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Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution
 

Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution

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Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution Presentation Transcript

  • Lab 1: Vertebrate evolution 3. Course overview 4. Introductions 5. Vertebrate evolution lecture 6. Cladistics worksheet A. –due end at end of lab Next week: Lab practical #1
  • 10 labs May 20 Evolution of Vertebrates, Cladistics review May 27 Fetal Pig Dissection & human sexuality June 3 Sensory Physiology (sight, hearing, reflexes) June 10 Photosynthesis - lab experiment June 17 Origin and Evolution of Plant life June 25 NO LAB July 1 Plant Anatomy July 8 Population Ecology (inc. human population) July 15 Species Interactions – collect field data July 22 Species distributions & analysis July 29 Biodiversity and Island Biogeography
  • Introductions 1. Name 2. Major 3. Topic of interest 4. Something unique or interesting about you
  • Course resources E-learning - Grades My BSC - forms Syllabus, Lab Admit Form, etc. Bioviewer – study for lab practicals
  • Class blogs http://bsc2011summer2009a.blogspot.com http://bsc2011summer2009b.blogspot.com/
  • Grading – How to get an A… A ≥ 90.0% B+ ≥ 85.0%, B ≥ 80.0%, C+ ≥ 75.0%, C ≥ 70.0%, D+ ≥ 65.0%, D ≥ 60.0%, E < 60% Scores are NOT rounded up
  • Quiz bank 1. You must submit question(s) for each week that you want to participate in answering questions. 2. I will post questions to blog by FRIDAY. 3. You can participate even if your question is not chosen. 4. Answers for each week are due at the beginning of the next week's lab. 5. Answers in your own words. Plagerism = zero grade for the entire quiz. 6. Answers should be about 1 paragraph and must include references of published scientific paper, book, or government or university website. 7. Submitted questions can substitute for ANY questions on the quiz, EXCEPT the 2 questions about the current lab. 8. YOU CHOSE when to use your quiz questions -- you can save them or use them all on a single quiz. 9. Indicate with a BIG STAR and the word SUBSTITUTE on your quiz for which questions you want replaced by your quiz bank questions 10. If you substitute for a question for which you wrote the correct answer, it still counts as a substitute question.
  • POLICY ON ACADEMIC INTEGRITY All students are expected to do their own work. The taking of information by means of copying homework assignments, working together with another individual(s) on such assignments, or looking or attempting to look at another student's paper during an examination is considered dishonest. The tendering of information, such as giving your work to another student to be used or copied is also considered dishonest. Any evidence of such academic dishonesty will result in the loss of all points on that graded assignment. Additionally, the names of those students so penalized will be reported to the University's Office of Student Judicial Affairs.
  • LABORATORY SAFETY 1. Work in the Biology laboratory may expose students to inherently dangerous activities. Students in the BSC laboratories may be exposed to chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, organic solvents, acids, and other caustic chemicals), chemical fumes, laboratory equipment and supplies (e.g., scalpels, razor blades, glass slides, coverslips, and electrical equipment), toxic or irritating properties of living and dead animals, and other materials necessary to laboratory activities. Other possible hazards include broken glass on the floor or counters, combustible materials, and slippery spills. A. 1. Smoking, eating, and drinking are expressly forbidden and NOT allowed in the laboratory. B. 2. Locate the placement of safety equipment and supplies in the laboratory: safety shower, eye wash station, fire extinguisher, and first aid kit. Memorize these locations. You should understand the use of this equipment. Also note the locations of exits. Each laboratory has a chemical exposure manual. These include material safety data sheets on all hazardous chemicals or compounds to which you might be exposed in the BSC laboratory. C. 3. Students should follow instructions carefully, especially when hazardous conditions occur or hazardous materials are being used. D. 4. Students should dress appropriately in the lab. Gloves and protective aprons will be made available in the labs. Students may elect to supply their own gloves and protective aprons or laboratory coats. Only shoes that provide complete foot covering are allowed in the lab. E. 5. You should be familiar with fire