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  • 1. CHAPTER 13 Nutrition for Adults:Early, Middle, and Later Years Eleanor D. Schlenker Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and DevelopmentAging Across the Life Cycle Aging begins at the moment of conception and continues until death All periods of life have their unique potential and fulfillment Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2
  • 3. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dAging Across the Life Cycle – cont’d Two important considerations govern the physiologic, psychosocial, and nutritional needs across the adult years:  1. The individual  2. The total life Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3
  • 4. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dAging in America Changes in population and available technology are affecting the personal and working lives of adults in the United States and around the world This generation must cope with the costs of educating their children while caring for their aging parents Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4
  • 5. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’d Many factors shape the path of adult development  Physical  Socioeconomic  Psychosocial  Nutritional Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5
  • 6. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dPhysical Characteristics Cell replication: forming new cells to replace old ones and maintain body structure and function At older ages physical growth gradually declines as cells are lost more rapidly than they can be replaced Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6
  • 7. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dSocioeconomic Status Many adults experience changes in resources as they move through early, middle, and later adulthood Financial pressures at any life stage influence food security and the availability of healthcare Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7
  • 8. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dPsychosocial Development Three developmental tasks of psychosocial growth characterize the adult years:  1. Young adults develop intimacy and expand relationships outside of their parents and siblings  2. Middle adults pursue creative expression or explore new career direction  3. Older adults seek fulfillment and strength of purpose Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8
  • 9. Adulthood: Continuing Growth and Development – Cont’dNutritional Needs Nutrient needs remain important even after maturation and physical growth are complete Nutrient requirements remain dynamic throughout life according to age, physical activity, lifestyle, illness, chronic disease, or pregnancy and lactation Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9
  • 10. Adult StagesYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years Physical characteristics  Body functions are fully developed with sexual maturation and reproductive capacity Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 10
  • 11. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Socioeconomic status  Households are established, and individuals may take on the parenting role  The changing work environment can bring difficulty in meeting the life tasks of education, work, and family Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 11
  • 12. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Psychosocial development  If positive development is achieved, the individual can build on personal relationships leading to self- fulfillment Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 12
  • 13. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Energy  Needs tend to continue to decrease with age  Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for active men ages 19 to 30 is about 3000 kcal/day  RDA for active women ages 19 to 30 is 2400 kcal/day Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 13
  • 14. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Energy – cont’d  RDA for active men ages 31 to 50 is about 2900 kcal/day  RDA for active women ages 31 to 50 is about 2300 kcal/day Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 14
  • 15. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Protein  RDA is 56 g/day for young men  RDA is 46 g/day for young women  An additional 25 g/day is required during pregnancy and lactation Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 15
  • 16. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Minerals  Young adults need 1000 mg of calcium  RDA for iron is 18 mg/day for women of child- bearing age and 8 mg/day for young men  The iron requirement in pregnancy is 27 mg/day Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 16
  • 17. Adult Stages – Cont’dYoung Adult: 19 to 45 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Vitamins  Intakes of certain vitamins are less than optimal in many young adults Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 17
  • 18. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years Physical characteristics  Decline in skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength, a condition called sarcopenia, meaning “vanishing flesh”  Most persons increase in body fat Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 18
  • 19. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Psychosocial development  Focus is on family, grandchildren, community  Some experience the “empty nest”  More opportunities to expand personal horizons Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 19
  • 20. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Socioeconomic status  Shifts in the nature of employment can bring job loss for workers at all levels of responsibility  Displaced workers may seek out new educational opportunities or workforce training for new careers Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 20
  • 21. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs  Energy needs decline  Waist circumference can increase  Calcium intake assumes special importance Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21
  • 22. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Food habits  In current surveys fat provides 33% of total kilocalories (kcalories or kcal), and saturated fat more than 11%  Salty snacks and desserts add up to almost 13% of total kcalories Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 22
  • 23. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Chronic diseases  Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer often develop in this stage of life  The prevalence of overweight and obesity has helped to fuel the rise in diabetes Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 23
  • 24. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’dNutritional needs Energy needs continue to decline Protein needs remain the same  56 g/day for men  46 g/day for women Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 24
  • 25. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Minerals  Calcium needs rise to 1200 mg/day for adults over age 50  Iron needs drop to 8 mg/day for women after menopause Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 25
  • 26. Adult Stages – Cont’dMiddle Adult: 45 to 65 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Vitamins  Vitamin D needs rise to 10 µg/day (400 IU) for adults ages 51 to 70  Vitamin B6 needs increase for both men and women Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 26
  • 27. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years Physical characteristics  Chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis, heart disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes may limit physical activity Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 27
