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Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
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Chapter 9


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  • 1. Federal Bureaucracy
  • 2. Executive Branch and the development of the Bureaucracy
    • Although congress makes the laws, it must rely on the bureaucrats in the executive branch to enforce and implement them
      • Ex- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)- charged with enforcing federal anti discrimination laws- they have the power not only to make rules but also to settle disputes
  • 3. The Weberian Model
    • Max Weber, German sociologist believed:
      • A chain of command in which authority flows from top to bottom
      • A division of labor whereby work is divided among specialized workers to increase productivity
      • Clear lines of authority among workers and their superiors
      • A goal orientation that determines structures, authority and rules
      • Impersonality, whereby all employees are treated fairly based on merit and all clients are served equally, according to established rules
      • Productivity- where all work is evaluated according to established rules
      • A well-organized machine with lots of working parts!
      • (Somewhat idealistic)
  • 4. History of the Bureaucracy
    • 1789- Only three departments existed under the Articles of Confederation: Foreign Affairs, war and Treasury
    • Civil War (1861-1865)-
      • increased the Bureaucracy as we were gearing up for war
      • Bad harvests led to the creation of the Dept of Agriculture
      • Increase in size, led to an increase in federal jobs (used as patronage)
      • Jackson said “to the victor belongs the spoils” (spoils system-firing of public office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party
  • 5. … From the Spoils System to the Merit System
    • Pendleton Act (in response to Pres. Garfield’s assassination)
      • Also known as the Civil Service Reform Act of 1883
      • Created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system (bipartisan)
      • Classified federal service jobs by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination
      • It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party
      • Initially only 10 % of positions were covered by thte law, but later laws and E.O extended coverage for over 90% of all federal employees
      • New system is called the Merit System, based on Weber’s model
  • 6.
    • Merit System: system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
    • Civil Service System:
      • System created by civil service laws by which many appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made.
  • 7. What is going on in the news now that would relate to this? Anyone? Anyone?