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User Centered Design
 

User Centered Design

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A crush course in user-centered design, usability and GUI development.

A crush course in user-centered design, usability and GUI development.

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User Centered Design User Centered Design Presentation Transcript

  • Eran Toch http://www.technion.ac.il/~erant A Crush Course in Usability and User Centered Design Spring 2007
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • User Interface Design
      • GUI building blocks
      • GUI structures
    • Usability
      • Good design / bad design
      • Usability levels
    • User-centered design
      • Principles and ideals
      • The process
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • What is Usability?
    • ISO 9241 usability definition
    The effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in particular environments. Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Why is Usability Important?
    • The fate of
    • the world
    2. The Apple iPhone Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • 1. The Fate of the World
    • Bush won Florida by a 537-vote margin in official results
    The 2001 Florida Ballot Incident Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • The Florida Ballot
    • 5,330 Palm Beach County residents invalidated their ballots by punching for Gore and Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan.
    • Almost half of them were 65 or older and Democrats .
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • 2. The Apple iPhone Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Focus on Usability and Design Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • The implications of usability Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Usability vs. Specification Initiation Requirement Design Specification Implementation Testing Is it too late? Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered We design the user interface here We test them here
  • User Centered Design
    • Therefore, we need a crush course in:
      • UI Design
      • Usability principles
      • User-centered design
    • Note, these issues will be discussed in a very shallow manner.
    • Each of these issues deserve a course (actually, in our faculty, there are two courses on these issues). Take them!
    UI Design + Testing Initiation Requirement Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Design Specification Implementation Testing
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • User interface design
      • GUI building blocks
      • GUI structures
    • Usability
      • Good design / bad design
      • Usability levels
    • User-centered design
      • Principles and ideals
      • The process
  • Basic Model of HCI Computer input Computation output Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Types of User Interfaces Graphical User Interface (GUI) Command Line Voice activated interfaces Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • GUI Model Computer input Computation output Mouse : {x  0..1024, y  0..768} Keyboard : {I  {A..Z, 1..0,...}} Screen : {(x,y)  Z 2 } Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • GUI Components: Simple Input
    • What is the type of information received by each input field?
    • What’s the effect?
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Text field Button Text area Link
  • Simple GUI components: Choosers
    • What is the difference between a radio button and a check box?
    • What is the choice domain and the choice range of each component?
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Combo box Slider Radio button Checkbox
  • Larger Constructs Pages (in Web-based systems) Windows (in Desktop-based systems) Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Composing components Tabs Areas of reference List Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Actions Context Task Consequences Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Designing Interface Elements (top-down)
    • User flow: take the user aspect with the use-case model
    • Storyboard:
      • Find compositions of actions / information
      • Find relations between compositions
    • Detailed view:
      • Refine each composition to the component level
    • Check and integrate
    Use Case Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • The use case model Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • User flow
    • Integrate use-case scenarios from the user perspective
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Storyboard Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Detailed View Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • User interface design
      • GUI building blocks
      • GUI structures
    • Usability
      • Good design / bad design
      • Usability levels
    • User-centered design
      • Principles and ideals
      • The process
  • Good UI design vs. bad design
    • What makes a good design different from a bad design?
    • In order to answer this question we will define the concept of usability.
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Which of these apps is easy to use? Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Good design
    • Recognizable
    • Simple
    • Clear purpose
    • Learnable
    • Safe
    • Flexible
    • Robust
    • Good Metaphors
    • ...
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Recognizable interfaces Pretty, or smart, is not necessarily Usable Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Patterns
    • Design patterns in HCI are a good way to explore suggestions for good design
    • We would look at some patterns:
      • Wizard (for simplicity)
      • Contextual help (for learnable interface)
      • Go back to a safe place
      • Shortcuts (for flexible)
      • Undo (for robustness)
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Wizard
    • Problem:
      • The user wants to achieve a single goal but several decisions need to be made.
    • Solution:
