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Alan Sotelo Alberto QuiñonezGalo Garcia de Leon Ivan Flores Roman
The major role of RNA is to participate in protein synthesis, which requires three classes of RNA: Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
mRNA is transcribed from DNA, carrying information for protein synthesis. the mRNA carries the genetic information from the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis (ribosome) in the cytoplasm to be translated.
Short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell. The major role of tRNA is to translate mRNA sequence into amino acid sequence. Consists of 70 to 80 nucleotides.
rRNA molecules are produced in the nucleus, they are transported to the cytoplasm, where they combine with tens of specific proteins to form a ribosome.
Ribozymes are the RNA molecules with catalytic activity. They were discovered in early 1980s by Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Major types of small RNA molecules: Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) - involved in mRNA splicing. Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) - directs the modification of ribosomal RNAs. Micro RNA (miRNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNA) - regulate gene expression.
Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher, who called the material nuclein since it was found in the nucleus. It was later discovered that prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, also contain nucleic acids.
The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939. Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine after he discovered how RNA is synthesized.
The sequence of the 77 nucleotides of a yeast tRNA was found by Robert W. Holley in 1965, winning Holley the 1968 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
In 1967, Carl Woese realized RNA can be catalytic and proposed that the earliest forms of life relied on RNA both to carry genetic information and to catalyze biochemical reactions