Morphology (linguistics)


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Morphology (linguistics)

  2. 2. WHATS MORPHOLOGY? a) Morphology is the study of the structure of words. -Paradoxically, however, the concept of word itself defies simple definition. In English, for example, words tend to be smaller than the sentence, and we combine words to form sentences. One tricky thing, however, is that in many languages, a single word can have "sentence" meaning
  3. 3. SUMMING UP THE TOPICS : Morphology is the study of word structure and word formation. Words, though impossible to define in absolute terms, can be thought of as the units that are combined to form sentences in a language such as English. Just as sentences can be broken down into smaller units (words), we can break words down into smaller, meaningful parts. The smallest meaningful part of a word is called a morpheme. Note: not all words have more than one morpheme. Words that have only one morpheme are also called monomorphemic words (e.g. pig). Words with more than one morpheme are called polymorphemic words, as in foolishness (fool + ish + ness).
  4. 4. MORPHEMES:minimal unit in which there is an arbitrary union of asound and a meaning (lexical meaning or grammaticalfunction).
  5. 5. A morpheme: may be represented by a single sound ( „a‟ in “amoral” ) : may be represented by a single syllable ( “child” “ish” ) : may be represented by more than one syllable 2 syllables: (camel ,lady , water) 3 syllables: (crocodile) 4 syllables: (elevator)
  6. 6. MORPHEMESHomonyms (a.k.a HomographHomophones)one of two or more words One of two or more words pronounced alike but spelled identically but differ in meaning or differ in meaning or pronunciation spelling. Example: Example: to too two Bow and arrow Bow of a violin Bow of a ship Bow a tie Japanese bow
  7. 7. TYPES OF MORPHEMESFree Morphemes :is a morpheme that by itself can function as a word in a languageExamples : Boy , desire , gentle , man.
  8. 8. CONTENT VERSUS FUNCTION WORDSContent Words Function Words Content Words: The  Function Words: A word nouns, verbs, adjective that does not have clear lexical meaning but has a s, and adverbs that grammatical function. constitute the major Function words include: part of the vocabulary. conjunctions, prepositions, Content words are articles, auxiliaries, referred to as OPEN complementizers, and pronouns. Function words CLASS words because are referred to as CLOSED we can add new words CLASS words because we to these classes can not add new words to these classes.
  9. 9. Bound Morpheme:is a morpheme that cannot stand by itself to form a word; it must be joined to other morphemes It is bound because although it has meaning, it cannot stand alone. It must be attached to another morpheme to produce a word.Examples : -ish -ness -ly dis- trans-Free morpheme : badBound morpheme : lyWord : badly
  10. 10. AFFIXES Affix: is a bound morpheme that occurs before (prefix), after (suffix), in the middle of (infix), and around (circumfix) stems (root morphemes)Prefix: un-, pre-, bi-Suffix: -ing, -er, -ist, -lyInfix: un-freaking-believable Morphemes that are inserted between other morphemesCircumfix:Morphemes that are attached to another morpheme both initially and finally. Also known as: discontinuous morphemes
  11. 11. ROOTS & STEMS Root : is a non-affix lexical morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. Roots may or may not stand alone as a wordExamples : Paint (paint-er) Read (re-read)Ceive (con-ceive) Stem : is that part of a word to which grammatical/ inflectional affixes are added. It may consist amongst othersa). Solely single root morpheme such as e.g. (Simple stem such as dog)
  12. 12. b). Two root morphemes e.g. ( compound stem as in blackbird)c). A root morpheme plus a derivational suffix e.g. (a complex stem as in unscrew)a) cats: single root morpheme: cat + inflectional suffix –sb) crowbar: two root morphemes (crow + bar) ) + inflectional suffix –sc) inventions: : root morpheme invent + lexical suffix - ion+ inflectional suffix -s
  13. 13. WORD FORMATION (WORD COINAGE)In linguistics, the ways in which new words are madeon the basis of other words or morphemes.
