China Rejects European
Alena Williams, Raina Turner, Eli Young
What effect did changing Chinese ruling have
on culture, science, and social development?
T h e M i n g D y n a
s t y
Eventually fell, due to . . .
● Lack of funds
● Corrupt officials
● Ineffective rulers
The Voyages of Zheng He
Zheng He (Romanized Cheng Ho) 1371-1433
❖ Led seven different voyages
➢ 40-300 ships in each expedition
❖ Expeditions to:
➢ South and Southeast Asia
➢ The Middle East
➢ And East Africa
➢ did not shy from violence
➢ had a large army, although he preferred peace.
Rise of the Ming
❖ A peasant’s son
❖ Commander of the army that drove out the Mongols in 1368
❖ Became the first Ming ruler in shortly after
❖ Ruled from the previous capital Nanjing
❖ Began reforms to restore agricultural lands that were damaged during war
➢ Increased rice production and irrigation
➢ Encouraged fish farming
➢ Encouraged growing commercial crops (Cotton, sugar cane, ect.)
❖ Used respected traditions & institutions to bring stability back to China
❖ Hongwu eventually became a brutal tyrant (powerful individual)
❖ His death lead to a power struggle → Hongwu’s son Yonglo took over
Ming Relations with Foreign Countries
❖ Official trade policies reflected China’s Isolation
➢ Only the government could conduct foreign trade.
■ This foreign trade could only take place in three places Canton, Macao, and NIngbo.
■ Even with trade barriers it continued to flourish up and down the coast.
❖ China did not become industrialized despite high demand for Chinese goods (silk, ceramics,
➢ The idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian beliefs
➢ Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture
China Under the Qing Dynasty
❖ Chinese resisted the rule of the non-chinese Manchus
❖ They slowly earned respect
➢ Upheld Chinese traditional Confucian, and social structures
❖ Two important manchu Rulers
➢ Kangxi - 1661
■ Patron of the arts
■ Ruled for about 60 years
■ Gained support of intellectuals by offering them jobs as officials
● Learned of the development of science, medicine, and mathematics from Jesuits
● Reduced Government's expenses
● Lowered Taxes
Manchus Continues a Policy of Isolation
❖ Specific rules for trade in China during this time, including
➢ Trading only at certain ports
➢ Required tribute in the form of gifts (gold, silver, ect.)
❖ The Dutch respected these restrictions on trade, paying tribute through gifts and rituals.
➢ This made the Chinese and the Dutch trading partners.
➢ This led to silk, porcelain, and tea trade.
■ China’s addition of tea to trade made up about 80% of shipments to Europe.
❖ Qian-long (Chinese emperor) denied a request from Britain to alter their trade arrangements
and accept British manufactured goods.
➢ Empires such as the British and Dutch began to oppose China’s trade policies
■ The empire’s financial success declined
Korea Under the
❖ 1636: Before coming to power in China, the Manchus conquered Korea, making it a vassal
❖ Koreans adopted China’s policy of isolation, as well as their technology and culture.
❖ When the Manchus established the Qing Dynasty, Korea began to change.
➢ Although Korea’s political relationship with China grew stronger
■ Manchu invasions and Japanese attacks in the 1590’s resulted in strong feelings of
nationalism among the Korean population.
● This became very evident through their art
◆ Portrayed more popular Korean themes than traditional Chinese subjects.
D a i l y L i f e i n M i n g & Q i n g
C h i n a
Family and the Role of Women
❖ Farmers were abundant in China at this time. This was the most common role of Chinese
➢ Farming became common with the growing use of fertilizer and irrigation, as well as the
addition of new crops from the Americas (corn and sweet potatoes).
■ This increase in food production led to improved nutrition and diet, which also led to a
significant population increase, because it encouraged families to expand.
❖ Chinese families typically favored males over females
➢ Female infants were often killed.
❖ Some women had outside jobs, most women worked in the fields, supervised the children’s
education, and managed the family’s finances.
➢ Women Often suffered because of their low status in Chinese society.
❖ Early China was based mostly on traditional forms
❖ During this time Chinese fiction began to develop, as did art.
➢ Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines the upper class Manchu society
➢ In pottery, technical skills were valued → Lead to production of high-quality ceramics
➢ Drama became a popular source of entertainment.
■ Plays that portrayed Chinese history helped unify Chinese society
● Created a national culture