ARK532 - HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE IV TIMURID ARCHITECTURE GROUP MEMBERS : MOHAMAD HAFIZ BIN HASSAN MUHAMMAD AKHTIAR BIN HALIPAH NUR AINUN BASYIERAH BINTI NORDIN NURSHILA BINTI SULAIMAN MAISARAH BNTI MASHOR HAFIZATULAIN BINTI SUMARNO
T I M U R I D A R C H I T E C T U R ETIMURID EMPIRETURKEY UZBEKISTAN TAJIKISTAN IRAQ IRAN AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN SAUDI ARABIAN
T I M U R I D A R C H I T E C T U R EINTRODUCTIONTimurid architecture is the pinnacleof Islamic art in Central Asia.The style is largely derived from Persianarchitecture.Axial symmetry is a characteristic of allmajor Timurid structures, notably the Shah-eZendah in Samarkand and the mosqueof Gowhar Shad in Mashhad.Double domes of various shapesabound, and the outsides are perfused withbrilliant colors
T I M U R I D A R C H I T E C T U R EINTRODUCTION
ULUGH BEG MADRASA (1417-1420) Samarkand, Uzbekistan
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, UzbekistanUlugh Begs madrasah is located on the Registan Square.The building is rectangular in shape, measuring 56 by 81 meters, and encloses acourtyard (30 meters a side) with four axial ivans.There are minarets at each of its four corners and a 34.7 meter tall entranceportal on the facade that faces the Registan. two smaller entrances on the sides of the madrasah. (open onto the courtyard)
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, Uzbekistan two smaller entrances on the sides of the madrasah. (open onto the courtyard) Around the courtyard, on two stories, are fifty rooms, which could house one hundred students, and two lecture halls.
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, UzbekistanThe Ulugh Beg Madrasah, built duringthe Timurid Empire era of Timur-Tamerlane, has an imposing Iwan portalwith lancet arch facing the square.
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, Uzbekistan The corners are flanked by the high well-proportioned minarets. The mosaic panel over the iwans entrance arch is decorated by geometrical stylized ornaments. The square courtyard includes a mosque, lecture rooms, and is fringed by the dormitory cells in which students lived. There are deep galleries along the axes.
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, UzbekistanDOUBLE DOME - A dome which is hollow inside; it has twolayers, one which is in the interior and roofs the room below,the other or the external surface which proclaims themonument from afar
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, Uzbekistan Originally the Ulugh Beg Madrasah was a two-storied building with four domed darskhonas (lecture rooms) at the corners. The Ulugh Beg Madrasah was one of the best clergy universities of the entire Muslim Orient in the 15th Century CE. Abdurakhman Djami, a prominent poet, scientist and philosopher studied there. Ulugh Beg himself gave lectures there. During Ulugh Begs government the madrasah was a centre of secular science.
ULUGH BEG MADRASA Samarkand, Uzbekistan • Trademarks of the Timurid style were monumental scale, multiple minarets, polychromy tilework, and large bulbous double domes. • The decoration of the madrasah, emphasizes the color blue, with light and dark blue tiles. (calligraphic representation of sacred names within geometric outlines -hazarbaf technique)
THE BIBI KHANUM MOSQUE Architectural element• THE 4 FRAGMENTS MARK THE FOUR CENTRAL POINTS OF THE COURTYARD MOSQUE• EAST-WEST AXIS : 1. entrance portal with MINARET 2. immense domed sanctuary with an iwan flanked by minarets• North-south axis : two smaller iwans and domed chambers that punctuated the long sides of the courtyard. East-west axis
THE BIBI KHANUM MOSQUEDOME1. DOUBLE DOME• Have outer and inner dome.• The high outer dome is to cover a structural inner dome.• Stabilize by projecting brick ribs2. Ribbed dome North-south axis
THE BIBI KHANUM MOSQUE Bibi khanum Friday mosque samarkad uzbeskistan. One of the biggest mosque in the world. Construction was completed between 1399 and 1404. 1974 the government of the then-Uzbek SSR began to reconstruct the mosque The length of the outer walls is to 167 m. longways and 109 m in width. The cupola of the main chamber reaches a height of 40 metres the entranceway is 35 metres high. There is a large marble Quran stand in the centre of the courtyard
THE BIBI KHANUM MOSQUE Decorative element• The symmetry and geometrical patterns are Persian-inspired, and the detailed ornamentation and calligraphy is of Ilkhanid influence.• Patterns of square kufic from the Bibi Khanum Mosque at Samarkand
THE BIBI KHANUM MOSQUE• precious stones bronze and gold captured during his conquest of India• Domes are characteristic of Persian architecture and are used throughout most of the Islamic world, the exterior and interiors of which are usually decorated with varying shades of blue, white, and gold and employ axial symmetry in their design.• elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that typically features fluid and complex shapes, plants, and animals. The point of the arabesque is to express comprehensive and complex spirituality without using iconography or featuring humans, which is usually forbidden in Islamic art.• floral and calligraphic ornamentation with gold inscription
AQ SARAY PALACE Location : Shakhrizabz, Uzbekistan Style/period : Timurid Century : 14 Building type : Palatial Building usage : Palace The Aq Saray palace was built by Timur in 1379-1396 CE. Today only fragments of the massive entrance portal remains. When completed the entrance portal was 22 meters wide and 50 meters high. Inside the portal would have been a large courtyard with a water basin surrounded by two-story living accommodations.