  • 28. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Physiologic changes influence nutritional status:  Body composition  Cardiovascular system  Renal system  Respiratory system  Gastrointestinal system Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 28
  • 29. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Psychosocial development  Requires continuing adaptation to new challenges as physical abilities decline and emotional supports are lost Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 29
  • 30. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Socioeconomic status  Older adults usually enter retirement on a fixed income  Financial resources influence nutrient intake, and lower-income older people have poorer diets than higher-income older people Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 30
  • 31. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Energy  A physically active 65-year-old man weighing 77 kg needs about 2600 kcal/day  A physically active woman of this age weighing 57 kg needs about 2100 kcal/ day  Beyond age 70 there are further declines in energy expenditure Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 31
  • 32. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Protein  RDA is 56 g/day for men and 46 g/day for women (same as for younger adults)  Health status may change protein needs  Low energy intake may influence utilization of dietary protein Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 32
  • 33. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Minerals  The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for calcium rises from 1000 mg to 1200 mg for persons over age 50 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 33
  • 34. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Nutritional needs: Vitamins  Vitamin B6 is used less efficiently by the older adult, so the RDA is higher  The DRI for Vitamin D is 10 g (400 IU) for those ages 51 to 70 and 15 g (600 IU) for persons over age 70 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 34
  • 35. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Food intake  Likely problem is unwanted weight loss with increasing frailty and disability  Energy intake continues to decline Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 35
  • 36. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Food intake – cont’d  Increasing fat intake to the upper end of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) may help to stem weight loss  Nonfood calcium rises with over half of this age- group using either calcium supplements or calcium-containing antacids Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 36
  • 37. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Chronic diseases  Elevated blood pressure increases vulnerability to heart attack or stroke  Paralysis affecting speech, mobility, movement, or loss of some degree of cognitive function often results from a stroke  Deaths from cancer rise in older age-groups Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 37
  • 38. Adult Stages – Cont’dOlder Adult: 65 to 85 Years – cont’d Interest in health improvement  Older adults are an important target audience for health education Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 38
  • 39. Adult Stages – Cont’dOldest-Old: 85 Years and OlderPopulation Projections U.S. Census Bureau developed the following three categories:  1. The young-old: ages 65 through 74 years  2. The old-old: ages 75 through 84 years  3. The oldest-old: ages 85 years and older Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 39
  • 40. Adult Stages – Cont’dOldest-Old: 85 Years and Older – cont’d Nutritional needs  As persons continue to age, they become less efficient in nutrient absorption and utilization  Nutrient stores undergo rapid loss in acute illness or long-term disease  We know very little about the interactions between the aging process and chronic disease and how they might influence nutritional needs Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 40
  • 41. The Aging ProcessThe Study of Gerontology The field of gerontology includes the biologic, physiologic, sociologic, and behavioral aspects of the aging process as they play out in each individual Geriatrics: refers to the diseases and medical conditions common to older people Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 41
  • 42. The Aging Process – Cont’dLength of Life Life expectancy of Americans at birth has increased from 49 years to 77 years Lowering the infant death rate and the development of antibiotics and effective public health practices reduced the early deaths of young adults, effectively increasing life expectancy at birth Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 42
  • 43. The Aging Process – Cont’dLength of Life – cont’d Life expectancy at older ages is influenced by environmental factors such as pollution and personal lifestyle including diet, smoking habits, alcohol use, or activity level Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 43
  • 44. The Aging Process – Cont’dQuality of Life Average healthcare costs for adults ages 65 to 74 are $8297 per year These costs increase to $18,353 for those ages 85 and older Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 44
  • 45. The Aging Process – Cont’dQuality of Life – cont’d Researchers are studying both the nature and rate of physiologic aging, looking for possible means of slowing or preventing these changes and related diseases Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 45
  • 46. Biologic Changes in AgingNature of Biologic Changes By the age of 70:  The kidneys will have lost about 28% of their weight  The liver will have lost approximately 25% of its weight  Skeletal muscle will have decreased by almost half, as compared to a young adult Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 46
  • 47. Biologic Changes in Aging – Cont’dIndividuality of the Aging Process Lifestyle choices, disease history, and exposure to environmental hazards or pollution act on genes to determine the rate and severity of aging changes Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 47
  • 48. Biologic Changes in Aging – Cont’dIndividuality of the Aging Process – cont’d Because each person experiences a different set of these influences over a lifetime, persons age at different rates; thus older people of the same chronologic age are very different from each other, whereas young children of the same age are biologically very much alike Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 48
  • 49. Adult HealthFood Intake for Optimal Function The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid emphasize moderation and variety and provide an outline for food selection Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 49
  • 50. Adult Health – Cont’dPhysical Activity for Optimal Function Two types of physical activity promote fitness and well-being:  1. Endurance exercise  2. Resistance exercise Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 50
  • 51. Nutritional Needs of Older AdultsMaintaining Energy Intake Daily energy needs range from 1600 to 2200 kcal for women and 2000 to 2800 kcal for men Chronic conditions common in older adults tend to increase energy needs Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 51
  • 52. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dMaintaining Energy Intake – cont’d For persons above age 59 underweight carries greater risk than moderate overweight Geriatric physicians recommend that older adults maintain a body mass index (BMI) of 22 or higher Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 52
