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Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
Ppt   Testing The Constitution
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Ppt Testing The Constitution

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  • 1. The Constitution Tested 1789 - 1860
  • 2. <ul><li>On April 30, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the United States. </li></ul>The First President &quot;As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent,” George Washington- Letter to James Madison
  • 3. Washington’s Domestic Policy Task: What problems do you think George Washington faced being the first president of the United States? <ul><li>Needed to help form a strong, stable government. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to raise money for the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch his every move – he would be setting precedents. </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent : </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments – </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights – added to protect people’s individual liberties. </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 – established federal courts in each state. It also defined the courts’ powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet – Washington chose advisors to assist him – </li></ul>an example for others to follow. Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury Edmund Randolph Attorney General Henry Knox Secretary of War
  • 4. Our Nation’s Economy <ul><li>Financial Problems – </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. was in serious debt. </li></ul><ul><li>No money to pay back the debt </li></ul>I have an idea! It’s a 4 part plan! REPAY THE DEBT Repay the debt of the states and national government. This would establish good credit. CREATE A NATIONAL BANK Would provide a safe place to deposit money, could issue a national currency, and issue loans. PROTECTIVE TARIFF Urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to help American industries. What is a tariff? WHISKEY TAX Proposed a tax on whiskey to help raise money for the national government. Tax on imported goods.
  • 5. Hamilton versus Jefferson – Round 2 Thomas Jefferson Anti-Federalist Alexander Hamilton Federalist <ul><li>Believed in a strong central government </li></ul><ul><li>Believed more power should be given to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by merchants, lawyers doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by farmers, plantation owners </li></ul><ul><li>Supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to ratify Constitution until of Bill of Rights was added. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the Constitution could be loosely interpreted (loose construction). </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the Constitution should be adhered to word-for-word. No interpretation (strict construction). </li></ul>THOMAS JEFFERSON HATED HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PLAN!
  • 6. Hamilton versus Jefferson – Round 2 The differences between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson lead to the creation of the first political parties. The Federalists The Democratic-Republicans Task: Did the Constitution call for the creation of political parties? Explain. <ul><li>Political Parties - </li></ul><ul><li>considered part of our “unwritten constitution” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are groups of people that share similar beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They help elect members to office that represent their views. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They raise money to get members of their party elected. </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. The French Revolution <ul><li>1789 – The French Revolution – “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners in France rebel against King Louis XVI and his oppressive taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>They try to write a new Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>“ All the old spirit of 1776 is rekindling.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Task: How do Americans view the Revolution in France at first? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of Terror – </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionaries execute thousands, including Louis and his wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declares war on France. Yes, again! </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Do you think the American’s view of the French Revolution changed as a result of the Reign of Terror? Explain. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Americans questioned the French idea of liberty. Beheading did not represent Enlightened ideals of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Americans are happy others are following in their footsteps.
  • 8. Washington’s Foreign Policy Proclamation of Neutrality – 1793 Alexander Hamilton Support FRANCE! They are revolting against an oppressor just like we did 14 years ago! They favor democracy! Support BRITAIN! Democracy and freedom does not give the French the right to murder! Thomas Jefferson “ Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between…Great Britain, on the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial [to not take sides] towards the [warring] powers; I…therefore…warn the citizens of the United States to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever…. And I do hereby make known, that any citizen of the United States shall be…liable to punishment…by committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any Powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which are deemed [prohibited] by the nations…. Task: What is Washington’s position? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Washington wanted to stay neutral. We should not choose any side. If anyone is caught helping out either side, they will be punished.
  • 9. The Whiskey Rebellion <ul><li>In 1791, an excise tax was levied on whiskey. Scotch-Irish settlers in western Pennsylvania were angered because whiskey was an important economic commodity for them. They resented the tax as discriminatory and bad for their liberty and economic welfare. There were many public protests, and rioting broke out in 1794 against the central government's efforts to enforce the law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are President Washington’s options under the US Constitution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What decision do you think the president made? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would have happened if this event had occurred under the Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Washington’s Farewell Address “ The great rule of conduct is for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our [trade] relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far we have already formed alliances, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop… Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course… Why [give up] the advantages of so peculiar a situation?...Why be interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity with the toils of European ambition, [competition], interest or [behavior without reason]? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are not at liberty to do it…” Task: What was the main message of Washington’s Farewell Address? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What should we do to the alliances we already have? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What enables us to follow the policy suggested by Washington? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ AVOID PERMANENT ALLIANCES – STAY NEUTRAL!!!!! We are isolated from other countries. We have oceans to the left and right and no neighbors to start trouble with. Therefore, we can afford to be neutral. We should honor them.
