the quest for the truth  with neurosciencesis looking at consumers’ brain
      the ultimate solution?         Esteban Rib...
how can we really understand consumer behavior…?                    …we need to influence it          we usually have inac...
client bias                 …they only see what                    they want to see“the consumer said...”
consumer bias   they tell you what you want to hear…              “consumers tell you one thing                        but...
consumer bias             consumer’s inability to know                  the true causes of their                          ...
we’ve tried…    …borrowed techniques and theories                from behavioral sciences
…from psychology and anthropology           traditional consumer research…   projective techniques                ethnogra...
…from psychology and anthropology                    the pros • no need to fully articulate an answer • consumers give cue...
…from psychology and anthropology                    however… • too open to personal interpretation • little power to gene...
…from physiologygetting consumer’s body reactions…            …an attempt to infer their                     emotional and...
…from physiologyheart rate measures
…from physiology     galvanic skin response (GSR)…gives an overall measure of arousal by trackingchanges in the autonomic ...
…from physiology              eye tracking…what catches consumer’s attention?
…from physiology                                pupil dilatation…assessing the level of interestpupil dilates in response ...
…from physiology                            pupil dilatation…windows to the soul                       Eckhard H. Hess 1960
…from physiology                       pupil dilatationEckhard H. Hess 1960
…from physiology                             gaze tracking…what are they looking at
…from physiology                      gaze tracking…usability studies
…from physiology                             gaze tracking…online searching behavior
…from physiology                   gaze tracking…product design
…from physiology                           gaze tracking…individual differences       regular people        artists
…from physiology                           gaze tracking…individual differences             ?               ?
…from physiology                           gaze tracking…individual differences            men            women
…from physiology                               gaze tracking…individual differences                          are they comp...
…from physiology              face recognition…emotional states are reflected in the face Paul Ekman
…from physiology            face recognition…the six basic emotions         anger     fear   disgust        surprise    jo...
…from physiology            face recognition…a methodology to assess the emotions
…from physiology                          face recognition   …emotion recognition softwareuniversity of amsterdam
…from physiology                   the pros• no need to “ask” the consumer• get “true” reactions to different stimuli• ass...
…from physiology                      however…• too vague• hard to interpret• can’t really know what it means (too many  v...
opening the black box…         “asking the brain,           not the person”
the mind and the brain…                   …putting cognitive psychology                                    under context  ...
the mind and the brain…                        …the mind is a set of modules             that process different types of i...
the field of neuromarketing…      …a discipline that incorporates the knowledge      about the brain processes in order to...
…from neurosciences     electroencephalography (EEG)      …measures electrical activity on the outsideof the brain using e...
…from neurosciences     electroencephalography (EEG)• records timing of activity very precisely  (~1 millisecond) but spat...
…from neurosciences    electroencephalography (EEG)• it’s “cheap” and portable• can be combined with eye tracking         ...
…from neurosciencesit looks something like…                                    VW - The Force
…from neurosciences               PET scans    (positron emission tomography)      …measures blood flow in the brain after...
…from neurosciences           PET scans(positron emission tomography)                        + spatial                    ...
…from neurosciences                  fMRI  (functional magnetic resonance imaging)…measures changes in blood oxygenation
…from neurosciences               fMRI(functional magnetic resonance imaging)     Princeton’s fMRI equipment
…from neurosciences“we can tell generally what partsof the brain are active whenyoure doing different things, butno, I can...
some examples…                    the Pepsi/Coke challenge                                          vs.     Dr. Read Monta...
some examples…            the Pepsi/Coke challenge        preference                fMRI            =                     ...
some examples…            the Pepsi/Coke challenge        preference                fMRI            >                     ...
some examples…            the Pepsi/Coke challenge     confirmed what        we already knew…              …brand associat...
some examples…                   strong vs. weaker brands                             >       positive emotions           ...
some examples…                       who won the super bowl?      Dr. Marco Iacoboni      UCLA Brain      Mapping Center
some examples…                     who won the super bowl?     “the winners”                         “the big flops”      ...
some examples…                     who won the super bowl?     “the winners”                      “the big flops”         ...
some examples…                  who won the super bowl?     successful ads stimulated many more areas                     ...
some examples…                      who won the super bowl?                      I’m going to Disney                      ...
some examples…           who won the super bowl?                                     I’m going to Disney                  ...
some examples…                     who won the super bowl?                          caveman              Snickers         ...
some examples…                   who won the super bowl?                           caveman                           FedEx...
some examples…            phd’s neuroplanning                  strategic planning process              neuroplanning allow...
some examples…                  phd’s neuroplanning                           …a channel evaluation tool                  ...
some examples…            phd’s neuroplanning
some examples…            phd’s neuroplanning
some examples…            phd’s neuroplanning
some examples…            phd’s neuroplanning
the promises of neurosciences…                                   …for planners       • better understanding of consumers a...
