Lab 6 - Angiosperms
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Lab 6 - Angiosperms

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Lab 6 - Angiosperms Lab 6 - Angiosperms Presentation Transcript

  • 400mya
    Angiosperms and plant anatomy
    Million years of evolution:
    Cooksonia
    Practical # 3
    Mid-term evaluations (lab 6 of 10)
    Lecture
    Scavenger Hunt
    Turn in cladistics worksheet p 123-4
    Next week:
    Last lab practical
    Angiosperm
  • http://www.johnkyrk.com/evolution.html
  • Paleo plant and insect interactions
  • Insects and plants evolved together
    Older
    Younger
  • time
    Rapid origin
  • The unique character of angiosperms is that the ovules are completely enclosed in a carpel
    1. gametophytes only a few cells
    2. immotile sperm- carried to ovule by pollen tube
    3. No “spores” because reduced gametophyte
  • Extinct
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/anat-flash.html
    Controversy about its floral morphology interpretation
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/
  • Knowing the flower anatomy…let’s review the fossil record of earliest angiosperms
    keep in mind:
    • To date, the origin of the angiosperms remains controversial
    • No consensus about the ancestral relative
    • Molecular evidence suggest a Jurassic origin (>150 Ma), but the oldest fossils is early Cretaceous (~125 Ma)
    MORE INFO: http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html
  • UF grad student found this one!
  • Extinct
  • Many early flowers are
    related to living
    Angiosperms families
  • Pollination of ‘primitive’ flowers
  • Flowers adapted for pollination by "smart" insects
  • Insects can see uv light
  • Insects can see uv light
  • What pollinates these?
  • Wind-pollinated flowerssecondarily derived in Angiosperms
    -- flowers are green, small, and often lack petals.
    Wind pollinated flowers of deciduous trees species open in early spring – why?
  • Pick the Pollinator
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/pollinator.html
  • Plant parts
    Take a look…
  • Primitive vs Derived characters
    http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfplab/primder.htm
  • Fruit and seed dispersal
  • Don’t forget…
    Also: ichthyochory
  • ?
  • What disperses these?
  • Pleistocene extinction
    Gomphothere
    Late Pleistocene Extinctions – 13,000 years ago, N & S America
  • “Re-wilding of N. America?”
  • Angiosperms often used for medicine – why?
    Preparing ayahuasca
  • 3 clades
    A. Monocotyledones (monocots)
    B. Magnoliids
    C. Eudicotyledones (dicots)
  • ANGIOSPERMS
  • Generalized distinguishing characteristics:
  • A comparison of monocots and dicots -- know this for lab practical
    Lab exercise – can you tell them apart?
  • MONOCOTS
    All flesh is grass” -- Isaiah
    Grasses evolved directly with mammals
  • Bamboo
  • Banana
    Pineapple
    Onion
  • Palms!
    ‘ivory palm’
    Coconuts
    Harvesting palm hearts
  • Bactris gasipaes‘peach palm’
  • One apical bud!!
  • phloem
    xylem
    Monocot stem -- vascular bundles
  • Dicot stem
    Xylem and phloem in rings
    Dicots have secondary growth
  • Which tree has a better chance to live?
    Dicot
    Monocot (palm)
  • Dicot stems
    Illegal mahagony logging
    Annual growth rings?
  • We eat many, many dicot fruits
    Examples?
    Theobroma cacao
  • In common?
    Kale
    Califlower
    Kohlrabi
    Chinese kale
    cabbage
    Broccoli
    Collard greens
    Brussel sprouts
  • Brassica oleracea
    Kale
    Califlower
    Kohlrabi
    Chinese kale
    cabbage
    Broccoli
    Collard greens
    Brussel sprouts
    ‘wild mustard’
  • Brassica oleracea
    ‘wild mustard’
  • Vavilov Centersof origin for crop plants
    http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture05/lec05.html
  • Anatomy study slides
  • The life cycle of an angiosperm
  • Angiosperm life cycle
  • Plant morphology/anatomy
    Primary vs. secondary growth
    A. Apical meristems - primary growth
    B. Cambium (vascular or cork) - secondary growth
    C. In lab -. Apical meristems
    1. Coleus - stem tip (no. 3) - herbaceous dicot
    2. Zea - root longitudinal section (no. 4) - monocot
  • Seed anatomy Scan
  • Stems
    A. Anatomy
    1. parenchyma (pith) 6. xylem
    2. sclerenchyma 7. phloem
    3. epidermis 8. vascular cambium
    4. cork & cork cambium 9. meristem
    5. cortex 10. node
    B. In lab:
    1. Helianthus - stem (no. 5) - herbaceous dicot
    2. Tilia - stem cross sections (no. 6) - woody dicot
    3. Zea - stem cross section (no. 7)
  • Morphology of a flowering plant
  • Morphology of a winter twig
  • Anatomy of a tree trunk
  • Organization of primary tissues in young stems
  • Leaves
    A. Anatomy
    1. palisade mesophyll 5. stomata
    2. spongy mesophyll 6. xylem
    3. epidermis 7. phloem
    4. cuticle
    B. In lab:
    1. Ligustrum - leaf section (no. 8)
  • Leaf anatomy
  • Simple versus compound leaves
    a. Simple
    b. Compound
    i. palmate
    ii. pinnate
  • Roots
    A. Anatomy
    1. epidermis 5. casparian strip
    2. cortex 6. pericycle
    3. stele 7. xylem
    4. endodermis 8. phloem
    B. In lab:
    1. Ranunculus - root (no. 9)
    2. Salix - branch root (no. 10)
    3. radish root hairs
    4. sweet potato demo - storage root
    5. carrot - root stores sugars
  • Primary growth of a root
  • Organization of primary tissues in young roots
  • The formation of lateral roots
  • Root hairs of a radish seedling
  • Storage organs
    A. white potato demo - modified stem
    B. green onion demo - leaves modified for storage
    C. celery - leaf petiole modified
    D. sweet potato demo - storage root
    E. carrot - root stores sugars
  • Principal Biological Concepts this lab:
    A. Angiosperms as dominant plant taxon.
    B. Ovules enclosed within two integuments and a carpel wall.
    C. Structure and function of flowers, and importance of pollinators.
    D. Carpel wall may ripen as pericarp = fruit.
    E. Monocots versus dicots
    F. Double fertilization.
    G. Plant tissues.
    H. Primary and secondary growth.
    I. Structure and function of shoots, roots, and leaves.
  • To study for next lab practical
    Moncots vs dicots
    Flower parts
    Leaf structures
    Stem structures, xylem vs phloem, monocots vs dicot vasculature
    Root tissues & functions
    Xylem vs phloem
  • Complete Plant Cladistic Exercise
    A. Follow directions in Plant Cladistics data sheet (pp. 123-124).
    B. Complete the cladogram and hand in before you leave.