  • 11. <ul><li>President John Adams – 1796 – 1800 (Federalist) </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of the French caused America to take precautions at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Alien & Sedition Acts – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alien: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALIEN ENEMIES ACT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized the president to imprison or expel any foreigners he deemed dangerous to the safety of the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEDITION ACT </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who wrote, said, or printed anything bad about the government could be fined and jailed. </li></ul><ul><li>That included members of the Republican party. </li></ul>President John Adams <ul><li>President Washington refused to run for a third term. </li></ul><ul><li>He set a precedent. </li></ul><ul><li>It wasn’t broken until Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1940. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions or words that promote rebellion. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. The John Marshall Court & Election of Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Chief Justice John Marshall – </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury vs. Madison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the power of judicial review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the Supreme Court the power to declare a law unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McCulloch vs. Maryland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a federal and a state law conflict, the federal law is supreme. </li></ul></ul>HIS COURT DECISIONS STRENGTHENED THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT! <ul><li>President Thomas Jefferson – 1801 – 1805 (Republican) </li></ul><ul><li>Party power shifts to the Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in more power to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed constitution should be read STRICTLY (word-for-word) </li></ul><ul><li>Task: If it wasn’t written in the Constitution, could it be done? _______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Continued Washington’s policy of neutrality. </li></ul>No, not according to Jefferson’s strict construction
  • 13. Louisiana Purchase Bonjour! Remember Me? <ul><li>French leader Napoleon presented President Jefferson with the opportunity to buy Louisiana Territory for $15 million (4 cents an acre) </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution never said anything about a president being able to buy land. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: In Jefferson’s mind, could he do it? Explain ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>No, he believed in strict construction of the Constitution. <ul><li>If Jefferson bought the territory, he could </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOUBLE THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gain control over the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- trade route </li></ul><ul><li>- transportation </li></ul><ul><li>- food </li></ul><ul><li>- power </li></ul>
  • 14. Louisiana Purchase PROBLEM: Jefferson believes in strict construction. Jefferson can’t buy it according to the Constitution! Or Can He??? According to the Constitution, a president can make a treaty. Jefferson negotiates a treaty with Napoleon and purchases the land. The size of the United States DOUBLES! The U.S. now controls the Mississippi River! Meriwether Lewis William Clark <ul><li>Lewis & Clark Expeditions – </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis and Clark were sent by Jefferson to map the territory and determine its resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Took detailed notes on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animals & plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natives </li></ul></ul>SUCCESS!
  • 15. War of 1812 Task: Guess who’s still at war? _________________________________________________________ If you said Britain and France, you’re right! <ul><li>The British were seizing American ships that were headed to France. </li></ul><ul><li>American sailors were captured and forced to fight for the British. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. believed in FREEDOM OF THE SEAS. </li></ul><ul><li>Embargo Act – </li></ul><ul><li>Passed by Congress to punish Britain. </li></ul>U.S. Exports – 1800 – 1820 Task: How did the Embargo Act affect U.S. trade? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 16. War of 1812 Rebuilding the White House, 1814 NEWSFLASH - U.S. Declares War on Britain War ends in a draw. White House burned by the British War hero emerges – Andrew Jackson “ Star Spangled Banner” written by Francis Scott Key OUTCOMES OF THE WAR OF 1812 America wanted continue its policy of neutrality Native Americans lose British as an ally in the West
  • 17. The Star Spangled Banner And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion, A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has wash'd out their foul footsteps' pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. O thus be it ever when free-men shall stand Between their lov'd home and the war's desolation; Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the Pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a nation! Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto: “In God is our trust!” And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled banner: O, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! The Star Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key
  • 18. Monroe Doctrine Task: Draw a line explaining how the Monroe Doctrine affected U.S. foreign policy. Task: How does the Monroe Doctrine fit with Washington’s Farewell Address? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Monroe Doctrine – </li></ul><ul><li>Europe cannot colonize anymore in the Western Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. will not get involved in European affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. didn’t have the power to enforce it, so Britain did. </li></ul>0 Western Hemisphere Eastern Hemisphere
  • 19. Uniting the United States Task: Working in pairs, identify things that unite the United States. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Things you might have missed: </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Federalist party dies. Whig party takes its place. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>John Marshall’s Supreme Court Decisions </li></ul>Marbury v. Madison & McCulloch v. Maryland <ul><li>The American System – </li></ul><ul><li>Create a better transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a high protective tariff – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Money from the tariff would go to building the transportation system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a second National Bank. </li></ul>Task: Which of these will unite the states and which will divide them? Explain your answer. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 20. The North <ul><li>Industrial Revolution – </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in Great Britain (1700s) </li></ul><ul><li>Hits New England by 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Why would factory owners choose the Northeast? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Land could not be used for farming; rivers for power; lots of iron, coal. Transportation Revolution - Changes in Transportation Steam Power Steam ships carry goods places faster than ships powered by wind. Roads Made of gravel and stone help move Americans west. Canals Erie Canal helps connect Lake Erie to New York City. Railroads U.S. grows to have most railroad track in the world.
