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Evolving ways to use ecology for economy

Evolving ways to use ecology for economy

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Tgv Tgv Presentation Transcript

  • Towards Green Villages
  • Objectives
    • To understand the biomass economy
    • To debate and dialogue environmental sustainability
    • To take stock of current state of rural development
    • To evolve ways to use ecology for economy
  • Structure
    • Not a skill sharing but deepening understanding
    • Content is evidence based
    • Focus on sharpening our advocacy/ implementation strategy
    • Speakers represent key areas
    • Emphasis on group works
  • Expectation
    • To broaden our understanding
    • To seek/form alliance for greater common good
    • To initiate change
  • India’s Biomass Economy
  • India’s Biomass Economy
    • SD is development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
    • Economics often gives the wrong signals
    • It is internally consistent but makes the wrong assumptions
    • It works in the short term but leaves us vulnerable in the long term
    • It should create employment and eliminate poverty
    • It should create wealth for everyone
    • This requires an economic system that is strongly altruistic and cooperative
  • India’s Biomass Economy
    • Ecology contributes 80 percent of income of poor
    • Around 29 percent of ‘national wealth’ sustains 60 percent of population
    • The ‘informal’ sector employs 92 percent of India. Private and public together only 8 percent
    • Over 60% people depend on agriculture, fisheries and forests
    • Agriculture: directly employs 234 million people
  • India’s Biomass Economy
    • Agriculture contributes 21% of GDP
    • Though declining, dependence increasing
    • GDP may not be showing the right dependence
    • Industry’s major resources are biomass
    • Latest trends show that people still feel agriculture as the livelihood
    • So GNP (Gross Nature Produce) is the right indicator
  • Ecosystems in India
  • Ecosystems in India
    • Ecosystems are ecological governance units
    • Ecosystems decide economic activities
    • Effective socio-economic governance based on this
  • Ecological Regions of India Ecological Regions of India
  • Ecosystems in India
    • Importance of ecosystems
    •  
    • Key components of eco-systems
    • They are the origin of all ecological maladies
    • A small change in ecosystem triggers poverty
    • The most effective unit for development
    • They define precisely the local needs based on ecology
    • They have clues to persistent poverty issues
    • They are the basic unit for sustainable development
  • Ecosystems in India
    • Ecosystems and current development plans
    • Rural schemes are uniform
    • Few of them are area specific like DPAP
    • Centralised development ignores ecosystems
    • So most programmes fail to impact
  • Ecosystems of India
    • State of economy in ecosystems
    • Very difficult to measure
    • Arid and semi-arid ecosystems are the poor regions
    • Most of migration happens from degraded ecosystems
    • Majority of unemployment in these areas
  • State of Poverty in India
  • State of Poverty in India
    • India’s poverty line: Rs. 12/day in rural, Rs.18/day in urban India
    • More than 300 million people below this line (70% in rural)
    • Poverty > getting chronic, concentrated
    • Natural resource rich areas the poorest (60%)
  • State of Poverty
    • Economy grows at around 9%, agriculture at 2.3 %
      • Food grain available: 152 kg /person (rural). 23 kg less than in 90s
      • 30% households eat less than 1,700 kilo calories per day/person
      • Rural poor spend 70 percent of income on food. Starvation
    • 57% of land facing degradation (increase of 53 percent since 1994)
      • Impact esp. on common lands & rain fed areas. About 68 percent of the net sown area drought prone .
    • 60% of cultivable areas are rainfed (no irrigation). Produce 42% of food
      • 2.5tons/ha productivity
    • 80 % of India’s landholding is less than one hectare
      • The average annual land fragmentation is 2.7/land holding
      • 33% landless (22% in 1991-92)
      • Every second farmer today indebted. Suicides
  • State of Poverty
    • Govt.’s anti-poverty schemes
    • 60 years of targeted anti-poverty programmes
    • More than 2000 rural development programmes
    • Rs. 314 billion for poverty alleviation/year
    • Rs. 260 billion for food subsidy/year
    • Rs. 71 billion for irrigation/year
    • Rs. 6 billion for afforestation/year
    • Rs. 2,270 Billion to sustain the bureaucracy/annual
    • It takes Rs. 3.65 to transfer Rs. 1 programme money to poor
    • 58% subsidised food doesn’t reach poor
    • 1/3rd employment creation against target
  • State of Poverty
    • Growth vs Poverty
    • Highest rate of economic growth in history
    • Lowest rate of agriculture growth in history
    • Employment per growth unit lowest ever, less than 1%
    • Rural unemployment at 9.1 percent, double in 2 decades
    • Poverty reduction slower during post-reform
    • Need 108 jobs a minute for the next five years
    • Can create 10 jobs from current growth
    • Ecology has huge potential: 110 jobs/minute
    • Need to redefine poverty
    • GNP is effective gross nature produce
  • State of Poverty
    • Increasing demands on Biomass
    • Population is increasing by 2 per cent every year
      • 1 Ha sustains now four people, 1.5 people/Ha in 1980s
    • Firewood production must increase from 100 million ton to 300 million tonnes
    • Green fodder production from about 230 million tonnes to 780 million tonnes.
    • India’s per capita forests decreasing: 0.08 Ha now, 0.20 in 1951
    • Number of people dependent on forests is growing: from 184 million in 1996 to 226 in 2006.
    • Timber demand (both housing and industrial): from 23 million cubic metres to 29 million cubic metres in 2006.
    • Per capita consumption of paper rose from 3 kgs in 1995 to about 5 kgs in 2003 (in China it was 29.1 kg per person). In Asia, per capita paper consumption is five times higher than in India.
    • But overall biomass production in India seems to be declining rapidly
    • Around 240.62 million Ha of India’s 306.25 million Ha reported land are used for biomass production. Out of this only on a very small fraction of agricultural lands productivity has improved due to irrigation. On the rest, productivity has gone down. And it is declining.
  • Ecological Poverty Explained
    • India is biomass based thus dependent on ecology
    • Poverty is caused by ecological degradation
    • Poverty is caused by less access to ecology