  14. 14. COMMON TYPES OF WORDFORMATIONCoinagesNonce wordsBorrowingCalquingClipping
  15. 15. COINAGESCoinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing .For example, the following list of words provides some common coinages found in everyday English: Aspirin Escalator heroin Band-aid Factoid Frisbee Google linoluem
  16. 16. NONCE WORDSNonce words are new words formed through any number of word formation processes with the resulting word meeting a lexical need that is not expected to recur. Nonce words are created for a single occasion. For example, the following list of words provide some nonce words with definitions as identified in the Oxford English Dictionary Cotton-wool: to stuff or close ears with cotton wool. Twi-thought: an indistinct or vague thought
  17. 17. BORROWINGARE ALSO REFERRED TO AS LOANWORDS Borrowing is the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another language. For example, the following common English words are borrowed from foreign languages:  algebra – Arabic  bagel – Yiddish  cherub – Hebrew  chow mein – Chinese  fjord – Norwegian  galore – Irish  haiku – Japanese  kielbasa – Polish  murder – French  near – Sanskrit  paprika – Hungarian  pizza – Italian  smorgasbord – Swedish  tamale – Spanish  yo-yo – Tagalog
  18. 18. CALQUING Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another. For example, the following common English words are calqued from foreign languages:  beer garden – German – Biergarten  blue-blood – Spanish – sangre azul  commonplace – Latin – locus commūnis  flea market – French – marché aux puces  free verse – French – vers libre  loanword – German – Lehnwort  long time no see – Chinese – hǎo jiǔ bu jiàn  pineapple – Dutch – pijnappel  scapegoat – Hebrew – ez ozel  wisdom tooth – Latin – dēns sapientiae Calques are also referred to as root-for-root or word-for-word translations
  19. 19. CLIPPING Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word. Clipping differs from back-formation in that the new word retains the meaning of the original word. For example: advertisement – ad alligator – gator examination – exam gasoline – gas gymnasium – gym influenza – flu laboratory – lab mathematics – math
  20. 20.  memorandum – memo photograph – photo public house – pub raccoon – coon reputation – rep situation comedy – sitcom telephone – phoneThe four types of clipping are back clipping, fore- clipping, middle clipping, and complex clipping. Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in gas from gasoline. Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in gator from alligator. Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in flu from influenza. Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in sitcom from situation comedy
  21. 21. IDENTIFYING MORPHEMES1. Segmentation of words into minimal sound- meaning constituents basic strategy comparing and contrasting forms that are partially similar in sound and meaning associating shared sound with shared meaning continuing to do so until forms cannot be broken into smaller sound-meaning units
  22. 22.  EXAMPLES1. segmenting repayment into its constituent morphemes:comparing  contrasting  isolating1. repayment : payment  re- payment2. payment : pay  pay-ment re- pay-ment   prefix+root+suffix2. segmenting instructions into its constituent morphemes: comparing  contrasting  isolating
  23. 23. 1. instructions : instruction  instruction-s2. instruction : instruct  instruct-ion3. instruct : construct in-struct in-struct-ion-s     prefix+root+suffix+suffix3. segmenting inconsistent into its constituent morphemes:comparing  contrasting  isolating1. inconsistent : consistent  in- consistent2. consistent : consist  in-consist-ent3. consist : desist, insist, persist con-sist
  24. 24. in- con-sist –ent     prefix+prefix+root+suffix identifying the meaning of the various forms the meaning of re-pay-ment =the meaning of re- + the meaning of pay- + the meaning of -ment the meaning of in-struct-ion-s = the meaning of in- + the meaning of -struct + the meaning of -ion + the meaning of –s  the meaning of in-con-sist-ent = the meaning of in- + the meaning of con- + the meaning of -sist + the meaning of -ent
  25. 25. 2. Bound roots in segmenting a word into its constituent morphemes, not all morphemes obvious  some of the segmentations, or breaks, are less obviouscompare: -sist in consist re- in rewrite -er in writer some root morphemes never occur alonein modern English, morphemes such as -ceive, - mit, -fer have lost their independent meaning – their meaning depends on the entire word in which they occur