  • 21. The North <ul><li>The Factory System – </li></ul><ul><li>Factories develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowell, Massachusetts – </li></ul><ul><li>Hired teenage girls who lived and worked at the mill. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Do you think the girls had much freedom? Explain. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Cities – </li></ul><ul><li>9 of the 10 largest cities were in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants flooded to the cities in search of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners came to the North to work in factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Why didn’t immigrants head to the South in search of work? __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Rich got richer; the poor got poorer. </li></ul>New York City
  • 22. The North Working-class families – What did Dad do? Dad went to work in the factories from 6 in the morning to 8 at night. What did Mom do? Mom work in a factory or as a servant for the rich. What did Little Joey do? Joey went to work in the factory. He was small enough to climb into the machines. <ul><li>Immigration – </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants came from Northwestern Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul>Task: Why did many immigrants come from Ireland? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IRELAND
  • 23. The South <ul><li>“ King Cotton” – </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton became to the dominant product on Southern plantations. </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney’s cotton gin helped extract the seeds, boosting production. </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton will make up 50% of our nation’s exports. </li></ul>Task: Do you think farmers want to keep a high protective tariff? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ South has good conditions for farming. South’s economy based on farming and slavery. Cotton gin makes farming cotton more profitable. Industrial Revolution sparks textile industry. Cotton becomes South’s most valuable product. Farmers rely on slavery to meet the North’s needs. The Growth of “King Cotton”
  • 24. Cotton Production vs. Slavery <ul><li>What happened to cotton production between 1800 and 1860? __________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Which period saw the greatest increase in cotton production? __________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>What happened the slavery in the United States between 1800 and 1860? __________________________________ </li></ul>Task: What conclusion can be made after examining both the cotton production and the number of slaves in the United States? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 25. US History & Government The Age of Jackson (1828-1836)
  • 26. The Jackson Presidency <ul><li>1828 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic Party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the “common man” & the self-made man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1832 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson re-elected </li></ul></ul>
  • 27.  
  • 28. Images of President Jackson
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Task: Positive or negative impact? ___________________________________________ Task: Who still cannot vote? ___________________________________________ Andrew Jackson <ul><li>President Andrew Jackson – </li></ul><ul><li>A war hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: America loves to elect war heroes to the Presidency, can you name some? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, George H.W. Bush <ul><li>Election of 1828 – </li></ul><ul><li>Jacksonian Democracy at work - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More people were given the right to vote, Mass Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was no longer a requirement that you own land in order to vote. </li></ul></ul>positive <ul><li>The Spoils System – </li></ul><ul><li>Government jobs were given to loyal supporters of the political party that won the election. </li></ul><ul><li>He did this to ensure government was truly the servant of the people. </li></ul>Task: Jackson is known as the “peoples’ president.” Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 34. President Andrew Jackson Fires 2,000 workers and replaces them with his supporters. Vetoes more acts of Congress than any President that came before him. Closes the National Bank because he felt it supported Northerners and hurt the farmers. Fights Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) High tariff means more money for northern manufacturers; less money for Southern farmers. South believed it could nullify an act of Congress if it felt it was unconstitutional. nullify : declare void Indian Removal Act Jackson forces 100,000 Cherokee Indians off their land in Georgia to land west of the Mississippi.
