Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development
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Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development



Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development ...

Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development
International Perspectives on Technology-Enhanced Learning
University of British Columbia
Faculty of Education
Vancouver, Canada
13 July 2013
Presented by
Dr. K. Balasubramanian
Jointly authored by
Professor Asha Kanwar and Dr. K. Balasubramanian
Commonwealth of Learning



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Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development  Open Education Resources: Innovation for Development Presentation Transcript

  • International Perspectives on Technology-Enhanced Learning OER: Innovation for Development? Professor Asha Kanwar & Dr. K. Balasubramanian Commonwealth of Learning UBC, 13 July, 2013
  • Plan  Context  OER as an innovation  Are OER addressing some of the challenges?  Strategies to harness OER4D  The COL Approach
  • COL Vision Intergovernmental Organization 1987 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), Vancouver, Canada Created by the Heads of Commonwealth at CHOGM 1987 © Commonwealth Secretariat
  • WHAT IS IT FOR? To help Commonwealth governments and institutions use various technologies to improve and expand learning for development Access to Learning is the Key to Development
  • Commonwealth  60% of the population under 25  1/3 of the world’s poor, 2/3 of them are women (ODI, 2009)  23.3 million primary age children out of school  460 million illiterate adults
  • Education for All (The Dakar Goals) Peace Democracy Equality Good governance
  • Development Challenges Development Challenges  Universal Primary Education  Gender Equality  Health  Poverty  Universal Primary Education  Gender Equality  Health  Poverty PHOTO: David Walker, PNG
  • CW Countries off track to achieve MDGs  MDG 1: poverty reduction: 14 (6 on track for 2020)  MDG 2: universal primary education: 7 (12 on track for 2020)  MDG 3: gender equality: 3 (4 on track for 2020) Source: – World bank MDG dataset (Last updated in April 2013): development-indicators
  • 400 million children (12-17) out of secondary school
  • 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Access to Higher Education Sub- Saharan Africa 10% South Asia 15% OECD Average 40-50% HIGHER EDUCATION Caribbean 25%
  • Source: The Economist Dec 1st – 7th, 2012, Higher education, Not what it used to be.
  • Can technology help?  Distance learning  Online learning  OER
  • ‘…the lack of content …[is] the major barrier[s] that governments need to tackle….’ The world telecommunications/ICT Development report, ITU, 2010
  • Open Educational Resources (OER) OER are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and in some instances, re-purposing by others Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007
  • Why OER?  Reduces costs  Enhance access  Improve quality
  • Can OER reduce Costs?  20 teacher education programmes in 12 countries  Materials available in 4 languages  In 2010, 320,000 teachers benefited
  • $$ $ $ OER and Textbooks Brazil: for 75% of students at University of São Paulo, the cost of acquiring books was higher than the family’s monthly income. Research Group for Public Policies for Access to Information, qtd in Butcher & Hoosen, Business Case for OER, COL: Vancouver, 2012, p. 17
  • OERU  University of Southern Queensland  Otago Polytechnic  Athabasca University
  • The OER university concept. Adapted from Taylor (2007) James Taylor
  • Access: Malawi  Bunda College of Agriculture  102 page Communications Skills textbook  75% OER  Adapted by adding contextually relevant materials, activities, assignments
  • Access: translation CORE COL ID template translated and adapted by Open University of China COL materials in Ukrainian
  • Can OER contribute to Quality?  611 institutions in India – KSS Women’s Engineering College, Andhra Pradesh – Maya Devi Educational Foundation, Uttarakhand – Bhilai Institute of Technology, Chattisgarh
  • What of Social Dimensions? OER cannot be viewed only from the economic and financial perspective
  • The Digital Divide (Commonwealth countries) Source: Latest data from International Telecommunications Union Database 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Africa Asia Caribbean Europe North America Pacific Proportion of households with Internet access Proportion of households with Computer access
  • the network society…. is a major source of the structuration of power relationships. Manuel Castells
  • Divides Knowledge Prosperity Inclusion Geography Race Gender Economic Disability Digital Divide
  • Social Exclusion of Education in India: By Caste and Gender 0FE1AFEEB730
