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    \\Mustard\Ecollyer$\Profile\Desktop\Phenomenology Presentation \\Mustard\Ecollyer$\Profile\Desktop\Phenomenology Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Research Skills Involved
      • Opposing views on the skills involved among phenomenological researchers
        • One view:
          • Phenomenologist has a suspension of belief with an attitude of doubt towards the world
          • “ needs to develop specific research skills to enable him/her to get the ‘lived experiences’ without contaminating the data…” (p.1487)
        • Second view:
          • Phenomenologist should have close involvement in the research
          • “ subjective judgment of the researcher is valuable…” (p.1487)
          • (Wimpenny & Gass, 2000)
    • Other General Skills
      • “ ...the use of reflection, clarification, requests for examples and description and the conveyance of interest through listening techniques” (p.1487)
      • Researcher interest in the participants’ stories
      • Skilled at interviewing techniques
        • begins by establishing the context of the interviewees experience, through to a construction of the experience and finally a reflection on the meaning it
        • (Wimpenny & Gass, 2000)
    • Founders and Contributors
      • Edmund Husserl
      • Alfred Schutz
      • Leo Strauss
      • Binswanger
      • Martin Heidegger
      • Max Scheler
      • Karl Jaspers
      • Brentano
      • Merleau-Ponty
      • Immanuel Kant
      • Hwa Yol Jung
      • Harold Garfinkel
      • Don Zimmerman
      • David Sudnow
      • Leveque-Lopman
      • Moynihan
      • McLane
      • Kockelmans
      • Casey
      • Clifton
      • Heritage
      • Castaneda
      • Davis
      • Fischer
      • Laing
      • Ihde
      • Seamon
      • Mugerauer
      • Sartre
    • The Philosophers...
      • Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology
        • Influenced and trained Max Scheler, Eugene Fink, Alexander Pfander, Alfred Schutz, and Martin Heidegger Studied psychology but found it only describes how we think but not why we think a certain way
        • Believed epistemology was the real starting point for all philosophical reflection
        • Interested in the subjective experience
        • Came up with the notion of intentionality and wanted to study inner experiences as if they were objects of consciousness
        • Developed the notion of lifeworlds and how we all have our own experiences of internal reality
        • Hoped Heidegger would carry on the phenomenological perspective but he did not
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Martin Heidegger
        • Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, and more
        • Fundamentally impacted the development of theory and practice in psychotherapy
        • Provided the foundations for phenomenology in his famous “Letter on Humanism”
        • Member of the Nazi party and highly involved in politics leading to much critic of his theories
        • Studied the relation of language and Being
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Max Scheler
        • “ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjected Freud’s ideas to sustained and sympathetic scrutiny, creating a fertile climate of discussion at the interstices of philosophy and psychotherapy.” (p.130)
        • Influenced by Dilthey, Freud, Nietzsche, and Henri Bergson
        • Started exploring mental illness from a phenomenological frame but later strayed into a more biological approach
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Karl Jaspers
        • Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber, Freud, Kant, Heidegger and more
        • Approach to psychotherapy was based on human freedom and responsibility
        • Studied human experience and saw it as being transcendent
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Alfred Schutz
        • Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this
        • Analyzed the structures of people’s lifeworlds and discussed the multiple realities that exist within humans
        • Developed the notion called the we-relationship to describe the relationships we share with others and how they change overtime
        • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
      • Leo Strauss
        • Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint
      • Harold Garfinkel
        • Developed the notion of Ethnomethodology from Phenomenological theories
      • Don Zimmerman
        • Used conversion methods to study how people handle emergencies
        • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
    • Discussion Questions
      • Notice the two opposing views on phenomenological research. How can one theory have two opposite views? Why do you think this is?
      • How do you think one’s lifeworld would influence one’s relationships with others? How might a lifeworld promote or hinder positive relationship formation? Do you believe that we all have different lifeworlds?
    • References
      • Burston, D. & Frie, R. (2006). Psychotherapy as a human science. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Duquesne University Press.
      • Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2000). Intervirewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6). Retrieved from EBSCOHost.