  • 35. Trail of Tears <ul><li>Worcester v. Georgia – </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee Indians took their case to the Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><li>John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no authority to push the Cherokees off their land. </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia ignored the ruling and forced the Cherokee to flee in the dead of winter. </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 miles // 4,000 dead </li></ul>Task: Choose a character in this painting. Circle him/her. Tell what is happening from their perspective. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 36. Rate the Presidency of Andrew Jackson 0 5 10 Rate the presidency of Andrew Jackson – 0 meaning one of the worst and 10 being among the best.
  • 37. Seneca Falls Convention Lucretia Mott Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton <ul><li>Seneca Falls, New York – 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Drew attention to inequalities faced by women and get women the right to vote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men controlled all of his wife’s property, earnings, and children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women couldn’t vote. </li></ul></ul>“ We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal…that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights…The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations [seizures of power] on the part of man toward woman…[to establish] absolute tyranny over her...” - Declaration of Sentiments, 1848 Task: Which document did Stanton borrow from and why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 38.  
  • 39. Land Acquired between 1783-1867
  • 40. Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • 41. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase War with Mexico led to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 42. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase War with Mexico led to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 43. Florida <ul><li>1819- Adams-Onis Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Spain was weak and couldn’t protect </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson defied orders and captured Spanish Forts </li></ul><ul><li>Signed Treaty giving up rights to Florida instead of losing militarily </li></ul>
  • 44. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase War with Mexico led to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 45. TEXAS WAR OF INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>Americans began moving into Texas in the 1820’s and brought their slaves with them. </li></ul><ul><li>War fought by Texans against Mexico because they believed their rights had been violated. </li></ul><ul><li>Won by Texans in 1836 and requests to enter the U.S. </li></ul>
  • 46. Texas War of Independence <ul><li>President Jackson and Van Buren refused to recognize Texas statehood because of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas became its own country from 1836 to 1845. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas entered as a U.S. state in 1845. </li></ul>TEXAS WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
  • 47. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase War with Mexico led to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 48. <ul><li>James K. Polk, Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>President from 1845 to 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for adding more land then any other President </li></ul><ul><li>Annexed Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Cession </li></ul>MANIFEST DESTINY
  • 49. Oregon dispute <ul><li>Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 </li></ul><ul><li>President Polk campaign slogan was 54,40 or fight… </li></ul><ul><li>Compromised with British and divided the Oregon Country at the 49 th parallel </li></ul>Oregon Territory
  • 50. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase Mexican American War ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 51. Mexican War MEXICAN WAR
  • 52. Mexican War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny </li></ul><ul><li>California </li></ul><ul><li>Texas statehood, 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico refusing to sell California </li></ul><ul><li>Border dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><li>US receives Mexican Cession </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War </li></ul>MEXICAN WAR
  • 53. <ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. paid Mexico $15 million </li></ul>
  • 54. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase Mexican American War ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 55. Gadsden’s Purchase- 1853 <ul><li>Bought from Mexico for 10 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to build Southern Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul>
  • 56. Purchased because Russia short of money Russia (1867) Alaska Purchased to build a railroad Mexico (1853) Gadsden Purchase War with Mexico led to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico (1848) Mexican Cession Treaty that extended the 49 th parallel to the Pacific Ocean Britain (1846) Oregon 1836 Texas declares independence & requests admission to the union Independent (1845) Texas Adams-Onis Treaty. US gave up claims to Texas Spain (1819) Florida Pres. Jefferson purchased from France for $15 million France (1803) Louisiana Purchase How land was acquired Acquired From Date Acquired Land
  • 57. Alaska- Seward’s Icebox <ul><li>1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased from Russia for 7 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily Criticized </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased for Defensive and Strategic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Keep out of British hands </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and Oil </li></ul>
  • 58. Manifest Destiny IT IS YOUR MANIFEST DESTINY! Manifest: clearly Destiny: pre-determined To expand from “sea to shining sea” From the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean From East to West. Slide #2
  • 59. Manifest Destiny Do Now: How might the following groups view America’s expansion across the continent? Southern Planters: ____________________________________________ Slaves: ____________________________________________ Northerners: ____________________________________________ Native Americans: ____________________________________________ Should these new lands be open to slavery? The North said NO SLAVERY IN THE NEW LAND. The South said SLAVERY – YOU BETCHA! To avoid conflict between the North and the South, Congress attempted to balance the number of slave states and non-slave states that entered the Union.
