19.2 China Rejects European Outreach
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  • 1. China Rejects European Outreach Chapter 19.2 Alena Williams, Raina Turner, Eli Young
  • 2. What effect did changing Chinese ruling have on culture, science, and social development? Essential Question
  • 3. T h e M i n g D y n a s t y 1368-1644 Eventually fell, due to . . . ● Lack of funds ● Corrupt officials ● Ineffective rulers
  • 4. The Voyages of Zheng He Zheng He (Romanized Cheng Ho) 1371-1433 ❖ Led seven different voyages ➢ 40-300 ships in each expedition ❖ Expeditions to: ➢ South and Southeast Asia ➢ The Middle East ➢ And East Africa ❖ “Diplomat” ➢ did not shy from violence ➢ had a large army, although he preferred peace.
  • 5. Rise of the Ming Hongwu ❖ A peasant’s son ❖ Commander of the army that drove out the Mongols in 1368 ❖ Became the first Ming ruler in shortly after ❖ Ruled from the previous capital Nanjing ❖ Began reforms to restore agricultural lands that were damaged during war ➢ Increased rice production and irrigation ➢ Encouraged fish farming ➢ Encouraged growing commercial crops (Cotton, sugar cane, ect.) ❖ Used respected traditions & institutions to bring stability back to China ❖ Hongwu eventually became a brutal tyrant (powerful individual) ❖ His death lead to a power struggle → Hongwu’s son Yonglo took over Yonglo
  • 6. Ming Relations with Foreign Countries ❖ Official trade policies reflected China’s Isolation ➢ Only the government could conduct foreign trade. ■ This foreign trade could only take place in three places Canton, Macao, and NIngbo. ■ Even with trade barriers it continued to flourish up and down the coast. ❖ China did not become industrialized despite high demand for Chinese goods (silk, ceramics, ect) ➢ The idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian beliefs ➢ Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture
  • 7. T h e Q i n g D y n a s t y 1644-1844
  • 8. China Under the Qing Dynasty The Manchus ❖ Chinese resisted the rule of the non-chinese Manchus ❖ They slowly earned respect ➢ Upheld Chinese traditional Confucian, and social structures ❖ Two important manchu Rulers ➢ Kangxi - 1661 ■ Patron of the arts ■ Ruled for about 60 years ■ Gained support of intellectuals by offering them jobs as officials ● Learned of the development of science, medicine, and mathematics from Jesuits ● Reduced Government's expenses ● Lowered Taxes
  • 9. Manchus Continues a Policy of Isolation ❖ Specific rules for trade in China during this time, including ➢ Trading only at certain ports ➢ Required tribute in the form of gifts (gold, silver, ect.) ❖ The Dutch respected these restrictions on trade, paying tribute through gifts and rituals. ➢ This made the Chinese and the Dutch trading partners. ➢ This led to silk, porcelain, and tea trade. ■ China’s addition of tea to trade made up about 80% of shipments to Europe. ❖ Qian-long (Chinese emperor) denied a request from Britain to alter their trade arrangements and accept British manufactured goods. ➢ Empires such as the British and Dutch began to oppose China’s trade policies ■ The empire’s financial success declined
  • 10. Korea Under the Manchus ❖ 1636: Before coming to power in China, the Manchus conquered Korea, making it a vassal state. ❖ Koreans adopted China’s policy of isolation, as well as their technology and culture. ❖ When the Manchus established the Qing Dynasty, Korea began to change. ➢ Although Korea’s political relationship with China grew stronger ■ Manchu invasions and Japanese attacks in the 1590’s resulted in strong feelings of nationalism among the Korean population. ● This became very evident through their art ◆ Portrayed more popular Korean themes than traditional Chinese subjects.
  • 11. D a i l y L i f e i n M i n g & Q i n g C h i n a 1368-1844
  • 12. Family and the Role of Women ❖ Farmers were abundant in China at this time. This was the most common role of Chinese families. ➢ Farming became common with the growing use of fertilizer and irrigation, as well as the addition of new crops from the Americas (corn and sweet potatoes). ■ This increase in food production led to improved nutrition and diet, which also led to a significant population increase, because it encouraged families to expand. ❖ Chinese families typically favored males over females ➢ Female infants were often killed. ❖ Some women had outside jobs, most women worked in the fields, supervised the children’s education, and managed the family’s finances. ➢ Women Often suffered because of their low status in Chinese society.
  • 13. Cultural Developments ❖ Early China was based mostly on traditional forms ❖ During this time Chinese fiction began to develop, as did art. ➢ Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines the upper class Manchu society ➢ In pottery, technical skills were valued → Lead to production of high-quality ceramics ➢ Drama became a popular source of entertainment. ■ Plays that portrayed Chinese history helped unify Chinese society ● Created a national culture