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19.1 europeans explore the east

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  • 1. 19.1 EUROPEANS EXPLORE THE EAST Surya, Josh, Matthew, Hannah
  • 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS  What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the Age of Exploration?  What were the motives behind European exploration in the 1400s?
  • 3. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” New Trade Routes  During the 1400s, the desire to grow rich and spread Christianity spurred an Age if Exploration.  The desire for wealth and resources was the main reason for exploration.  During the Crusades Europeans were introduced to spices. After the Crusades they still demanded for it.  Italians and Muslims controlled the trade route to the east. Europeans couldn’t get the resources from the trade at a reasonable price so they devised a plan to find a direct route to Asia.
  • 4. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” Spread of Christianity  Christians wanted to fight the Muslims and convert their religion to Christianity.  Christians believed that it was a sacred duty  Bartolomeu Dias  Portuguese Explorer “To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”
  • 5. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” Technology Makes Exploration Possible  Caravel (A long ship that had triangular sails that helped to sail effectively against the wind. It was sturdy)  Astrolabe (A brass circle with adjusted rims marked off with degrees. Used to calculate latitude)  Magnetic Compass
  • 6. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY The Portuguese Explore Africa  Prince Henry  Son of Portugal’s King, he was the most enthusiastic supporter of exploration. He started a Navigation School.  Henry’s ships established a series of trading posts along the west coast of Africa.  From there they plotted their next move, a sea route to Asia.
  • 7. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia  The Portuguese believed that they have to sail around the tip of Africa to reach Asia.  In 1488 Portuguese captain Bartolomeu Dias ventured far down the coast of Africa until the tip.  Due to a storm and low food supplies, they return home.  Vasco da Gama  In 1498 he reached the port Calicut in the south western coast of India.
  • 8. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia (Continued)  The Portuguese sailors returned home with spices.  This voyage provided a direct sea route to India.
  • 9. SPAIN ALSO MAKES CLAIMS  The Spanish envied the Portuguese. The Spanish monarchs also desired a direct sea route to Asia.  In 1492, Christopher Columbus voyaged to the west hoping to find eastern Asia. Instead, he reached an island in the Caribbean. His mistake opened the way for European colonization in the Americas.  The Portuguese thought Spain had reached Asia and also believed that Spain had claimed the land that Portuguese reached first.  Because of the tension, Pope Alexander VI stepped in to keep peace between the two nations.
  • 10. SPAIN ALSO MAKES CLAIMS  He devised The Line of Demarcation in which all lands west of the line would be Spain’s and all east would be Portugal’s.  The line was moved to include Brazil for the Portuguese.  In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed The Treaty of Tordesillas. In which they agreed to honor the line.
  • 11. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Portugal’s Trading Empire  Portugal established control over the spice trade thanks to cannons in their ships and a fort at Hormuz.  The Portuguese conquered cities all the way to the East Indies and broke the trade pattern between Italy and the Muslims, lowering spice prices.
  • 12. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese  After the Dutch (Netherlands) declared their independence from Spain, they became a leading sea power.  They eroded Portuguese control over Asian trade with the help of the English.  Dutch East India Company  A company founded by the Dutch in the 17th century and directed Asian trade
  • 13. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Dutch Trading Outposts  Headquarters in Asia.  Conquered Spice Islands from Portugal and controlled Indian Ocean Trade.  Outposts in Asia and Cape of Africa. British and French Trades  English East India Company established outposts in India and a successful Indian cloth trade.  The French East India Company failed.
  • 14. THE END

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