 -- Do quiz bank questions OR improve one of the WIKI articles (turn in paragraph explaining briefly what you did) OR take quiz at end of lab on Spatial Relations. (5 pts)
    3. Population Ecology PRE-LAB (pgs 129-130) (5 pts)

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