Uploaded on

 

More in: Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,346
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 9The Food Environment and Food Safety Eleanor D. Schlenker Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 2. Personal Food SelectionCultural Identity  Culture is broadly defined as the values, beliefs, attitudes, and practices accepted by members of a group or community  Culture is passed from generation to generation and learned gradually as a child grows up within the community Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2
  • 3. Food HabitsFood in a Culture Foodways (food customs or traditions)  Determine what food shall be eaten, when and how it shall be eaten, and who shall prepare it Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 3
  • 4. Social InfluencesInternal Factors Food is a symbol of acceptance, warmth, and friendliness Certain foods trigger a flood of childhood memories People eat foods that are readily available and that they have the money to buy Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 4
  • 5. Social Influences – Cont’dExternal Factors Peer pressures influence food choices Children may plead for a particular snack item if that is what their friends eat Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 5
  • 6. Psychological Influences Maslow’s classic hierarchy describes the five levels of human need, each building on the one before Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 6
  • 7. Psychological Influences – Cont’d1. Basic physiologic needs: hunger and thirst2. Need for safety: physical comfort, security, and protection3. Need to belong: love; giving and receiving affection4. Need for recognition: self-esteem, sense of self-worth, self-confidence, and capability5. Need for self-actualization: self-fulfillment and creative growth Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 7
  • 8. Trends in Food Selection Several components are common to all food patterns:  Core and complementary foods  Food flavors  Meal patterns Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 8
  • 9. Changing American Food Patterns Traditional home cooking has given way to fast food and convenience food Almost half of the family food dollar is spent for food away from home More meals are eaten on the run Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9
  • 10. Convenience Meals Consumers want foods that can be heated quickly and served in minutes Healthy choices are often more expensive Many fast food and frozen entrees are high in total fat, saturated fat, and sodium and low in calcium and important vitamins Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 10
  • 11. Grazers Frequency of eating is related to energy intake More smaller meals can be healthy if monitored wisely May benefit people who are physically active and older adults Need to select healthy snacks Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 11
  • 12. Family Meals Busy families find it difficult to eat meals together Eating as a family is beneficial to physical and emotional well-being The more meals children eat with their parents, the greater their intakes of calcium- rich foods, fruits, and vegetables Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 12
  • 13. Health Concerns Increasing concern about healthy eating Taste and price are still prominent in food selection Increasing use of organic food, especially for children Limited consumer knowledge about food Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 13
  • 14. Food Misinformation False information may come from folklore, be built on half-truths, or stem from intentional deception and fraud Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 14
  • 15. Types of False Food Claims Exaggerated food claims include:  Certain foods will cure specific diseases or conditions  Certain food combinations have special therapeutic effects  Only “natural” foods can meet body needs and prevent disease Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15
  • 16. Why Food Misinformation Is a Concern Danger to health Money spent needlessly Distrust of the food supply Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 16
  • 17. Groups Vulnerable to Food Misinformation Older adults Teenagers Obese persons Athletes Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 17
  • 18. Combating Food Misinformation No segment of the population is completely free of the appeal of unscrupulous marketers of worthless or harmful products How to respond to misinformation:  Educate consumers  Stay current  Think scientifically Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 18
  • 19. Biotechnology and Food Biotechnology is the field of science involved with gene technology  Allows us to add or remove a gene from the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a plant or animal species  Used to increase quality and quantity of food supply  Used to increase nutrient content of crops, develop new species, enhance animal production, etc. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 19
  • 20. Biotechnology and Food – Cont’d Two biotechnology applications that provide examples of the biosafety review process: 1. Bovine growth hormone • A naturally occurring hormone found in all animals • Produced by recombinant DNA methods for use in the dairy industry 2. Genetically modified plants • The genetic DNA material is modified to produce a desired trait (improved nutrient content, resistance to pests) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 20
  • 21. Biotechnology and Food – Cont’d Goals for Genetic Modification 1. Increased resistance to disease and insects 2. Increased tolerance to weather conditions 3. Increased nutritional value Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 21
  • 22. Biotechnology and Food – Cont’dSafety of Genetically Modified Crops Genetically modified crops and their sale and use remain controversial Three major concerns of public groups: 1. Risk of allergic reactions 2. Potential toxicity to humans 3. Potential danger to the environment Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 22
  • 23. Biotechnology and Food – Cont’dBiotechnology and Animal Foods Potential for developing healthier animal foods (e.g., eggs with less cholesterol and beef with reduced fat) Risk analysis evaluates potential benefits versus potential harm Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 23
  • 24. Government Agencies Responsible for Food Safety The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) share oversight of our food supply The FDA has responsibility for ensuring the safety of all foods except meat and poultry Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 24
  • 25. Government Agencies Responsiblefor Food Safety – Cont’d USDA inspects and monitors the production and packing of meat and poultry FDA and USDA work with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that pesticide residues do not exceed tolerance standards FDA has put in place surveillance programs and risk assessment procedures in food manufacturing facilities to prevent food contamination Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 25
  • 26. Food Safety LawsApproval Process for Drugs FDA’s control over food and drug ingredients began in 1938 Pharmaceutical drugs are the most highly regulated Manufacturer must present to the FDA convincing scientific evidence that the drug meets the legal standard of “safe and effective” Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 26