  • 60. Missouri Compromise, 1820 Slave States: Free States: 12 12 13 14 14 Missouri Compromise : Maine can enter as a free state; Missouri must enter as a slave state. Drew a line at the 36 o 30’ parallel – free above; slavery below. Free State Slave State
  • 61. Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850: California enters as a free state; Mexican Cession decided by popular sovereignty. (people decide by voting) Free States Slave States Popular Sovereignty LOUISIANA TERRITORY MEXICAN CESSION
  • 62. Fugitive Slave Act ALL RUNAWAY SLAVES IN THE NORTH CAN BE RE-CAPTURED AND RETURNED TO THEIR SOUTHERN PLANTATIONS! Task: How do you think the North responded to the Compromise of 1850, which included the Fugitive Slave Act? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: How do you think the South responded to the Compromise of 1850 (particularly popular sovereignty), which included the Fugitive Slave Act? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 63. Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act: Slavery in the Kansas and Nebraska territories were to be decided by popular sovereignty. Free States Slave States Popular Sovereignty
  • 64. “ Bleeding Kansas” <ul><li>Pro-slavery supporters rushed to Kansas to cast a ballot. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-slavery supporters (also known as free soilers) also rushed to Kansas to cast a ballot. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence ensued. </li></ul>John Brown and his anti-slavery group killed pro-slavery settlers in Pottawatomie Creek in Kansas. Task: Who is John Brown portrayed as in this painting? Why is this painting entitled, “The Tragic Prelude”? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 65. “ Bleeding Kansas” Southern Congressman Preston Brooks attacked abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner on the Senate floor. Supporters of Brooks passed out replica canes to demonstrate their support for slavery. Task: Explain what is happening in this cartoon to the right. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 66. Scott v. Sanford – The Dred Scott Case (1857) <ul><li>Scott v. Sanford (1857) </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott is a slave // John Sanford is his owner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They live in Missouri (a slave state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanford moves with Scott to Minnesota (a free state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott believes he is free of slavery and sues. </li></ul></ul>Task: Why would Scott thinks this? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: How will the Supreme Court rule? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Supreme Court’s Decision – </li></ul><ul><li>Scott can’t sue – he’s property; not a citizen </li></ul><ul><li>If a slave is property, government cannot take away people’s property, even if they move to a free state. </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY CANNOT BE OUTLAWED ANYWHERE! </li></ul>Dred Scott Chief Justice Roger Taney Task: What is every state in the Union now considered? _______________________________________________________________ a slave state
  • 67. Scott v. Sanford – The Dred Scott Case (1857) The Missouri Compromise is deemed unconstitutional. Task: What power did Chief Justice Roger Taney use in making the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional? ________________________________________ judicial review Free States Slave States Popular Sovereignty
  • 68.  
  • 69. “ Two Brothers” “ Two Brothers” Two brothers on their way, One wore blue and one wore gray. One wore blue and one wore gray As they marched along their way. Fife and drum began to play All on a beautiful morning. One was gentle, one was kind One was gentle, one was kind. One came home, one stayed behind. Cannonball don’t pay no mind. Cannonball don’t pay no mind If you’re gentle or you’re kind. Don’t care about no folks behind All on a beautiful morning. Two girls waiting by the railroad track, One wore blue and one wore black. One wore blue and one wore black, waiting by the railroad track, For their darlings to come back, All on a beautiful morning.
  • 70. Sectionalism Task: How would you describe the atmosphere in the United States prior to the Civil War? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Plantation-based economy Paid people to work Industrial-based economy Despised the protective tariff Population predominantly black Had slave labor Favored a protective tariff Population predominantly white Believed states didn’t have the right to secede Believed states could nullify a law NORTH SOUTH
  • 71. Election of 1860 <ul><li>Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln wins the Presidency. </li></ul>
  • 72. Election of 1860
  • 73. Election of 1860 <ul><li>Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln wins the Presidency. </li></ul>“ A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” - Abraham Lincoln, 1858 Task: What does Lincoln feel is happening to the United States? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Immediately upon Lincoln’s election, 7 states secede from the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Secede: </li></ul>leave
  • 74. Secession United States Confederate States of America
  • 75. Election of 1860 <ul><li>Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln wins the Presidency. </li></ul>“ A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” - Abraham Lincoln, 1858 Task: What does Lincoln feel is happening to the United States? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Immediately upon Lincoln’s election, 7 states secede from the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Secede: </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Sumter, South Carolina April 14, 1861 </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederacy took over Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln ordered troops to put down the rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>4 more states secede from the Union. </li></ul>leave
  • 76. Secession United States Confederate States of America Border States
  • 77. Election of 1860 <ul><li>Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln wins the Presidency. </li></ul>“ A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” - Abraham Lincoln, 1858 Task: What does Lincoln feel is happening to the United States? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <ul><li>Immediately upon Lincoln’s election, 7 states secede from the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Secede: </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Sumter, South Carolina April 14, 1861 </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederacy took over Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln ordered troops to put down the rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>4 more states secede from the Union. </li></ul>leave The Civil War has begun.
