Research Skills Involved <ul><li>Opposing views on the skills involved among phenomenological researchers </li></ul><ul><u...
Other General Skills <ul><li>“ ...the use of reflection, clarification, requests for examples and description and the conv...
Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Edmund Husserl </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><...
The Philosophers... <ul><li>Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced and...
<ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, ...
<ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjec...
<ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber,...
<ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this </li></ul...
<ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint </l...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>Notice the two opposing views on phenomenological research.  How can one theory have two oppo...
References <ul><li>Burston, D. & Frie, R. (2006). Psychotherapy as a human science. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Duquesne Uni...
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\\Mustard\Ecollyer$\Profile\Desktop\Phenomenology Presentation

  1. 1. Research Skills Involved <ul><li>Opposing views on the skills involved among phenomenological researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenologist has a suspension of belief with an attitude of doubt towards the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ needs to develop specific research skills to enable him/her to get the ‘lived experiences’ without contaminating the data…” (p.1487) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenologist should have close involvement in the research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ subjective judgment of the researcher is valuable…” (p.1487) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Wimpenny & Gass, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Other General Skills <ul><li>“ ...the use of reflection, clarification, requests for examples and description and the conveyance of interest through listening techniques” (p.1487) </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher interest in the participants’ stories </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at interviewing techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begins by establishing the context of the interviewees experience, through to a construction of the experience and finally a reflection on the meaning it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wimpenny & Gass, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Edmund Husserl </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><li>Binswanger </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><li>Brentano </li></ul><ul><li>Merleau-Ponty </li></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Kant </li></ul><ul><li>Hwa Yol Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Garfinkel </li></ul><ul><li>Don Zimmerman </li></ul><ul><li>David Sudnow </li></ul><ul><li>Leveque-Lopman </li></ul><ul><li>Moynihan </li></ul><ul><li>McLane </li></ul><ul><li>Kockelmans </li></ul><ul><li>Casey </li></ul><ul><li>Clifton </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Castaneda </li></ul><ul><li>Davis </li></ul><ul><li>Fischer </li></ul><ul><li>Laing </li></ul><ul><li>Ihde </li></ul><ul><li>Seamon </li></ul><ul><li>Mugerauer </li></ul><ul><li>Sartre </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Philosophers... <ul><li>Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced and trained Max Scheler, Eugene Fink, Alexander Pfander, Alfred Schutz, and Martin Heidegger Studied psychology but found it only describes how we think but not why we think a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed epistemology was the real starting point for all philosophical reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in the subjective experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came up with the notion of intentionality and wanted to study inner experiences as if they were objects of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion of lifeworlds and how we all have our own experiences of internal reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped Heidegger would carry on the phenomenological perspective but he did not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentally impacted the development of theory and practice in psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided the foundations for phenomenology in his famous “Letter on Humanism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the Nazi party and highly involved in politics leading to much critic of his theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the relation of language and Being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjected Freud’s ideas to sustained and sympathetic scrutiny, creating a fertile climate of discussion at the interstices of philosophy and psychotherapy.” (p.130) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Dilthey, Freud, Nietzsche, and Henri Bergson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started exploring mental illness from a phenomenological frame but later strayed into a more biological approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber, Freud, Kant, Heidegger and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach to psychotherapy was based on human freedom and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied human experience and saw it as being transcendent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed the structures of people’s lifeworlds and discussed the multiple realities that exist within humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion called the we-relationship to describe the relationships we share with others and how they change overtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harold Garfinkel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion of Ethnomethodology from Phenomenological theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don Zimmerman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used conversion methods to study how people handle emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Notice the two opposing views on phenomenological research. How can one theory have two opposite views? Why do you think this is? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think one’s lifeworld would influence one’s relationships with others? How might a lifeworld promote or hinder positive relationship formation? Do you believe that we all have different lifeworlds? </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Burston, D. & Frie, R. (2006). Psychotherapy as a human science. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Duquesne University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2000). Intervirewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6). Retrieved from EBSCOHost. </li></ul>
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