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4.4 gender roles and differences
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4.4 gender roles and differences

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  • 1. Chapter 4.4 – Gender Roles and Differences By: Zach, Julia, Phu
  • 2. Gender Roles  Gender Identity – Physical/biological make up (Biernat & Wortman, 1991)  Gender Stereotype – when a gender role’s expectations become so rigid, it becomes expectation of a gender from everyone  Androgynous – combination of traditional male/female characteristics  Gender Schema – set of behaviors organized around how either male/female should think & behave
  • 3. Gender Roles (cont.)  Gender Role – what the society/culture expect of your gender
  • 4. Gender Differences - Personality  Mednick & Thomas (1993) – found males are more confident than females, especially in academic areas or in tasks stereotyped as masculine (e.g. math, science)
  • 5. Personality (cont.)  Turner & Gervai (1995) – females engage in more verbal acts of aggression  Kendrick (1987) – Females think differently about aggression.  (Bjorkqvist, Lagerspetz, Kukianen) different in aggressive behavior – More likely to use rough play / female indirect form of aggression.
  • 6. Personality (cont.)  (Berman, Tracy, and Caccaro) – Male have lower levels of serotonin (aggression)  (Lakoff, McMillan) – Communication: Females talk more/ Males talk more if dominant in relationship.  (Briton and Hall) – Females are more sensitive
  • 7. Cognitive Ability  Common misconception of females being better than males at verbal skills, males better at spatial and mathematical skills disproven by Janet Hyde and Marcia Linn (1998).
  • 8. Origins of Gender Differences  Biological Theory – emphasizes role of anatomy, hormones, and brain organization (Archer, 1997)  Psychoanalytical Theory – gender identity results from children identifying with parent of same sex, according to Freud. Critics argue that identification is the result, rather than the cause, of gender typing (Maccoby, 1992)
  • 9. Origins of Gender Differences (cont.)  Social Learning Theory – emphasizes role of social/cognitive process on how we perceive, organize, & use info.  Cognitive-Development Theory – proposes that children acquire gender roles by interacting with their environment & thinking about these experiences (Bem, 1981)
  • 10. Origins of Gender Differences (cont.)  Gender Schema – mental representation of behavior that helps child organize/categorize behaviors  Changing Gender Roles – people have been taught by society to set different goals.

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