    • Thus India’s poverty is ecological poverty
    • Ecological poverty is thus lack of access to natural resources
    • To face the unprecedented demands from biomass this has to be fixed
  • An Opportunity
    • Ecological poverty is recognised now
    • This gives us an opportunity to redesign rural programmes
    • Programmes like NREGA and BRGF are instruments
    • Civil society has more roles to play
  • Challenges for Ecological Poverty
    • 0.6 million villages, .23 million elected local governments, 3.8 million elected representatives
    • 2.3 villages per Panchayat (in Assam, as high as 29 villages/Panchayat)
    • But a centralised approach: gradually the Federal government is in charge of resources
    • Those who take decisions are not the ones who have to live with the consequences of those decisions
    • Panchayats have all power over natural resources
    • Panchayats are regarded as implementing agencies
    • Only one state has devolved power
    • In tribal areas, it is in more distress
    • India has to make a fundamental shift to meet this challenge.
    • A shift in state’s role from an often-corrupt regulator of the micro-environment to the provider of an enabling and more market-friendly environment
  • Rainfed Areas, New Crisis Center
  • Rainfed areas, new crisis center
    • Introduction
    • Irrigation areas stagnating
    • Food production less than pre-Green Revolution period
    • Need to double up food production
    • Rainfed areas are the answer
  • Rainfed areas, new crisis center Rainfed agriculture in India extends over an area of 97 million ha and constitute nearly 67 % of the net cultivated area
  • Rainfed areas, new crisis center The ecology of rainfed areas
    • One crop agriculture but 42% production
    • Degraded natural resource base, low soil fertility, soil erosion
    • 15-20% rainwater runs off from rainfed farms
    • But has 65% of unutilized irrigation
    • Most of backward districts in these areas
    • 60-70% poor of India are in these areas
  • Rainfed areas, new crisis center Challenges - Opportunities
    • Future food security: 37% extra food grain has to come from here
    • Huge opportunity for regeneration of ecology
    • Watershed approach: way out of chronic poverty
    • Overall employment and livelihood opportunities
  • Ecological opportunities
    • Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain
    • Water conservation emerges as the core of these models
    • Community governance is key to sustainability
    • Lays key principles of sustainable development
  • Community-led Water Management Initiatives
    • Jhabua
    • - Government initiated but implemented successfully by local communities
    • Hivre Bazar
    • - Community initiated, highly successful
    • - Second generation model
  • Jhabua
    • Jhabua: A watershed in rural development?
    • Background- history of ecological degradation
    • From ecological degradation to ecological poverty- impacts on economy
    • Migration
  • Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005
  • Jhabua 1985 A moonscape devoid of any vegetation Copyright Centre for Science and Environment, 1985
  • Jhabua 1997 Soil and water conservation begun in 1994 begin to bring life back to the land Copyright Centre for Science and Environment, 1997
  • Jhabua 2005 Dynamic community leadership in some of the mission villages has continued the conservation work Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005
  • A People’s Movement Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005
  • Jhabua 2005 But in other villages….. Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005
  • Reasons for success of Jhabua
    • Public participation was the key to success. This required appropriate financial and institutional strategies.
    • Inter-departmental coordination to ensure there was no policy fracture.
    • Political will in the form of the personal supervision of the Chief Minister.
    • Multi tier governance structures created- decentralisation of works
    • Success- increase in water level, crop yields, income; decrease in migration,
    • Ecological regeneration- economic transformation
  • The missing links
    • Decentralization caught up in bureaucratic red tape
    • The government beat too hasty and abrupt a retreat
    • 2000-2001- Sudden loss of jobs and a drought = migration
    • Appropriation of benefits by the rich and powerful
    • Valley to ridge approach
    • Impractical time frame- Development proceeded too fast for the institutional mechanisms to keep pace
    • Follow up work post watershed development missing
    • Lot of funds generated are lying unutilized in banks
  • Hivre Bazar: A tall order
    • A replication of Ralegaon Siddhi
    • From punishment zone to model village
    • Community leadership, charismatic leader
    • Revival of community institutions
    • Discipline
    • Lesson – It takes little to reclaim your life- the economics of community led conservation
  • The starting point of ecological regeneration and economic revival was water
    • The villagers took control of their ecological destiny in their hands.
    • They started harvesting their rainwater endowment. With groundwater recharged, agriculture improved and animal productivity increased.
    • Once they became concerned about their water, the villagers also became concerned about their watershed. The hills are today rich and green.
    • Distress out-migration has stopped .
  • Key Lessons
    • - A case for how ecological regeneration is married to economic well being
    • Government for the people- collective leadership
    • Importance of ecology in economy
    • Let people control their natural resources (get rid of the state)
    • Respect traditional knowledge (learn from the villagers themselves)
  • Ecological opportunities
    • Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain
    • Water conservation emerges as the core of these models
    • Community governance is key to sustainability
    • Lays key principles of sustainable development
  • A roadmap for sustainable village
    • Key development tips
    •  
    • Need of a new development paradigm (flow chart)
    • Redefined poverty as lack of access to natural resources
    • Water invariably becomes the core
    • Built strong institutions based on right based approach
  • A roadmap for sustainable village ECOLOGICAL POVERTY Create NATURAL WEALTH   Create ECONOMIC WEALTH
  • A roadmap to sustainable village
    • Key governance tips
    •  
    • Government does not recognise these, ignore as sporadic cases
    • Government never supports/empowers local institutions
  • A roadmap