procedures. Leave the building immediately should a major fire occur or if the fire alarm sounds. Notify the appropriate authorities -- don't assume someone else remembered to do it. Meet with other students and your instructor outside the building before leaving so that an accurate headcount may be made. F. 6. The safe use of specific equipment and tools (e.g., microscopes, slides, scalpels, and pipettes) will be demonstrated by the instructor during the laboratory sessions. Be sure you understand this usage and ask questions if you do not. G. 7. Never pipette by mouth. Always use a suction bulb or pipette aid. H. 8. Notify your T.A. IMMEDIATELY of any spills, breakages, or equipment malfunction. I. 9. Students should report all hazardous conditions to the instructor immediately. J. 10. All organisms, living or dead, should be treated with care and respect. Avoid direct handling when possible. K. 11. Students should clean up any supplies used and should return materials where they belong as instructed. Any material spilled should be cleaned appropriately. Report any hazardous spills or breakages. L. 12. Broken glass and sharp metal waste should be placed only in those receptacles marked for such disposal -- do not put these materials in normal trash receptacles. M. 13. Work areas must be left clean and dry prior to leaving the lab. Chemicals and reagents must be returned to their proper places. N. 14. You should always wash your hands before leaving the laboratory, even if you have not knowingly come in contact with any chemicals or biological fluids.
  • Today’s lab: Principal Biological Concepts: A. Classification (revisited from BSC 2010L). B. Protostome vs. deuterostome (revisited). C. Chordate features. D. Chordate subphyla. E. Evolution of craniates from early chordates. F. Evolution of craniate classes. G. Evolution of jaws. H. Adaptations to terrestrial existence. I. Endothermy. J. Cladistic analysis.
  • Classification A. Review taxonomic hierarchy - Domain, kingdom, phylum (division), class, order, family, genus, species. B. 3 domains 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya – 5 kingdoms
  • Hierarchical classification
  • Eukarya a. quot;Protistsquot; – At least 5 kingdoms b. Kingdom ANIMALIA c. Kingdom FUNGI d. Kingdom PLANTAE
  • Kingdom ANIMALIA We will cover: Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata
  • Protostome & Deuterostome Dichotomy • Protostomes – Determinate cleavage A cell isolated at the 4-cell stage from a mollusk forms an inviable embryo that lack parts • Deuterostomes – Indeterminate cleavage If the cells of a sea start embryo are separated at the 4-cell stage, each will go on to form a normal larva. Twins in human beings Stem cells
  • Know functions as well as structures. Functions of structures detailed in the manual will not always be included in the text. You are still required to know the function.
  • Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata A. secondary radial symmetry - bilateral in larvae B. endoskeleton - calcareous quot;testquot; C. water vascular system (supplies oxygen to the cells and removes CO2 from the tissues)
  • Phylum Echinodermata 4 classes 1. sea stars (class Asteroidea) 2. brittle stars (class Ophiuroidea) 3. sea urchin (class Echinoidea) 4. sea cucumbers (class Holothuroidea)
  • http://www.johnkyrk.com/evolution.html
  • Class Asteroidea Sea stars • Pentaradial
  • Anatomy of a sea star Opening of the WVS
  • Class Ophiuroidea Brittle star: Early Ordovician, ~500 million years ago Five arms joined to central body disk Organs of digestion and reproduction never enter the arms Arms regenerate
  • Class Echinoidea - sea urchins & sand dollars Apperaed 450 Mya Test is round and spiny No arms
  • Class Holothuroidea - sea cucumbers Elongated body and leathery skin Endoskeleton below the skin
  • Chordates (phylum Chordata) 3 characters - present at some point in life 1. notochord 2. pharyngeal gill slits 3. dorsal, hollow, nerve cord
  • Yunnanozoon lividum is a suspected chordate from the Lower Cambrian, Chengjiang biota of Yunnan province We would not be here if this little animal had gone extinct!!! palaeo-electronica.org/2000_1/fossils/fig_14.htm Extra
  • 12-week-old human fetus We do have gill slits N becomes vertebral column DHNC becomes spinal cord Extra
  • Chordata 3 subphyla - 2 quot;protochordatesquot; and vertebrates 1. subphylum Urochordata -tunicates or sea squirts - 3,000 species 2. subphylum Cephalochordata - lancelets (Amphioxus) - 30 species 3. subphylum Craniata- craniates - animals with backbones; 57,674 species
  • Chordata Subphylum Urochordata -tunicates or sea squirts Mostly marine and sessile N? DHNC?
