Pedagogical approaches, design implications and prerequisites for e learning


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Pedagogical approaches, design implications and prerequisites for e learning

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  • Because if this, e-learning tends to focus on self-study, without peer interaction, for simple knowledge and skills.
  • In content delivery approach it is possible to provide rich media-content!!
  • Where to place motor skills?? Is general model however: e.g. some individual competencies can well be developed individually.
  • Alap = as little as possible
  • National e-learning policy should be medium-long term (3-5 years rolling plan) and include also the role of non-gevernmental players. E-learning programmes are medium-term (1-3 yeaqrs) and should be derived from the long-term policy. Distance teaching/e-learning organizations along the lines of educational levels (secondary, tertiary), professional associations (IT staff, teachers, ….) or economical sectors (education, government, private sector). Teacher training: often the present generation of teachers is ‘lost’ Reliable hardware and software suppliers: e-learning requires stable hardware and software services. Internet services providers: to provide reliable connectivity ICT training and manpower providers: without competent and responsible people, no technology can function
  • Pedagogical approaches, design implications and prerequisites for e learning

    1. 1.   E-learning business models author: Eric Kluijfhout   This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Developing Nations License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Bethlehem, 18 December 2005  
    2. 2. Pedagogical approaches, design implications, and prerequisites for e-learning For the Institute for Community Participation, Bethlehem University through Maastricht School of Management by Eric Kluijfhout
    3. 3. Where are we? Level Dimension Macro National environment Mezzo Institutional environment Micro Learning environment Pedagogical Technological Organizational
    4. 4. Designing distributed (fully web-based) learning <ul><li>Matching learning goals and pedagogical approach in e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Design strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Role teacher/tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Required e-learning environment </li></ul>
    5. 5. Types of learning goals <ul><li>Acquire knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor/physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. E-learning characteristics influencing pedagogy <ul><li>Different interaction types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually asynchronous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly through written text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of immediate feed-back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No spontaneous group processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More learner initiative/discipline required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High demands on course design </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Basically two e-learning approaches <ul><li>Content delivery model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge or cognitive skills goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-paced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group-based activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often constructivist, complex learning goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group-pacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor + peer support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group assignments </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Fit of learning goals and e-learning motor skills?? professional competences?? cognitive skills facts learning social skills suitable/easy unsuitable/difficult Content delivery model Interaction model
    9. 9. Course design <ul><li>Content delivery model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often normal books used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise course design for complex learning goals (incl. multi-media use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design self-tests + standard feed-back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design FAQ’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop end-of-course test bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify initial learning resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design course framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design (group) assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design multi-perspective assessment procedure </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Role of teacher/tutor <ul><li>Content delivery model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers ad-hoc questions (alap) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates tests and provides feed-back (alap) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors many students (extensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperation model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates and monitors group process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs to resources for answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only intervenes when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating (also) by peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors few groups (intensive) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Required e-learning environment <ul><li>Content delivery model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Learning design’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-media applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Self)test modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAQ’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail (last resort communication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring tools for tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperation model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based cooperation tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to wide variety of e-resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous communication tools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous communication tools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conferencing tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social awareness tools </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The overall picture <ul><li>Promoters at national level </li></ul><ul><li>Promoters at institutional level </li></ul><ul><li>Promoters at student level </li></ul>
    13. 13. Promoters at national level <ul><li>Realistic national e-learning policy </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning innovation programmes and funds </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Internet services providers </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable hardware and software suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>ICT training and manpower providers </li></ul><ul><li>Distance teaching/e-learning association(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- and in-service teacher training programmes in e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to (technological) innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices examples </li></ul>
    14. 14. Promoters at institutional level <ul><li>Vision and realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic individuals and role models </li></ul><ul><li>Management support </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible organizational structure and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional innovation record </li></ul><ul><li>Capable staff in various (new) roles </li></ul><ul><li>………………………………… . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Student prerequisites <ul><li>Access to computer (content presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet connectivity (communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic computer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Openness towards e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directedness and study discipline </li></ul><ul><li>…………………………… </li></ul>