Events Leading to American Independence
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>The French and Indian War (1754-1763) </li></ul><ul><li>The winning of th...
<ul><li>Proclamation of 1763 </li></ul>Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Chief Pontiac  leads Indians again...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Britain begins Taxing the Colonies & Enforcing the Navigation Acts. </li>...
Writs of Assistance <ul><li>allow the British to search Colonial ships (used during the F & I War when some Colonists were...
Currency Act (1764) <ul><li>is passed by Parliament to help British trade by getting rid of inflated colonial paper money;...
Sugar Act (1764) <ul><li>lowers the tax on sugar and hurts Colonial smugglers like John Hancock </li></ul><ul><li>The act ...
Stamp Act (1765) <ul><li>placing a tax on all official  printed  documents (including wills), decks of cards, newspapers, ...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Colonial Protest Begin </li></ul><ul><li>Protest Cry Becomes:  “No Taxati...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Declaratory Act  - 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament makes it clear it ha...
Colonists React <ul><li>Boycott  agreement are signed by Colonial Planters and Merchants;  </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Importati...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Colonial Leaders Emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, Massachusetts -  Sam Ad...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Quartering Act  - 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the Colonists to pay fo...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Boston Massacre  - March 1768 </li></ul><ul><li>Late hour crowd (emptying...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Revere’s Boston Massacre  - 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Revere’s famous engrav...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>William C. Nell’s Boston Massacre  - 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90 yea...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Alonzo Chappel’s Boston Massacre -  Late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Alonzo ...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Parliament Backs Down After Boston Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Importa...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>British Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>King George III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Brewer  Sam Adams  of Boston,...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams  of Boston, Massac...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>John Hancock  of Massachusett...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry  of Virginia </...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The Gaspee Incident - 1770 </li></ul><ul...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The Boston Tea Party - 1770 </li></ul><u...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Britain Responds to the Boston Tea Party...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament also makes  the  Quebec Act  ...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists in other Colonies Unite in Sup...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress </li></ul><ul...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The British Are Coming! </li></ul><ul><l...
There were three riders.  Who really made it to Concord? Did the British leave Boston  by land or by sea?
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The British Are Coming! </li></ul><ul><l...
Events Leading to  American Independence <ul><li>British retreat to Boston becomes a slaughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Minuteme...
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  1. 1. Events Leading to American Independence
  2. 2. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>The French and Indian War (1754-1763) </li></ul><ul><li>The winning of the F&I War creates a huge debt for Great Britain; </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists no longer fear the French and thus need Britain’s protection much less; </li></ul><ul><li>With the French gone, Colonists begin to settle into the Ohio River Valley. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Proclamation of 1763 </li></ul>Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Chief Pontiac leads Indians against colonists on the frontier after the F&I War. This convinced Britain that defending the colonies will be too expensive. Britain is nearly broke. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists refuse to raise an army to protect themselves against Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Indians want colonists out of the Ohio River Valley. This will also allow Britain to trade furs without Colonial interference. </li></ul><ul><li>So . . Parliament makes the Proclamation of 1763 stating that colonists must stay east of the Appalachian Mountains. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Britain begins Taxing the Colonies & Enforcing the Navigation Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in order to pay for Britain’s F&I War debt; </li></ul><ul><li>Writs of Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>1764 - Currency Act </li></ul><ul><li>1764 - Sugar Act </li></ul><ul><li>1765 - Stamp Act - </li></ul>
  5. 5. Writs of Assistance <ul><li>allow the British to search Colonial ships (used during the F & I War when some Colonists were trading with the French) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Currency Act (1764) <ul><li>is passed by Parliament to help British trade by getting rid of inflated colonial paper money; </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sugar Act (1764) <ul><li>lowers the tax on sugar and hurts Colonial smugglers like John Hancock </li></ul><ul><li>The act also listed more foreign goods to be taxed including sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric and printed calico, and further, regulated the export of lumber and iron. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stamp Act (1765) <ul><li>placing a tax on all official printed documents (including wills), decks of cards, newspapers, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Colonial Protest Begin </li></ul><ul><li>Protest Cry Becomes: “No Taxation without Representation!” </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act Congress meets in New York City (Oct. 1765) </li></ul><ul><li>the high debt of Britain after the F & I War means Britain cannot let Colonial Governments deprive her of money from taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Petition King George III and Parliament declaring Britain has no legal right to pass an “internal tax” in the colonies.. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for a Colonial boycott of British trade goods </li></ul><ul><li>British merchants suffer - trade falls off 14% </li></ul><ul><li>British Parliament repeals Stamp Act in 1765 </li></ul>No Taxation without Representation
  10. 10. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Declaratory Act - 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament makes it clear it has the right to tax in all cases </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend Acts - May, 1767 </li></ul><ul><li>Tax officials once again use Writs of Assistance to search a ship’s cargo (Many expect bribes to turn their head). </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament taxes glass, paper, silk, lead, and tea imports </li></ul>
  11. 11. Colonists React <ul><li>Boycott agreement are signed by Colonial Planters and Merchants; </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Importation Agreements ( Boycott ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty use threats to tax collectors and merchants who fail to sign these agreements; </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters of Liberty pledge to not use British items; </li></ul><ul><li>Lanterns hung on “liberty Trees;” </li></ul><ul><li>British Officials hung in “effigy” (dummies of officials hung). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Colonial Leaders Emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, Massachusetts - Sam Adams, James Otis, young John Adams, Paul Revere, John Hancock. </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Ben Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Williamsburg, Virginia - Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>These leaders and others will lead The Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence and many protests. </li></ul><ul><li>Many other Colonists Call for Patience </li></ul>Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses, No Taxation Without Representation!