…it has created a lot of controversy
but…       …is it the ultimate           solution?
proximate causes…                    ….ultimate causes     neuromarketing is concerned mostly in       understanding how? ...
and the answer is     not in their brains…
…hopefully in ours!
so…      ...don’t ask consumers             for the causes of                    their behavior,            infer them!
so…      …consumers aren’t               usually right          they don’t know the true reasons for            their beha...
so…      …use cues to inform      the strategy             don’t give up                your responsibility               ...
so…      …refer to theories          of human                behavior                    read!
so…
Esteban Riberoesteban.ribero@lapizusa.com
Is looking at consumers' brain the ultimate solution?
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Is looking at consumers' brain the ultimate solution?

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The idea of using the latest techniques in the field of neuroscience to study consumer behavior has become a hot topic. The presentation delves into the debate over borrowing knowledge and techniques from neurosciences to bypass consumers’ rationalizations and get to the truth about their behavior. My point of view is that the answer is not in consumers’ brains but in ours: Strategists and Creatives, who are the endless students of human behavior.

This presentation was given at the 2007 AHAA Conference in NYC.

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Is looking at consumers' brain the ultimate solution?

  1. 1. the quest for the truth with neurosciencesis looking at consumers’ brain
 the ultimate solution? Esteban Ribero Strategy Director
  2. 2. how can we really understand consumer behavior…? …we need to influence it we usually have inaccurate or partial understanding of it
  3. 3. client bias …they only see what they want to see“the consumer said...”
  4. 4. consumer bias they tell you what you want to hear… “consumers tell you one thing but they do other”
  5. 5. consumer bias consumer’s inability to know the true causes of their behavior …they don’t need to know them in order to behave!
  6. 6. we’ve tried… …borrowed techniques and theories from behavioral sciences
  7. 7. …from psychology and anthropology traditional consumer research… projective techniques ethnographies word association collages psycho drawingmetaphor elicitation personification personal diaries photo sort perceptual mapping sentence completion apperception test storytelling laddering visualization
  8. 8. …from psychology and anthropology the pros • no need to fully articulate an answer • consumers give cues, the planner interprets them • “bypassing” the rational filters • a way to get to the “unconscious” • usually affordable
  9. 9. …from psychology and anthropology however… • too open to personal interpretation • little power to generalize • still depends on consumer’s input • too biased by the consumer …and the researcher
  10. 10. …from physiologygetting consumer’s body reactions… …an attempt to infer their emotional and motivational states
  11. 11. …from physiologyheart rate measures
  12. 12. …from physiology galvanic skin response (GSR)…gives an overall measure of arousal by trackingchanges in the autonomic nervous system
  13. 13. …from physiology eye tracking…what catches consumer’s attention?
  14. 14. …from physiology pupil dilatation…assessing the level of interestpupil dilates in response to:lightbut also,• emotional state• interest and novelty• cognitive workload
  15. 15. …from physiology pupil dilatation…windows to the soul Eckhard H. Hess 1960
  16. 16. …from physiology pupil dilatationEckhard H. Hess 1960
  17. 17. …from physiology gaze tracking…what are they looking at
  18. 18. …from physiology gaze tracking…usability studies
  19. 19. …from physiology gaze tracking…online searching behavior
  20. 20. …from physiology gaze tracking…product design
  21. 21. …from physiology gaze tracking…individual differences regular people artists
  22. 22. …from physiology gaze tracking…individual differences ? ?