  • Chordata Subphylum Urochordata - tunicate larva
  • Chordata Subphylum Cephalochordata - lancelets (Amphioxus) Half buried in the sand Filters food
  • Subphylum Craniata- 9 classes 1. Class Myxini - hagfishes 7. Class Amphibia - frogs, toads, salamanders 2. Class Cephalaspidomorphi - lampreys 8. Class Mammalia – mammals 3. Class Chondrichthyes - 9. Class Reptilia cartilagenous fishes subclass Testudines -sharks, rays, skates subclass Lepidosauria - quot;Osteichthyesquot; snakes, lizards, tuatara 4. Class Actinopterygii - ray- subclass Crocodylia - finned fishes alligators and 5. Class Actinistia - lobe- crocodiles finned fishes Subclass Aves - birds 6. Class Dipnoi - lungfishes Myxini and Lampreys Only animals which have a skull but not a vertebral column
  • Class Myxini - hagfishes Diet?
  • Class Cephalaspidomorphi - lampreys jawless “fish” with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth.
  • Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous fishes sharks, rays, skates
  • The evolution of vertebrate jaws
  • quot;Osteichthyesquot; - informal name for bony fishes Class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes Class Actinistia - lobe-finned fishes Class Dipnoi - lungfishes Class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes – 25.000 sp.
  • Class Actinistia - lobe-finned fishes They were believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous, until the first specimen was found off the east coast of South Africa, off the Chalumna River in 1938
  • Class Dipnoi - lungfish These fish have lungs Live in arid habitats that experience seasonal droughts
  • Anatomy of a trout, a representative bony fish
  • Tetrapods are vertebrate animals having four feet, legs or leglike appendages •Amphibians • Reptiles • Dinosaurs • Birds • Mammals • Even the limbless snakes are tetrapods by descent
  • The Devonian radiation of fishes
  • Extra Intermediate between fish with fins and tetrapods with limbs
  • Class Amphibia - amphibians - frogs, toads, salamanders • Amphibian remain near water (what it means?) • The skin is living (no dead cells) • Most breath air through lungs as adults, rather than gills •Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that metamorphose
  • The amniotic or cleidoic egg
  • Phylogeny of the amniotes
  • Class Reptilia completed the transition to land Subclass Testudines - turtles Subclass Lepidosauria - lizards, snakes, tuatara Subclass Crocodylia – crocodilians Subclass Aves – birds 6. Scaly skin (keratine) 7. Evolved Amniotic egg 8. Three-chambered heart as amphibians
  • Extra They used to have teeth! 220-million- year-old turtle from China
  • The avian wing and feather What makes a bird a bird? • Feathers • A beak with no teeth • High metabolic rate • A four-chambered heart • Lightweight but strong skeleton • Warm-blooded
  • Archaeopteryx - transitional fossil between dinosaurs and birds
  • Class Mammalia • Evolved from reptiles • Endothermic • Hair (evolved from the scaly skin) • Mammary glands A four-chambered heart Prototherian mammals Metatherian mammals Eutherian mammals
  • Cladistic Analysis (Chapter 2) You must complete this and hand it in before you leave (DS1 - 10 pts., pp. 21-27) Introduction to cladistics - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/clad/clad1.html
  • Constructing a phylogenetic tree using cladistic analysis
  • Lab “practical” next week 10 questions 60 seconds per question You can use word list (Appendix C) How to study Read Ch 1 and 2 Know latin names and shared derived characters of taxons Test yourself on BioViewer Classification of organisms -- Latin names of all phylum, subphylum & classes studied – see Appendix B Microscope slides Lab models Image search
  • Next week: Fetal pig dissection http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0EhPMo06Kk&fmt=6 ***You will need your dissecting equipment next lab***