AQ SARAY PALACEThe palace took on several functions: itwas the place for recreation andentertainment of the royal family, aswell as administration building forrunning state affairs.On the axis of the courtyard there weredomed quarters for holding sessions ofdivan – council of state.One of the pools was intended for holyfish. The pools were fed by the waterflowing in the lead conduit from thenearby mountains.The portal niche is decorated withelegant mosaics and carved majolica aswell as quotations from Koran executedin sulus script.
The construction works were carried The resplendent exterior decoration coveringout on a ‘kingly scale’ indeed the walls and domes of the Ak-Saray palace still arouses admiration. Large scale geometrical ornamental patterns on its facades are made of dark and light blue glazed bricks. Glittering against the polished brick background they impart a particular picturesqueness and grandeur to the building
Allah.Translation of the kufic in thepattern. Muhammad. Ali (quadruple)
AQ SARAY PALACE The construction of the palace was started in 1380 and lasted more than 25 years. It is known that architects and handicraftsmen from Khorezm, shortly before subjugated by Temur, took part in the construction of the palace. Several legends are connected with the history of this grandiose structure. As one of them says, some gold sand was put into the clay intended for making the first bricks for the royal structure.
The walls of the palace, as well as thepalace square, were decorated with tiledmosaics presenting combination ofblue, green, yellow, and red colours.The colossal corner tower was girdled bya dictum made in Kufic script: “Sultan isthe shadow of Allah”Aq Saray is a very broad and lofty doorway, ornamented with gold and blue patternson glazed tiles, richly and beautifully worked.
At the end of the 16th century Shakhrisabzrebelled against the rule of Sheibaniddynasty. After the siege of the disobedientcity, Abdullakhan II ordered to destroy Ak-Saray as well as other Timurid’sconstructions.In the 1760s the ruins of Amir Temur’spalace were within the residential quartersof Shakhrisabz bek.Only huge abutments of portal arch havesurvived, yet until now these remains of theformer splendeur symbolize the might ofAmir Temur’s state.
AMIR BURUNDUQ A MAUSOLEUM• The Amir Burunduk Mausoleum is located within the Shah-i Zinda funerary complex; mausolea built between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries that form a string of spectacular tilework down the southern slope of the Afrasiyab hill, north of Samarkand.
• Popularly identified as the tomb of Timurs general, Amir Burunduk, no epigraphic or literary evidence confirms this attribution.• This square domed chamber adjoins the southern structure of the Tuman Aqa complex.• A pishtaq, of which only the northern half still stands, faces the Shah-i Zinda corridor.• The portal retains carved terracotta revetment from the late fourteenth century.• The decoration of the remaining fragment of the pishtaq, however, dates from the early fifteenth century.
• The interior walls are articulated with three arches above a dado of hexagonal underglaze painted tiles; the central arches are structurally formed as a shallow niche, flanked by blind arches formed from plaster, set in plaster rectangular frames.• The central niche of the southern wall originally opened for access.
• The zone of transition consists of an octagonal course with muqarnas squinches, and a sixteen- sided collar below the dome.• The interior of the conical dome is decorated with plaster moldings in a geometrical eight-pointed star design.• A sixteen-sided exterior drum wraps the interior zone of transition, and would have supported an outer dome which, it is believed, was never built.
• The cruciform crypt containing nine graves was uncovered in 1925. The brick structure, possibly of re-used pre-Mongol bricks, provides the foundations for the mausoleum above.
Detail of the remains of a decorative tilerevetment
square domeExterior view from the southeast,with the portal fragment of theanonymous mausoleum II UlughSultan Begum in the foreground andthe dome of theTuman Aqamausoleum in the background
Detail of the façade from within the Shah-i An interior cornerZindeh corridor
Interior detail of crumbling construction Interior, detail view of the zone of transition and the dome