  • 27. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dRegulation of Food Ingredients andFood Additives Falls under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) FFDCA requires that the food and all ingredients not be “ordinarily injurious” Two legal classes of food additives:  1. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)  2. Any additive developed since 1958 Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 27
  • 28. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dOverview of Dietary Supplements 1994 Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) Effectively deregulated the dietary supplement industry Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 28
  • 29. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dOverview of Dietary Supplements – cont’d Ingredients marketed as supplements before 1994 were assumed to be safe Steps needed to ensure consumer safety  Honest claims regarding appropriate uses  Expected effects  Recommended dosage size  Potential drug-herb interactions Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 29
  • 30. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dAgricultural Chemicals Chemicals help control destructive insects and weeds, improve seed sprouting to increase yield, prevent plant diseases, and improve market quality FDA has the difficult task of assessing health risks and establishing guidelines for the thousands of agricultural chemicals Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 30
  • 31. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dAgricultural Chemicals – cont’d Organic farming: excludes the use of chemical pesticides and herbicides National standards established Farmers certified by USDA may use the seal of the National Organic Program Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 31
  • 32. Food Safety Laws – Cont’dPollution and Waste The FDA monitors the mercury content of ocean and farm-raised fish sold in the United States State and local health departments often offer advisories to local fishermen regarding the safety or potential hazards Women who are pregnant or nursing or young children should limit their intake and choose fish low in mercury Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 32
  • 33. The Food Label The FDA—with the advice of expert panels of agricultural, food, nutrition, and health scientists—has developed a framework of food labeling This has helped consumers over the last 30 years know what is in the food they eat Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 33
  • 34. The Food Label – Cont’d By mid 1970s all cans and packages had to provide ingredient information about the food, including the following:  Package weight, a list of ingredients, and the name and address of the manufacturer Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 34
  • 35. The Nutrition Label The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990 and ongoing legislation set forth requirements for nutrition labels on all processed foods subject to enforcement by the FDA Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 35
  • 36. The Nutrition Label – Cont’dMajor Components Food amount and energy content Macronutrient content Vitamin and mineral content Health claims Labels for special needs Daily Reference Values Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 36
  • 37. Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):  76 million persons get sick each year  325,000 are hospitalized each year  5000 die each year Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 37
  • 38. Foodborne Illness – Cont’d New trends in food production and consumption hold potential for food contamination USDA estimates that $23 billion a year are spent on medical intervention and lost productivity associated with foodborne illness Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 38
  • 39. Foodborne Illness – Cont’dPrevention Sanitation procedures  Strict sanitation practices and rigid personal hygiene are essential to prevent foodborne illness  Attention to final cooking temperatures and holding temperatures is particularly important  Leftover food must be cooled and stored within a specific period of time  Frequent hand washing and use of gloves should be required of all food handlers Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 39
  • 40. Foodborne Illness – Cont’dPrevention – cont’d Food irradiation  A technology that can extend the shelf life and increase the safety of many foods  By this process, food is irradiated using energy sources such as gamma rays, similar to microwaves, that pass through the food and safely kill harmful bacteria  Food does not become radioactive Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 40
  • 41. Forms of Foodborne IllnessBacterial Food Infection Infections occur when individuals eat food contaminated with large colonies of bacteria Six common bacteria leading to foodborne illness: 1. Escherichia coli O157:H7 2. Salmonella 3. Campylobacter 4. Shigella 5. Listeria 6. Vibrio Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 41
  • 42. Forms of Foodborne Illness – Cont’dBacterial Food Poisoning Caused by toxins produced by the bacteria before the food was eaten Two most common types of bacterial food poisoning: 1. Staphylococcal 2. Clostridial Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 42
  • 43. Viruses Caliciviridae family is the leading cause of gastrointestinal upset in the United States Illness can spread among food service workers and onto the food Vomiting and diarrhea from calicivirus contamination usually last no more than 5 days Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 43
  • 44. Food Safety Education Food safety education programs have been created by government agencies, food industry representatives, and health organizations The FightBAC! Program: an initiative of the Partnership for Food Safety Education  Offers lessons and publicity materials on its web site for both consumers and professionals Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 44
  • 45. Food Safety Education – Cont’d ServSafe: A 16-hour national certification program developed by the National Restaurant Association Foundation  Designed for restaurant managers, school food service managers, day care operators, and food managers in health care facilities HAACP  Available to food processors through government and university training programs Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 45
  • 46. Processing Methods Common methods used to preserve and process food:  Applying heat  Keeping food cold  Removing moisture  Adding acid, salt, sugar, or chemical additives  Changing the atmosphere Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 46
  • 47. Processing Methods – Cont’dChemical Additives New flavors and colors, improved textures, increased shelf life Various micronutrients and antioxidants are being added to processed foods to enhance shelf life Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 47
  • 48. Nutritional Aspects of Food Processing Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and minerals are the least affected by food processing Vitamins are the most likely to be destroyed or lost Food processing often leads to some degree of nutrient loss Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 48
  • 49. Nutritional Aspects of Food Processing – Cont’d Choosing whole grains and fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables more of the time and avoiding items processed with the addition of large amounts of sodium and other additives supports nutrient intake and health Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 49