      • Take the user through the entire task one step at the time.
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Contextual Help
    • Problem:
      • Users may need help regarding specific tasks, but would spend a lot of energy searching for it.
    • Solution:
      • Place help in the context of the given task.
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Computers can be SCARY Sometimes an innocent user gets into a state she don’t want to be in… And then, the terror!!! Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Solution
    • Provide a way to go back to a checkpoint of the user's choice.
    The "Home" button and the “Back” Clicking the Logo in Web sites Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Shortcuts
    • Problem:
      • Power users need faster ways to execute operations than novice users
    • Solution:
      • Create shortcuts for power operations, using keyboard, combinations, icons, special menus etc...
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Undo
    • Problem:
      • The user might regret executing some operation.
      • Asking the user for confirmation after executing each operation will make the interaction unusable.
    • Solution:
      • Enable the user to undo her operations, after they were executed.
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Usability levels Component Application Project Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Component Level
    • Familiar to use
    • Gives feedback
    • Reduces errors
    • Satisfies a given task
    • Readable
    • Self explaining
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Application Level
    • Accessible
    • Gives sense of place
    • Easy to navigate in
    • Handles errors
    • Realistic Scenarios
    • Personalized
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Project Level
    • Answers real needs
    • Answers current needs
    • Generates value
    • Communicate with all organization's units
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • User interface design
      • GUI building blocks
      • GUI structures
    • Usability
      • Good design / bad design
      • Usability levels
    • User-centered design
      • Principles and ideals
      • The process
  • User Centered Design
    • The objective is to create a design process that would increase the usability of the product
    • Three principles:
      • Finding the user’s context of the product
      • Iterative process, including ongoing tests and revisions
      • Participatory Design - Users become members of the design team
    Initiation Requirement Design Specification Implementation Testing Classic : User is involved here UCD : User is involved here Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Where are the differences
    • Requirements gathering stage:
      • Talk / view users
      • Identifying personas
    • Specification stage:
      • Interface prototyping
      • Usability expert analysis
      • Heuristic Evaluation
    • Design / Implementation
      • Usability Lab
      • Log Analysis
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Requirements stage
    • Talk to users
      • Interview them in order to discover user’s culture, requirements, expectations, etc.
    • Watch the users
      • At work
      • See how they use their existing systems
      • See what they do not use
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Identifying Personas
    • Personas are hypothetical archetypes of actual users
    • By identifying a small set of personas, we can:
      • make the users seem more real
      • Judge the importance of features
      • Look at the:
        • Usage frequency
        • Competency
        • ...
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Taken from http :// www . w3 . org / WAI / redesign / personas
  • Evaluation at the requirements stage Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Cognitive Walkthrough The user “imagines” the system, by going with the interviewer through its stages and actions Focus Group The ideas of the new system are presented to a group of potential users.
  • Prototyping
    • Brainstorm
    • Rough interface design
    • Application walkthrough
    Specification Low fidelity paper prototypes Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Prototyping – Intermediate Stages
    • Fine tune interface design
    • Screen design
    • Heuristic evaluation and redesign
    Design Medium fidelity prototypes Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered
  • Evaluation at the specification / design Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Guided Walkthrough Guiding and questioning the users while they perform specific tasks. Usability Lab Testing the prototypes by actual users. Good for: finding unexpected problems and process refinement.
  • Evaluation with the actual system
    • Log analysis may be used to:
      • Identifying actual usage patterns
      • Effectiveness of processes, and components
    • Benefits:
      • Real statistical information
      • Real-time information
    Intro | UI Design | Usability | User-centered Taken from http :// www . clickdensity . com
  • Summary
    • Usability is important:
      • Changing the registration interface at eBay had increased success rate from 16% to 68%. Sales went up in 84M$.
    • User interface design
      • Components, storyboard, maps
    • Usability
      • Familiar, rules, patterns
    • User-centered design
      • Involve the users
      • Evaluate early and often
  • References
    • Bad design:
      • http :// homepage . mac . com / bradster / iarchitect / shame . htm
    • Patterns:
      • http://www.welie.com/patterns/index.php
      • COMMON GROUND: A Pattern Language for Human-Computer Interface Design, Jenifer Tidwell, http:// www.mit.edu/~jtidwell/common_ground_onefile.html
    • Interaction Design:
      • User Interface Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation ( UC Berkeley Extension Summer Engineering Institute ) http://guir.berkeley.edu/courses/SummerHCI02/
      • http://www.interaction-design.org/
      • http://www.useit.com/