19.2 China Rejects European Outreach


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19.2 China Rejects European Outreach

  1. 1. China Rejects European Outreach Chapter 19.2 Alena Williams, Raina Turner, Eli Young
  2. 2. What effect did changing Chinese ruling have on culture, science, and social development? Essential Question
  3. 3. T h e M i n g D y n a s t y 1368-1644 Eventually fell, due to . . . ● Lack of funds ● Corrupt officials ● Ineffective rulers
  4. 4. The Voyages of Zheng He Zheng He (Romanized Cheng Ho) 1371-1433 ❖ Led seven different voyages ➢ 40-300 ships in each expedition ❖ Expeditions to: ➢ South and Southeast Asia ➢ The Middle East ➢ And East Africa ❖ “Diplomat” ➢ did not shy from violence ➢ had a large army, although he preferred peace.
  5. 5. Rise of the Ming Hongwu ❖ A peasant’s son ❖ Commander of the army that drove out the Mongols in 1368 ❖ Became the first Ming ruler in shortly after ❖ Ruled from the previous capital Nanjing ❖ Began reforms to restore agricultural lands that were damaged during war ➢ Increased rice production and irrigation ➢ Encouraged fish farming ➢ Encouraged growing commercial crops (Cotton, sugar cane, ect.) ❖ Used respected traditions & institutions to bring stability back to China ❖ Hongwu eventually became a brutal tyrant (powerful individual) ❖ His death lead to a power struggle → Hongwu’s son Yonglo took over Yonglo
  6. 6. Ming Relations with Foreign Countries ❖ Official trade policies reflected China’s Isolation ➢ Only the government could conduct foreign trade. ■ This foreign trade could only take place in three places Canton, Macao, and NIngbo. ■ Even with trade barriers it continued to flourish up and down the coast. ❖ China did not become industrialized despite high demand for Chinese goods (silk, ceramics, ect) ➢ The idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian beliefs ➢ Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture
  7. 7. T h e Q i n g D y n a s t y 1644-1844
  8. 8. China Under the Qing Dynasty The Manchus ❖ Chinese resisted the rule of the non-chinese Manchus ❖ They slowly earned respect ➢ Upheld Chinese traditional Confucian, and social structures ❖ Two important manchu Rulers ➢ Kangxi - 1661 ■ Patron of the arts ■ Ruled for about 60 years ■ Gained support of intellectuals by offering them jobs as officials ● Learned of the development of science, medicine, and mathematics from Jesuits ● Reduced Government's expenses ● Lowered Taxes
  9. 9. Manchus Continues a Policy of Isolation ❖ Specific rules for trade in China during this time, including ➢ Trading only at certain ports ➢ Required tribute in the form of gifts (gold, silver, ect.) ❖ The Dutch respected these restrictions on trade, paying tribute through gifts and rituals. ➢ This made the Chinese and the Dutch trading partners. ➢ This led to silk, porcelain, and tea trade. ■ China’s addition of tea to trade made up about 80% of shipments to Europe. ❖ Qian-long (Chinese emperor) denied a request from Britain to alter their trade arrangements and accept British manufactured goods. ➢ Empires such as the British and Dutch began to oppose China’s trade policies ■ The empire’s financial success declined
  10. 10. Korea Under the Manchus ❖ 1636: Before coming to power in China, the Manchus conquered Korea, making it a vassal state. ❖ Koreans adopted China’s policy of isolation, as well as their technology and culture. ❖ When the Manchus established the Qing Dynasty, Korea began to change. ➢ Although Korea’s political relationship with China grew stronger ■ Manchu invasions and Japanese attacks in the 1590’s resulted in strong feelings of nationalism among the Korean population. ● This became very evident through their art ◆ Portrayed more popular Korean themes than traditional Chinese subjects.
  11. 11. D a i l y L i f e i n M i n g & Q i n g C h i n a 1368-1844
  12. 12. Family and the Role of Women ❖ Farmers were abundant in China at this time. This was the most common role of Chinese families. ➢ Farming became common with the growing use of fertilizer and irrigation, as well as the addition of new crops from the Americas (corn and sweet potatoes). ■ This increase in food production led to improved nutrition and diet, which also led to a significant population increase, because it encouraged families to expand. ❖ Chinese families typically favored males over females ➢ Female infants were often killed. ❖ Some women had outside jobs, most women worked in the fields, supervised the children’s education, and managed the family’s finances. ➢ Women Often suffered because of their low status in Chinese society.
  13. 13. Cultural Developments ❖ Early China was based mostly on traditional forms ❖ During this time Chinese fiction began to develop, as did art. ➢ Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Zhan examines the upper class Manchu society ➢ In pottery, technical skills were valued → Lead to production of high-quality ceramics ➢ Drama became a popular source of entertainment. ■ Plays that portrayed Chinese history helped unify Chinese society ● Created a national culture