  • OER by itself will not be able to address inequality
  • Justin Reich in inequalities/ Open Educational Resources Expand Educational Inequalities
  • Open Educational Resources Expand Educational Inequalities  … teachers working in schools serving low income students simply can't make as much use of…. the technology ….. because they lack the planning time, broadband access, etc. In this model, schools with greater fiscal and human resources have more capacity to take advantage of even free and open resources. Justin Reich in inequalities/
  • Teacher as a stakeholder
  • Teachers who come to rural schools, hungry  Zambia: 57%  Sierra Leone: 100%  Ghana: 36%  Lesotho: 59%  India: 12% Source: Bennell and Akyeampong (2007) DFID
  • Being a Woman Teacher in Nepal Social Exclusion of Women Teachers at the Entry Level Factors of Social Exclusion Non-Local Dalit woman Disabled Woman Unmarried Source: Laxmi Paudyal, 2012
  • Education in many countries  Based on centralised systems with limited academic freedom  Poor governance  Teachers as stakeholders have limited voice  Lack of stakeholder involvement  Minimal dialogues
  • 44% of the countries have low level of freedom and 33% moderate freedom in managing non- governmental schools.
  • Can Open Educational Resources thrive in closed educational settings?
  • Strategies should address both economic and social issues
  • Process-oriented approach “Opening educational resources is an action that will cause education to move to a new place”. (Breck, 2007:3). and not just as a product
  • Mobilizing stakeholders
  • Phases Characteristics 1 Appropriation ability of every stakeholder to have access to the tools of OER. This would not only include the availability of infrastructure, but also the social access to every stakeholder irrespective of class, gender and ethnicity 2 Localization reflects the meaning, position and physical space given to OERs vis-à-vis social, political and cultural values. 3 Incorporation Every stakeholder should have the ability to interact with OER and use them for strengthening the educational goals of the community. 4 Conversion The stakeholder is encouraged to look beyond the community and enter into a relationship with the global community. In addition, the stakeholder is also influencing the structure and functions of OER. Domestication of OER
  • Localisation: principles  Involve locals  A community of practice bolsters localisation  Must be done in appropriate formats  Understand local contexts Localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Nepal: Strategies of Himalayan Knowledge-Workers Tiffany Zenith Ivins March 2011
  • Emphasis on Governance People have a say in the development of these ideas and meanings because they are able to participate in their creation, growth, and spread.
  •  Participatory approach  Decentralised organisational structures  Learner centricity
  • Re-defining OER  The phenomenon of OER/OLR is an empowerment process, facilitated by technology in which various types of stakeholders are able to interact, collaborate, create and use materials and pedagogic practices, that are freely available, for enhancing access, reducing costs and improving the quality of education and learning at all levels.
  • From ‘divide’ to ‘dividend’  emphasis on people, rather than on technologies  knowledge as a social product emerging as an interface of machine, individual, society  learning as a process of knowledge creation
  • Paris Declaration on OER Advocacy Capacity Policy Research Photo:CC-BYDavideStorti The 2012 Paris OER Declaration drafting group at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France
  • OER : open schooling Schools Teachers Consultants Ministries of Education Frances Ferreira
  • Teacher Education Global Demand for Teachers: 1.7 million  strengthening teacher education through the use of technology and distance learning.  350,000 teachers and teacher educators trained in 24 countries.  reaching teachers in marginalised groups including nomadic communities Dr. Abdurrahman Umar Education for All (The Dakar Goals)
  • The Virtual University for Small States of the Commonwealth Disaster management Sustainable agriculture Business & Entrepreneurship John Lesperance
  • Technical & Vocational Skills Development Impact – 150% increase in income Alison Mead Richardson TVET Institutions TVET Teachers TVET Students Outcomes
  • Dr. K. Balasubramanian
  • Ian Pringle
  • The COL Approach  Encourages participation and wider stakeholder engagement  Uses a range of appropriate technologies  Takes a holistic approach
  • How can technology-enhanced learning  reach the digitally deprived and socially excluded?  transform closed educational systems?  accelerate progress towards achieving development goals such as MDGs and EFAs?