  • 53. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dPlanning an Adequate DietCarbohydrates Persons of all ages should obtain 45% to 65% of their total energy from carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 53
  • 54. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dPlanning an Adequate Diet – cont’dFats Fat intake is best contained within the range of 20% to 35% of total kcalories; including fat at the upper end of the range may help to prevent weight loss when food intake is low Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 54
  • 55. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dPlanning an Adequate Diet – cont’dProtein Current RDA of 0.8 g/kg body weight may not be sufficient for frail or chronically ill older adults Overall, 10% to 35% of total kcalories should be supplied by good-quality protein Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 55
  • 56. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dVitamins Vitamins of special importance to the aging adult:  Folate  Vitamin B6  Vitamin B12  Vitamin D Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 56
  • 57. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dMinerals and Electrolytes In planning diets for older adults, the following require particular attention:  Calcium  Potassium  Sodium Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 57
  • 58. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dWater Dehydration is a concern for both healthy and chronically ill older adults Older adults experience a change in the thirst center of the brain and do not become thirsty as they should Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 58
  • 59. Nutritional Needs of Older Adults – Cont’dWater – cont’d The general fluid requirement of 1500 ml/day increases when either the outside or inside temperature rises High protein intakes will increase the need for fluids Monitoring fluid intake is especially important for older persons who cannot drink or obtain fluids without help Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 59
  • 60. Nutrient Supplementation Older adults with low energy intakes can benefit from prudent, individually assessed supplementation May be needed to replenish losses following critical or debilitating illness Should be based on an individual assessment and advice of a healthcare professional Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 60
  • 61. Influences on Food Intake of Older AdultsPhysical Changes Decayed teeth, tooth loss, or poorly fitting dentures all make chewing and eating both painful and difficult Losses in taste, smell, or sight reduce the enjoyment of eating and lower appetite Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 61
  • 62. Influences on Food Intake of Older Adults – Cont’dMultiple Medications Can lower food intake by producing  Anorexia  Nausea  Unpleasant taste Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 62
  • 63. Influences on Food Intake of Older Adults – Cont’dPsychosocial Distress Emotional loss arising from the death of a spouse or physical separation from family and friends causing depression can lead to disinterest in food Alcohol sometimes displaces food in the diet Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 63
  • 64. Influences on Food Intake of Older Adults – Cont’dEconomic Problems Lack of resources to purchase the quantity or quality of food they should haveChronic Illness and Disability Food shopping and meal preparation can be difficult or impossible with some physical disabilities Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 64
  • 65. Clinical ApplicationsMedical Nutrition Therapy Under certain circumstances a medically indicated diet may be appropriate; however, the greater the restriction the more likely the rejection of the food offered and consequent weight loss Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 65
  • 66. Clinical Applications – Cont’dMedical Nutrition Therapy – cont’d Older persons with diabetes can often be well managed on a regular diet if high-sugar items are restricted A regular diet—well-balanced nutritionally— that offers a wide variety of foods with moderation in fats and sweets has the best outcomes Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 66
  • 67. Clinical Applications – Cont’dSupport Programs for Self-Care Expand knowledge about a condition and its management, build emotional support, and work with the individual and family to promote creative decision making Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 67
  • 68. Community Resources for the AgingFood Assistance Programs for Older Americans Food stamps Commodities distribution program Elderly Nutrition Program: national program with the greatest impact on the nutritional status of older adults Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 68
  • 69. Food Assistance ProgramsElderly Nutrition Program Funded under the Older Americans Act and managed by the Administration on Aging First authorized in 1972 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 69
  • 70. Food Assistance Programs – Cont’dElderly Nutrition Program – cont’d Intended to meet both the nutritional and social needs of older adults Operates in all 50 states and provides various nutrition services based on local needs and the funds available Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 70
  • 71. Government Research and Education ServicesResearch Centers of the United States Department of Agriculture Authorized by Congress to study the role of nutrition in the aging process and help us learn more about nutritional requirements at older ages Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 71
  • 72. Government Research and Education Services – Cont’dExtension Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Provide nutrition education classes and practical nutrition materials for older adults and community workers Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 72
  • 73. Government Research and Education Services – Cont’dState Public Health Departments Provide nutrition education and oversee nutrition and health screening of older people in the community Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 73
  • 74. Government Research and Education Services – Cont’dState Departments for the Aging Area agencies on aging manage congregate and home-delivered meals programs on the local level under the guidelines of the state unit Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 74
  • 75. Professional Organizations and ResourcesNational Council on the Aging Nonprofit organization that promotes research, training, technical assistance, advocacy and public policy, program standards, and publications relating to all aspects of aging Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 75
  • 76. Professional Organizations and Resources – Cont’dAmerican Geriatrics Society Made up of physicians who provide medical care to older patientsThe Gerontological Society Includes a wide range of health and social service professionals Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 76
  • 77. Professional Organizations and Resources – Cont’dVolunteer Health Organizations Organizations such as the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association Support health and nutrition programs of interest to older adults Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 77
  • 78. Professional Organizations and Resources – Cont’dCommunity Groups Medical societies, nursing organizations, and dietetic associations Sponsor classes and programs to help meet the needs of older adults in their communities Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 78