  23. 23. …from physiology gaze tracking…individual differences men women
  24. 24. …from physiology gaze tracking…individual differences are they comparing themselves? do they feel threatened? men
  25. 25. …from physiology face recognition…emotional states are reflected in the face Paul Ekman
  26. 26. …from physiology face recognition…the six basic emotions anger fear disgust surprise joy sadness
  27. 27. …from physiology face recognition…a methodology to assess the emotions
  28. 28. …from physiology face recognition …emotion recognition softwareuniversity of amsterdam
  29. 29. …from physiology the pros• no need to “ask” the consumer• get “true” reactions to different stimuli• assess different degrees of arousal in an “objective” way• “avoid” the subjectivity of the researcher
  30. 30. …from physiology however…• too vague• hard to interpret• can’t really know what it means (too many variables working at the same time) not specific enough to get to “the truth”
  31. 31. opening the black box… “asking the brain, not the person”
  32. 32. the mind and the brain… …putting cognitive psychology under context “if we can see the brain, we can see the mind”
  33. 33. the mind and the brain… …the mind is a set of modules that process different types of information those modules have identifiable neurological structures…
  34. 34. the field of neuromarketing… …a discipline that incorporates the knowledge about the brain processes in order to improve the effectiveness of the marketing activities
  35. 35. …from neurosciences electroencephalography (EEG) …measures electrical activity on the outsideof the brain using electrodes
  36. 36. …from neurosciences electroencephalography (EEG)• records timing of activity very precisely (~1 millisecond) but spatial resolution is poor (ERP)
  37. 37. …from neurosciences electroencephalography (EEG)• it’s “cheap” and portable• can be combined with eye tracking Dr. A.K. Pradeep, President and Chief Executive Officer
  38. 38. …from neurosciencesit looks something like… VW - The Force
  39. 39. …from neurosciences PET scans (positron emission tomography) …measures blood flow in the brain after aninjection of a radioactive substance
  40. 40. …from neurosciences PET scans(positron emission tomography) + spatial resolution - temporal resolution > limited to short tasks
  41. 41. …from neurosciences fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)…measures changes in blood oxygenation
  42. 42. …from neurosciences fMRI(functional magnetic resonance imaging) Princeton’s fMRI equipment
  43. 43. …from neurosciences“we can tell generally what partsof the brain are active whenyoure doing different things, butno, I cant tell you what yourethinking" Dr. Reich
  44. 44. some examples… the Pepsi/Coke challenge vs. Dr. Read Montague Neuron, October 14, 2004
  45. 45. some examples… the Pepsi/Coke challenge preference fMRI = =
  46. 46. some examples… the Pepsi/Coke challenge preference fMRI > >
  47. 47. some examples… the Pepsi/Coke challenge confirmed what we already knew… …brand associations strongly bias our preferences!
  48. 48. some examples… strong vs. weaker brands > positive emotions working memory self-identification > greater information and rewards processing < Dr. Chistine Born’s study
  49. 49. some examples… who won the super bowl? Dr. Marco Iacoboni UCLA Brain Mapping Center
  50. 50. some examples… who won the super bowl? “the winners” “the big flops” I’m going to Disney caveman Disney FedEx airport security wopperettes Sierra Mist Burger King approved GoDaddy.com
  51. 51. some examples… who won the super bowl? “the winners” “the big flops” live the flavor Robert Goulet Doritos Emerald Nuts grand theft auto crave CocaCola Honda CR-V hitchhiker connectile dysfunction Bud Light Sprint
  52. 52. some examples… who won the super bowl? successful ads stimulated many more areas than less powerful ones… …engaging stories that stimulated the brain throughout the entire spot
  53. 53. some examples… who won the super bowl? I’m going to Disney Disney mirror neurons - indicating identification and empathy
  54. 54. some examples… who won the super bowl? I’m going to Disney Disney ventral striatum - indicating reward processing
  55. 55. some examples… who won the super bowl? caveman Snickers FedEx amygdala -emotional processing. responding to threat and fearful stimuli. >clear feelings of anxiety
  56. 56. some examples… who won the super bowl? caveman FedEx amygdala activity “the scene looks funny and has been described as funny by lots of people, but your amygdala still perceives it as threatening” Dr. Iacoboni
  57. 57. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning strategic planning process neuroplanning allows the user to identify the most appropriate model of behavior within the communication channels
  58. 58. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning …a channel evaluation tool influence vs. reach different areas of the brain are “stimulated” by different media…
  59. 59. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning
  60. 60. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning
  61. 61. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning
  62. 62. some examples… phd’s neuroplanning
  63. 63. the promises of neurosciences… …for planners • better understanding of consumers and their relationships with brands • better understanding of their decision making processes • better understanding of their reactions to commercial stimuli • bypassing the consumer
  64. 64. …it has created a lot of controversy
  65. 65. but… …is it the ultimate solution?
  66. 66. proximate causes… ….ultimate causes neuromarketing is concerned mostly in understanding how? what? where? …but to get to the truth we need to understand why?!
  67. 67. and the answer is not in their brains…
  68. 68. …hopefully in ours!
  69. 69. so… ...don’t ask consumers for the causes of their behavior, infer them!
  70. 70. so… …consumers aren’t usually right they don’t know the true reasons for their behavior observe their behavior!
  71. 71. so… …use cues to inform the strategy don’t give up your responsibility to research use your intuition and expertise!
  72. 72. so… …refer to theories of human behavior read!
  73. 73. so…
  74. 74. Esteban Riberoesteban.ribero@lapizusa.com
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