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Lab 6 - Angiosperms
 

Lab 6 - Angiosperms

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    Lab 6 - Angiosperms Lab 6 - Angiosperms Presentation Transcript

    • 400mya
      Angiosperms and plant anatomy
      Million years of evolution:
      Cooksonia
      Practical # 3
      Mid-term evaluations (lab 6 of 10)
      Lecture
      Scavenger Hunt
      Turn in cladistics worksheet p 123-4
      Next week:
      Last lab practical
      Angiosperm
    • http://www.johnkyrk.com/evolution.html
    • Paleo plant and insect interactions
    • Insects and plants evolved together
      Older
      Younger
    • time
      Rapid origin
    • The unique character of angiosperms is that the ovules are completely enclosed in a carpel
      1. gametophytes only a few cells
      2. immotile sperm- carried to ovule by pollen tube
      3. No “spores” because reduced gametophyte
    • Extinct
      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/anat-flash.html
      Controversy about its floral morphology interpretation
      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/
    • Knowing the flower anatomy…let’s review the fossil record of earliest angiosperms
      keep in mind:
      • To date, the origin of the angiosperms remains controversial
      • No consensus about the ancestral relative
      • Molecular evidence suggest a Jurassic origin (>150 Ma), but the oldest fossils is early Cretaceous (~125 Ma)
      MORE INFO: http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html
    • UF grad student found this one!
    • Extinct
    • Many early flowers are
      related to living
      Angiosperms families
    • Pollination of ‘primitive’ flowers
    • Flowers adapted for pollination by "smart" insects
    • Insects can see uv light
    • Insects can see uv light
    • What pollinates these?
    • Wind-pollinated flowerssecondarily derived in Angiosperms
      -- flowers are green, small, and often lack petals.
      Wind pollinated flowers of deciduous trees species open in early spring – why?
    • Pick the Pollinator
      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/pollinator.html
    • Plant parts
      Take a look…
    • Primitive vs Derived characters
      http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfplab/primder.htm
    • Fruit and seed dispersal
    • Don’t forget…
      Also: ichthyochory
    • ?
    • What disperses these?
    • Pleistocene extinction
      Gomphothere
      Late Pleistocene Extinctions – 13,000 years ago, N & S America
    • “Re-wilding of N. America?”
    • Angiosperms often used for medicine – why?
      Preparing ayahuasca
    • 3 clades
      A. Monocotyledones (monocots)
      B. Magnoliids
      C. Eudicotyledones (dicots)
    • ANGIOSPERMS
    • Generalized distinguishing characteristics:
    • A comparison of monocots and dicots -- know this for lab practical
      Lab exercise – can you tell them apart?
    • MONOCOTS
      All flesh is grass” -- Isaiah
      Grasses evolved directly with mammals
    • Bamboo
    • Banana
      Pineapple
      Onion
    • Palms!
      ‘ivory palm’
      Coconuts
      Harvesting palm hearts
    • Bactris gasipaes‘peach palm’
    • One apical bud!!
    • phloem
      xylem
      Monocot stem -- vascular bundles
    • Dicot stem
      Xylem and phloem in rings
      Dicots have secondary growth
    • Which tree has a better chance to live?
      Dicot
      Monocot (palm)
    • Dicot stems
      Illegal mahagony logging
      Annual growth rings?
    • We eat many, many dicot fruits
      Examples?
      Theobroma cacao
    • In common?
      Kale
      Califlower
      Kohlrabi
      Chinese kale
      cabbage
      Broccoli
      Collard greens
      Brussel sprouts
    • Brassica oleracea
      Kale
      Califlower
      Kohlrabi
      Chinese kale
      cabbage
      Broccoli
      Collard greens
      Brussel sprouts
      ‘wild mustard’
    • Brassica oleracea
      ‘wild mustard’
    • Vavilov Centersof origin for crop plants
      http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture05/lec05.html
    • Anatomy study slides
    • The life cycle of an angiosperm
    • Angiosperm life cycle
    • Plant morphology/anatomy
      Primary vs. secondary growth
      A. Apical meristems - primary growth
      B. Cambium (vascular or cork) - secondary growth
      C. In lab -. Apical meristems
      1. Coleus - stem tip (no. 3) - herbaceous dicot
      2. Zea - root longitudinal section (no. 4) - monocot
    • Seed anatomy Scan
    • Stems
      A. Anatomy
      1. parenchyma (pith) 6. xylem
      2. sclerenchyma 7. phloem
      3. epidermis 8. vascular cambium
      4. cork & cork cambium 9. meristem
      5. cortex 10. node
      B. In lab:
      1. Helianthus - stem (no. 5) - herbaceous dicot
      2. Tilia - stem cross sections (no. 6) - woody dicot
      3. Zea - stem cross section (no. 7)
    • Morphology of a flowering plant
    • Morphology of a winter twig
    • Anatomy of a tree trunk
    • Organization of primary tissues in young stems
    • Leaves
      A. Anatomy
      1. palisade mesophyll 5. stomata
      2. spongy mesophyll 6. xylem
      3. epidermis 7. phloem
      4. cuticle
      B. In lab:
      1. Ligustrum - leaf section (no. 8)
    • Leaf anatomy
    • Simple versus compound leaves
      a. Simple
      b. Compound
      i. palmate
      ii. pinnate
    • Roots
      A. Anatomy
      1. epidermis 5. casparian strip
      2. cortex 6. pericycle
      3. stele 7. xylem
      4. endodermis 8. phloem
      B. In lab:
      1. Ranunculus - root (no. 9)
      2. Salix - branch root (no. 10)
      3. radish root hairs
      4. sweet potato demo - storage root
      5. carrot - root stores sugars
    • Primary growth of a root
    • Organization of primary tissues in young roots
    • The formation of lateral roots
    • Root hairs of a radish seedling
    • Storage organs
      A. white potato demo - modified stem
      B. green onion demo - leaves modified for storage
      C. celery - leaf petiole modified
      D. sweet potato demo - storage root
      E. carrot - root stores sugars
    • Principal Biological Concepts this lab:
      A. Angiosperms as dominant plant taxon.
      B. Ovules enclosed within two integuments and a carpel wall.
      C. Structure and function of flowers, and importance of pollinators.
      D. Carpel wall may ripen as pericarp = fruit.
      E. Monocots versus dicots
      F. Double fertilization.
      G. Plant tissues.
      H. Primary and secondary growth.
      I. Structure and function of shoots, roots, and leaves.
    • To study for next lab practical
      Moncots vs dicots
      Flower parts
      Leaf structures
      Stem structures, xylem vs phloem, monocots vs dicot vasculature
      Root tissues & functions
      Xylem vs phloem
    • Complete Plant Cladistic Exercise
      A. Follow directions in Plant Cladistics data sheet (pp. 123-124).
      B. Complete the cladogram and hand in before you leave.