Constintution Tested Part 1Presentation Transcript
The Constitution Tested 1789 - 1860
On April 30, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the United States.
The First President "As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent,” George Washington- Letter to James Madison
Washington’s Domestic Policy Task: What problems do you think George Washington faced being the first president of the United States?
Needed to help form a strong, stable government.
Needed to raise money for the government.
Watch his every move – he would be setting precedents.
Bill of Rights – added to protect people’s individual liberties.
Judiciary Act of 1789 – established federal courts in each state. It also defined the courts’ powers.
Cabinet – Washington chose advisors to assist him –
an example for others to follow. Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury Edmund Randolph Attorney General Henry Knox Secretary of War
Our Nation’s Economy
Financial Problems –
U.S. was in serious debt.
No money to pay back the debt
I have an idea! It’s a 4 part plan! REPAY THE DEBT Repay the debt of the states and national government. This would establish good credit. CREATE A NATIONAL BANK Would provide a safe place to deposit money, could issue a national currency, and issue loans. PROTECTIVE TARIFF Urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to help American industries. What is a tariff? WHISKEY TAX Proposed a tax on whiskey to help raise money for the national government. Tax on imported goods.
Hamilton versus Jefferson – Round 2 Thomas Jefferson Anti-Federalist Alexander Hamilton Federalist
Believed in a strong central government
Believed more power should be given to the states.
Supported by merchants, lawyers doctors
Supported by farmers, plantation owners
Supported ratification of the Constitution
Refused to ratify Constitution until of Bill of Rights was added.
Believed the Constitution could be loosely interpreted (loose construction).
Believed the Constitution should be adhered to word-for-word. No interpretation (strict construction).
THOMAS JEFFERSON HATED HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PLAN!
Hamilton versus Jefferson – Round 2 The differences between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson lead to the creation of the first political parties. The Federalists The Democratic-Republicans Task: Did the Constitution call for the creation of political parties? Explain.
Political Parties -
considered part of our “unwritten constitution”
They are groups of people that share similar beliefs.
They help elect members to office that represent their views.
They raise money to get members of their party elected.
The French Revolution
1789 – The French Revolution – “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Commoners in France rebel against King Louis XVI and his oppressive taxation.
They try to write a new Constitution
“ All the old spirit of 1776 is rekindling.”
- Thomas Jefferson
Task: How do Americans view the Revolution in France at first? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Reign of Terror –
Revolutionaries execute thousands, including Louis and his wife.
Britain declares war on France. Yes, again!
Task: Do you think the American’s view of the French Revolution changed as a result of the Reign of Terror? Explain. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Americans questioned the French idea of liberty. Beheading did not represent Enlightened ideals of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Americans are happy others are following in their footsteps.
Washington’s Foreign Policy Proclamation of Neutrality – 1793 Alexander Hamilton Support FRANCE! They are revolting against an oppressor just like we did 14 years ago! They favor democracy! Support BRITAIN! Democracy and freedom does not give the French the right to murder! Thomas Jefferson “ Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between…Great Britain, on the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial [to not take sides] towards the [warring] powers; I…therefore…warn the citizens of the United States to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever…. And I do hereby make known, that any citizen of the United States shall be…liable to punishment…by committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any Powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which are deemed [prohibited] by the nations…. Task: What is Washington’s position? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Washington wanted to stay neutral. We should not choose any side. If anyone is caught helping out either side, they will be punished.
The Whiskey Rebellion
In 1791, an excise tax was levied on whiskey. Scotch-Irish settlers in western Pennsylvania were angered because whiskey was an important economic commodity for them. They resented the tax as discriminatory and bad for their liberty and economic welfare. There were many public protests, and rioting broke out in 1794 against the central government's efforts to enforce the law.
What are President Washington’s options under the US Constitution?
What decision do you think the president made?
What would have happened if this event had occurred under the Articles of Confederation
Washington’s Farewell Address “ The great rule of conduct is for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our [trade] relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far we have already formed alliances, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop… Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course… Why [give up] the advantages of so peculiar a situation?...Why be interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity with the toils of European ambition, [competition], interest or [behavior without reason]? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are not at liberty to do it…” Task: What was the main message of Washington’s Farewell Address? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What should we do to the alliances we already have? ______________________________________________________________________________________ Task: What enables us to follow the policy suggested by Washington? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ AVOID PERMANENT ALLIANCES – STAY NEUTRAL!!!!! We are isolated from other countries. We have oceans to the left and right and no neighbors to start trouble with. Therefore, we can afford to be neutral. We should honor them.
President John Adams – 1796 – 1800 (Federalist)
Fear of the French caused America to take precautions at home.
Alien & Sedition Acts –
ALIEN ENEMIES ACT
Authorized the president to imprison or expel any foreigners he deemed dangerous to the safety of the U.S.
Anyone who wrote, said, or printed anything bad about the government could be fined and jailed.
That included members of the Republican party.
President John Adams
President Washington refused to run for a third term.
He set a precedent.
It wasn’t broken until Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1940.
Actions or words that promote rebellion.
The John Marshall Court & Election of Thomas Jefferson
Chief Justice John Marshall –
Marbury vs. Madison
Established the power of judicial review
Gave the Supreme Court the power to declare a law unconstitutional
McCulloch vs. Maryland
If a federal and a state law conflict, the federal law is supreme.
HIS COURT DECISIONS STRENGTHENED THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT!
President Thomas Jefferson – 1801 – 1805 (Republican)
Party power shifts to the Republicans.
Believed in more power to the states.
Believed constitution should be read STRICTLY (word-for-word)
Task: If it wasn’t written in the Constitution, could it be done? _______________________________________________________________
Continued Washington’s policy of neutrality.
No, not according to Jefferson’s strict construction
Louisiana Purchase Bonjour! Remember Me?
French leader Napoleon presented President Jefferson with the opportunity to buy Louisiana Territory for $15 million (4 cents an acre)
The Constitution never said anything about a president being able to buy land.
Task: In Jefferson’s mind, could he do it? Explain ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
No, he believed in strict construction of the Constitution.
If Jefferson bought the territory, he could
DOUBLE THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES.
gain control over the Mississippi River
- trade route
Louisiana Purchase PROBLEM: Jefferson believes in strict construction. Jefferson can’t buy it according to the Constitution! Or Can He??? According to the Constitution, a president can make a treaty. Jefferson negotiates a treaty with Napoleon and purchases the land. The size of the United States DOUBLES! The U.S. now controls the Mississippi River! Meriwether Lewis William Clark
Lewis & Clark Expeditions –
Lewis and Clark were sent by Jefferson to map the territory and determine its resources.