3. Course overview
5. Vertebrate evolution lecture
6. Cladistics worksheet
A. –due end at end of lab
Next week: Lab practical #1
May 20 Evolution of Vertebrates, Cladistics review
May 27 Fetal Pig Dissection & human sexuality
June 3 Sensory Physiology (sight, hearing, reflexes)
June 10 Photosynthesis - lab experiment
June 17 Origin and Evolution of Plant life
June 25 NO LAB
July 1 Plant Anatomy
July 8 Population Ecology (inc. human population)
July 15 Species Interactions – collect field data
July 22 Species distributions & analysis
July 29 Biodiversity and Island Biogeography
3. Topic of interest
4. Something unique or interesting about
E-learning - Grades
My BSC - forms
Syllabus, Lab Admit Form, etc.
Bioviewer – study for lab
Grading – How to get an A…
A ≥ 90.0%
B+ ≥ 85.0%,
B ≥ 80.0%,
C+ ≥ 75.0%,
C ≥ 70.0%, D+ ≥ 65.0%,
D ≥ 60.0%, E < 60%
Scores are NOT rounded up
1. You must submit question(s) for each week that you want to participate in
2. I will post questions to blog by FRIDAY.
3. You can participate even if your question is not chosen.
4. Answers for each week are due at the beginning of the next week's lab.
5. Answers in your own words. Plagerism = zero grade for the entire quiz.
6. Answers should be about 1 paragraph and must include references of
published scientific paper, book, or government or university website.
7. Submitted questions can substitute for ANY questions on the quiz,
EXCEPT the 2 questions about the current lab.
8. YOU CHOSE when to use your quiz questions -- you can save them or use
them all on a single quiz.
9. Indicate with a BIG STAR and the word SUBSTITUTE on your quiz for
which questions you want replaced by your quiz bank questions
10. If you substitute for a question for which you wrote the correct answer, it
still counts as a substitute question.
POLICY ON ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
All students are expected to do their own work.
The taking of information by means of copying homework
assignments, working together with another individual(s) on
such assignments, or looking or attempting to look at another
student's paper during an examination is considered
dishonest. The tendering of information, such as giving your
work to another student to be used or copied is also
Any evidence of such academic dishonesty will result in the loss of
all points on that graded assignment. Additionally, the names
of those students so penalized will be reported to the
University's Office of Student Judicial Affairs.
1. Work in the Biology laboratory may expose students to inherently dangerous activities. Students in the
BSC laboratories may be exposed to chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, organic solvents, acids, and other
caustic chemicals), chemical fumes, laboratory equipment and supplies (e.g., scalpels, razor blades,
glass slides, coverslips, and electrical equipment), toxic or irritating properties of living and dead animals,
and other materials necessary to laboratory activities. Other possible hazards include broken glass on
the floor or counters, combustible materials, and slippery spills.
A. 1. Smoking, eating, and drinking are expressly forbidden and NOT allowed in the laboratory.
B. 2. Locate the placement of safety equipment and supplies in the laboratory: safety shower, eye wash station, fire
extinguisher, and first aid kit. Memorize these locations. You should understand the use of this equipment. Also note
the locations of exits. Each laboratory has a chemical exposure manual. These include material safety data sheets
on all hazardous chemicals or compounds to which you might be exposed in the BSC laboratory.
C. 3. Students should follow instructions carefully, especially when hazardous conditions occur or hazardous materials
are being used.
D. 4. Students should dress appropriately in the lab. Gloves and protective aprons will be made available in the labs.
Students may elect to supply their own gloves and protective aprons or laboratory coats. Only shoes that provide
complete foot covering are allowed in the lab.
E. 5. You should be familiar with fire procedures. Leave the building immediately should a major fire occur or if the fire
alarm sounds. Notify the appropriate authorities -- don't assume someone else remembered to do it. Meet with other
students and your instructor outside the building before leaving so that an accurate headcount may be made.
F. 6. The safe use of specific equipment and tools (e.g., microscopes, slides, scalpels, and pipettes) will be
demonstrated by the instructor during the laboratory sessions. Be sure you understand this usage and ask questions
if you do not.
G. 7. Never pipette by mouth. Always use a suction bulb or pipette aid.
H. 8. Notify your T.A. IMMEDIATELY of any spills, breakages, or equipment malfunction.
I. 9. Students should report all hazardous conditions to the instructor immediately.
J. 10. All organisms, living or dead, should be treated with care and respect. Avoid direct handling when possible.
K. 11. Students should clean up any supplies used and should return materials where they belong as instructed. Any
material spilled should be cleaned appropriately. Report any hazardous spills or breakages.
L. 12. Broken glass and sharp metal waste should be placed only in those receptacles marked for such disposal -- do
not put these materials in normal trash receptacles.
M. 13. Work areas must be left clean and dry prior to leaving the lab. Chemicals and reagents must be returned to their
N. 14. You should always wash your hands before leaving the laboratory, even if you have not knowingly come in
contact with any chemicals or biological fluids.