  • 78. “ Preserve the Union” Lincoln’s Goal: Preserve the Union <ul><li>To prevent the border states from seceding, he ordered the arrest of any Southern sympathizers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He suspended the writ of habeas corpus. </li></ul></ul>Habeas Corpus : you have the right to appear before a judge and know why you are being held and what crimes you committed. It is designed to protect your rights. Task: Did Lincoln’s executive powers increase of decrease? The United States of America Capital: Washington, D.C. The Confederate States of America Capital: Richmond, VA Davis’ Goal: Fight a war of independence.
  • 79. North vs. South Task: What role would population, factories, and railroads have on the war effort? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What are some other advantages and disadvantages each side has in the war? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: In your opinion, who has the upper hand in the war? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 million bales 4 thousand bales Cotton Production $47 million $207 million Bank Deposits 9,000 21,700 Miles of Railroad 20,600 110,100 Number of Factories 9 million 21.5 million Population South North
  • 80. Battles <ul><li>Battle of Antietam (Maryland, 1862) – </li></ul><ul><li>In one day, 5,000 soldiers died; 17,000 were wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania, 1863) – </li></ul><ul><li>Only battle in the Civil War fought on Northern soil. </li></ul><ul><li>In three days, 50,000 dead or wounded on both sides. </li></ul>U.S. Army General Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Army General Robert E. Lee <ul><li>Total War - </li></ul><ul><li>The Union waged total war against the South. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They destroyed: food, equipment, anything vital to the South </li></ul></ul>
  • 81. Battery D, 2d U.S. Artillery in Action, Fredericksburg, Virginia - 1863 (Gardner)
  • 82. A Burial Party, Cold Harbor, Virginia – April 1863 (Gardner)
  • 83. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863 (Gardner)
  • 84. Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863 (Gardner)
  • 85. Slaughter Pen (Little Round Top), Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863 (Gardner)
  • 86. A Sharpshooter’s Last Sleep, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863 (Gardner)
  • 87. Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation – </li></ul><ul><li>Issued by Lincoln in 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Freed the slaves in areas rebelling against the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. was no longer fighting a war to preserve the Union. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now they were fighting a war to free the slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Union couldn’t enforce it. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: Why do you think they couldn’t enforce it? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>“ Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether the nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure…. It is…for us to be dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from this earth.”
  • 88. The Confederacy Surrenders <ul><li>April 2, 1865 – </li></ul><ul><li>General Grant trapped the Confederate forced near Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital. </li></ul><ul><li>General Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House. </li></ul><ul><li>The war lasted 4 years and 42 days – It was a very expensive war. </li></ul>
  • 89. The Costs of War Do Now: How do we measure the costs of war? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 90. Financial Costs – Union spent: $6,190,000,000 Confederacy spent: $2,099,808,776 TOTAL: $8,289,808,776 The Costs of War + You could have bought: 55,265,391 X Boxes with 2 Free Games 637,667,598 CDs at Best Buy 16,579 homes in Smithtown Human Costs – Dead in Battle: Mortally Wounded: Missing: Accidents: Disease, Malnutrition: UNION 58,872 42,718 16,184 6,041 138,516 73,486 41,794 15,207 8,118 180,324 CONFEDERACY 132,358 84,512 31,391 14,159 318,840 TOTAL + 581,260 <ul><li>Physical Costs – </li></ul><ul><li>Crops were damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Homes were burned or plundered </li></ul><ul><li>Farms animals were lost </li></ul><ul><li>Roads & Bridges destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad lines destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Stores were looted and/or burned </li></ul><ul><li>College campuses were destroyed </li></ul>Almost all the damage was found in the South. Why? Almost the entire war was fought there.
  • 91. What Next? Task: Where should the nation go from here? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What do you think should be done with the freed slaves? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What problems might the country face when rebuilding? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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