CCNA BASED NETWORKING OF RIP
AND OSPF WITH ACCESSLIST AND
FRAME RELAY IN ROUTERS
Gaurav Singh Rawat
Today computer network are the core of
modern communication. All modern
aspects of the public switched telephone
network(PSTN) are computer controlled.
These increasingly runs over the internet
In network layer we are using the routing
of IP packets.
S= time of
Capacity=C token rate=₱
Bursty traffic is define as a sudden increase in traffic in steady
Suppose capacity of router is 1mbps, output rate of data is 8
mbps. Token are generated is 6mbps. Calculate the time at
which bursty traffic is routed.
Cisco has dominated the router industry
for many reasons. One of the most
common reasons is Cisco’s support for a
multitude of protocols as well as features
in their IOS to enhance a router’s ability to
control traffic and improve
performance, and in some cases, save
money. To take the features and
functionality that helped Cisco become the
leader in terms of market share
There will be wasting of IP addresses is
problem in Routing. So we are using
Subnetting but Subnetting is also not that
much sufficient so we use the
Supernetting concept. In this report we
are configure the routing protocols and
there behavior. And compare those
routing protocols. And also work basic
level in access-list and Frame-relay with
respect to RIP and OSPF.
Two Tier Routing Internet System
• Routing policies based on business
• Routing of packets done b/w autonomous
• BGP: policy-based, path-vector routing
• Shortest-path routing based on link metrics
• Routers all managed by a single institution
• OSPF and IS-IS: link-state routing protocol
• RIP and EIGRP: distance-vector routing
RIP(Routing Information Protocol)
It’s a dynamic vector routing protocol. It’s
a intra-domain routing protocol.
In this we use the Bellman Ford algorithm.
Used as a hop count to calculate optimal
Rip uses Classfull routing, not subnetting.
Slow convergence in large area.
Count to infinity problem.
Open Shortest Path First(OSPF)
OSPF is an interior gateway protocol(IGP)
link state protocol.
All routers within an area have exact same
link state database and run in parallel with
the shortest path or Dijkstra algorithm.
OSPF is a classless protocol.
OSPF uses cost as its metric, based on
bandwidth of the link
OSPF has no hop count.
A Frame Relay network may be privately
owned, but it is more commonly provided
as a service by a public carrier.
It typically consists of many
geographically scattered Frame Relay
switches interconnected by trunk lines.
Frame Relay is often used to interconnect
LANs. When this is the case, a router on
each LAN will be the DTE
A data-link connection identifier (DLCI)
identifies the logical VC(virtual circuit)
between the CPE(customer premise
equipment) and the Frame Relay switch.
The Frame Relay switch maps the DLCIs
between each pair of routers to create a
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit).
LMI – Local Management Interface:
LMI is a signaling standard between the
DTE and the Frame Relay switch.
LMI is responsible for managing the
connection and maintaining the status
Conclusion and Future work
When considering with RIP, OSPF handles
its own error detection and correction
Now in future we widely work on accesslist, and frame relay. And study all the
protocols (MPLS, IS-IS, MPBGP) which are
different routing algorithms.
The Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI)
Forecast (2012-2017), published
today, projects that global Internet
protocol (IP) traffic will grow three-fold
between 2012 and 2017.
Global IP traffic (fixed and mobile) is expected to
reach an annual run rate of 1.4 zettabytes ―
more than a trillion gigabytes per year – by
2017. On a monthly basis, global IP traffic is
expected to reach nearly 121 exabytes per month
by 2017, up from about 44 exabytes per month
in 2012. (121 exabytes is equivalent to 30 billion
DVDs; or 28 trillion MP3's; or 750 quadrillion text
messages.) This updated study includes global
fixed IP traffic growth and service adoption
trends, complementing the VNI Global Mobile
Visual Learning in Science and
Engineering, ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics
Workshop on Computer Graphics
Education held June 2-5, 2004, in
G. Laporte, I.H. Osman, A bibliogaphy of
routing problems, 1.4 page 14 ISBN-81203-0621-X
computer network Second edition Andrew
S. Tanenbaum vrije universiteit
amsterdam, the netherlands