Today’s lab: Principal Biological
A. Classification (revisited from BSC 2010L).
B. Protostome vs. deuterostome (revisited).
C. Chordate features.
D. Chordate subphyla.
E. Evolution of craniates from early chordates.
F. Evolution of craniate classes.
G. Evolution of jaws.
H. Adaptations to terrestrial existence.
J. Cladistic analysis.
a. quot;Protistsquot; – At least 5 kingdoms
b. Kingdom ANIMALIA
c. Kingdom FUNGI
d. Kingdom PLANTAE
We will cover:
Protostome & Deuterostome
• Protostomes – Determinate cleavage
A cell isolated at the 4-cell stage from a
mollusk forms an inviable embryo that lack
• Deuterostomes – Indeterminate
If the cells of a sea start embryo are
separated at the 4-cell stage, each will go on
to form a normal larva.
Twins in human beings
Know functions as well as structures.
Functions of structures detailed in
the manual will not always be
included in the text. You are still
required to know the function.
A. secondary radial symmetry - bilateral in
B. endoskeleton - calcareous quot;testquot;
C. water vascular system (supplies
oxygen to the cells and removes CO2
from the tissues)
Early Ordovician, ~500 million years ago
Five arms joined to central body disk
Organs of digestion and reproduction never enter the arms
Class Echinoidea - sea urchins & sand dollars
Apperaed 450 Mya
Test is round and spiny
Class Holothuroidea - sea cucumbers
Elongated body and leathery skin
Endoskeleton below the skin
Chordates (phylum Chordata)
3 characters - present at some point in life
3. dorsal, hollow,
Yunnanozoon lividum is a suspected chordate from the Lower
Cambrian, Chengjiang biota of Yunnan province
We would not be here if this little animal had gone extinct!!!
12-week-old human fetus
We do have gill slits
N becomes vertebral column
DHNC becomes spinal cord
3 subphyla - 2 quot;protochordatesquot; and
1. subphylum Urochordata -tunicates or
sea squirts - 3,000 species
2. subphylum Cephalochordata - lancelets
(Amphioxus) - 30 species
3. subphylum Craniata- craniates - animals
with backbones; 57,674 species
Subphylum Urochordata -tunicates or sea squirts
Mostly marine and sessile
Subphylum Urochordata -
Subphylum Cephalochordata - lancelets
Half buried in the sand
Subphylum Craniata- 9 classes
1. Class Myxini - hagfishes 7. Class Amphibia - frogs,
2. Class Cephalaspidomorphi -
lampreys 8. Class Mammalia – mammals
3. Class Chondrichthyes - 9. Class Reptilia
cartilagenous fishes subclass Testudines
-sharks, rays, skates subclass Lepidosauria -
quot;Osteichthyesquot; snakes, lizards,
4. Class Actinopterygii - ray- subclass Crocodylia -
finned fishes alligators and
5. Class Actinistia - lobe- crocodiles
finned fishes Subclass Aves - birds
6. Class Dipnoi - lungfishes
Myxini and Lampreys
Only animals which have a skull but not a vertebral column
Class Myxini - hagfishes
Class Cephalaspidomorphi - lampreys
jawless “fish” with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth.
Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous fishes
sharks, rays, skates
The evolution of vertebrate jaws
quot;Osteichthyesquot; - informal name for bony
Class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes
Class Actinistia - lobe-finned fishes
Class Dipnoi - lungfishes
Class Actinopterygii -
ray-finned fishes – 25.000 sp.
Class Actinistia -
They were believed to have been extinct since the end of the
Cretaceous, until the first specimen was found off the east coast of
South Africa, off the Chalumna River in 1938
Class Dipnoi - lungfish
These fish have lungs
Live in arid habitats that experience seasonal droughts
Anatomy of a trout, a representative bony fish
Tetrapods are vertebrate animals having four
feet, legs or leglike appendages
• Even the limbless snakes are tetrapods by
The Devonian radiation of fishes
fish with fins
Class Amphibia - amphibians - frogs,
• Amphibian remain near water (what it means?)
• The skin is living (no dead cells)
• Most breath air through lungs as adults, rather than gills
•Amphibians are cold-blooded animals that metamorphose
The amniotic or cleidoic egg
Phylogeny of the amniotes
completed the transition to land
Subclass Testudines - turtles
Subclass Lepidosauria - lizards, snakes, tuatara
Subclass Crocodylia – crocodilians
Subclass Aves – birds
6. Scaly skin (keratine)
7. Evolved Amniotic egg
8. Three-chambered heart
They used to
The avian wing and feather
What makes a bird a bird?
• A beak with no teeth
• High metabolic rate
• A four-chambered heart
• Lightweight but strong
Archaeopteryx - transitional fossil between dinosaurs and birds
• Evolved from reptiles
• Hair (evolved from the scaly skin)
• Mammary glands
A four-chambered heart
Cladistic Analysis (Chapter 2)
You must complete this and hand it in before
you leave (DS1 - 10 pts., pp. 21-27)
Introduction to cladistics -
Constructing a phylogenetic tree using cladistic analysis
Lab “practical” next week
60 seconds per question
You can use word list (Appendix C)
How to study
Read Ch 1 and 2
Know latin names and shared derived characters of taxons
Test yourself on BioViewer
Classification of organisms
-- Latin names of all phylum, subphylum & classes studied – see
Appendix B Microscope slides
Next week: Fetal
***You will need your dissecting equipment next lab***