  13. 13. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Quartering Act - 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the Colonists to pay for housing British Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>They tent in Boston Common </li></ul><ul><li>Large Force of British Soldiers Arrive in Boston -1768 </li></ul><ul><li>New York Assembly refuses to pay for this housing </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Gage is made Royal Governor by the King </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions are constant between British soldiers and colonists who are facing economic hard times now with loss of smuggling (free trade). </li></ul><ul><li>Many fights between colonists and soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Officials dissolve the colonial assemblies of New York, Massachusetts and Virginia for that year </li></ul><ul><li>Protesting Colonists see this as a loss of Basic Rights as Englishmen </li></ul>
  14. 14. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Boston Massacre - March 1768 </li></ul><ul><li>Late hour crowd (emptying out of bars) gathers at the Custom House (where imports are taxed) to harass British guards; </li></ul><ul><li>At first snowballs, then rocks are thrown at guards; </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcements are called as crowd turns into a mob; </li></ul><ul><li>No command to “fire” is given but a shot rings out and many soldiers open fire; </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Adams & Paul Revere depict this incident as a “massacre” of peaceful citizens and use it as propaganda to gain support. </li></ul><ul><li>Young John Adams will prove the superiority of “Colonial Justice” and get soldiers innocent verdicts or light sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Most colonists accept Revere’s famous picture as the facts; </li></ul>
  15. 15. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Revere’s Boston Massacre - 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Revere’s famous engraving is propaganda at its finest. It’s printed throughout the colonies and all see and believe it. </li></ul><ul><li>A planned and ordered killing in broad daylight of innocent colonists is shown. It omits all facts. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>William C. Nell’s Boston Massacre - 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90 years later Willard Nell draws this version that is much like Revere’s but more realistic and immortalizes black colonist Crispus Attucks as an early revolutionary martyr. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Alonzo Chappel’s Boston Massacre - Late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Alonzo Chappel gives the first historically accurate depiction of the events and reminds Americans that even John Adams called the colonists “a motly rabble of jack tarrs.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Parliament Backs Down After Boston Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Importation Agreements Cripple Trade </li></ul><ul><li>British Merchants pressure Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax on tea is left by Parliament as a symbol of Britain’s right to tax colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Adams and Joseph Warren use The Committees of Correspondence in 1772 to initiate protests throughout the colonies. Over 100 are formed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set up to keep the Colonists informed and united </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committees of Correspondence will plan and coordinate future protests throughout the colonies. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>British Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>King George III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes all of his subjects must be loyal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaf to Colonial Arguments of Rights and especially to “No taxation without Representation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lord North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister (leader of Parliament) of Britain from 1770 until the Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shares King George III’s view about Colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Believe Colonists can’t have more rights and lower taxes than the people in Britain. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Brewer Sam Adams of Boston, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes against the Stamp Act, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the Son’s of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes the Protest Against the Boston Massacre and Organizes the Boston Tea Party. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James Otis of Boston, Mass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frames the Legal Arguments for Colonial Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaks against the legality of Writs of Assistance and British Tax Laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No taxation without representation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul Revere of Boston, Mass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of the Sons of Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the famous picture of the Boston Massacre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous rider sent to warn Minutemen of British Advance from Boston to Lexington and Concord. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams of Boston, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writes and speaks of Colonial Rights to self government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes in the “Natural Rights of Man.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defended the British Soldiers involved in the Boston, Massacre to show that American justice was superior to Britain’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abigail Adams of Boston, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not important in years leading up to the Revolution but will later write about the Rights of Women in a famous letter to her husband John during the creation of the Declaration of Independence. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>John Hancock of Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the richest Men in the Colonies. - He smuggles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defended by John Adams when his ship the Liberty is seized by the British, he manages to avoid being caught as a smuggler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, first to Sign Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous man in the Colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writer, Publisher, Scientist, philosopher, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the colonial view to parliament. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>American Colonial Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry of Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outspoken member of the House of Burgesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coins the phrases “Give me liberty or give me death!” and “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson of Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the House of Burgesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of Virginia’s Committees of Correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural rights philosopher and writer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writes the Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Washington of Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Hero of the French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>Major land and plantation owner </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy about the Proclamation of 1763. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The Gaspee Incident - 1770 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated British ship patrolled waters off Providence Rhode Island runs aground while chasing a smuggler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locals board the ship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force crew ashore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burn the Gaspee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>British investigate hoping to punish those who took part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will try to get other colonists to squeal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No colonists will help the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commission returns to Britain empty handed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committees of Correspondence become more active in the colonies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The Boston Tea Party - 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>British Parliament lowers the tax on tea to Save the British East India Company from bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes the colonists will be pleased since the price of tea will be lowered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial smugglers hurt by this because it’s harder to compete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists are angry at the special favoritism given to the British East India Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Boston Tea Party” is organized by Sam Adams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carried out by the Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at the special favoritism given to the British East India Company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of dollars of tea is thrown into Boston Harbor. </li></ul></ul></ul>Committees of Correspondence organize other “Tea Parties” in other colonies.
  26. 26. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Britain Responds to the Boston Tea Party with the Intolerable Acts (Called the Coercive Acts in Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Close the Port of Boston until the colonists pay for the tea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This depresses Boston’s Economy and punishes all for the act of some. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Suspends town meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of a basic right to assembly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Custom Officials Charged with Crimes are no longer to be tried in the Colonies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less possibility of stopping bribery and the loss of a right to punish wrongdoers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. New Quartering Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens now force to find housing for British soldiers in their homes in Boston. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament also makes the Quebec Act </li></ul><ul><li>1. Recognized the new colony of Quebec as part of Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Protects the Rights of French Catholics in Quebec (Formally New France) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Catholics are favored over Protestant Englishman? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Recognizes a “Non Representative Government” in Quebec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this what Britain intends for the English Colonies - non representative colonial govts.? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Gives Quebec Control of the Ohio River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the people that the colonists fought to gain control of that land. Does Britain favor them over English Colonies? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists in other Colonies Unite in Support of Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Food and other aid is sent to Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson calls for a “Day of Prayer” to be set aside for Boston </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Governor of Virginia then dismisses the House of Burgesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Colonies copy the idea and shops close and church bells ring in support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonists unite because they know that what happened in Boston can happen to them. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Called in sympathy for Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>All Colonies except Georgia make it to the Congress which is at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some call for a moderate approach and just want to patch-up with Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other colonies urge for firm action against Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end, these Colonies Agree to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Side with Massachusetts against the Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boycott all British goods and cut off exports with Britain until the acts are repealed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each colony is urged to set up and train its own militia (citizen army) for defense. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agree to meet again in May of 1775. </li></ul></ul></ul>War would change these plans
  30. 30. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The British Are Coming! </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 British Troops massed in Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>The Massachusetts Militia, known as the Minutemen , prepare for fighting by storing arms at Concord. </li></ul><ul><li>British General Gage learns of this through loyalist colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>Gage sends 700 troops to surprise Minutemen and seize the arms by surprise and to capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty warn riders across Boston Harbor of the British approach toward Concord. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two lamps are hung from the Old North Church of Boston. </li></ul></ul>Danger!
  31. 31. There were three riders. Who really made it to Concord? Did the British leave Boston by land or by sea?
  32. 32. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>Protest Ignite </li></ul><ul><li>The British Are Coming! </li></ul><ul><li>Only Prescott rides all the way to Concord. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revere and Dawes are stopped at Lexington. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But Revere is better known and the poet Longfellow gave him credit since his name rhymed.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Colonists and British first clash when 70 Minutemen meet them at Lexington on April 19, 1775 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Colonists and 1 British soldier are killed that morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British go to search Concord, but all weapons and Sam Adams and John Hancock are not to be found. </li></ul><ul><li>The British return to Boston. </li></ul>April 19, 1775
  33. 33. Events Leading to American Independence <ul><li>British retreat to Boston becomes a slaughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Minutemen hide behind walls and trees and ambush them. </li></ul><ul><li>73 British troops are killed and 200 wounded. </li></ul>War!

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