Microphone Patterns
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Microphone Patterns






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    Microphone Patterns Microphone Patterns Presentation Transcript

    • Microphone Patterns Mics are defined by their pattern vs their sensitivity.
    • Omni-directional
    • Omni-directional
      • 360 degree spherical pattern
      • Sounds the same from any angle
      • Good for handheld interviewing since mic angle is not critical
      • Good for lavs worn under clothing since mic angles can shift due to clothing & physical pose
    • Cardioid
    • Cardioid
      • Aka Uni-directional
      • Heart shaped?
      • Frontal facing
      • Sound diminishes as we move around the mic
      • Most sensitive in the front, reduced at the side, and almost gone in the back
    • Cardioid
      • Good for reducing feedback & background noise
      • Okay for trained reporters
      • Cardioid lavs often used for live presentations to reduce feedback
      • Cardioid condenser boom mics used to reduce echo in tight interiors
    • Bi-directional
    • Bi-directional
      • Figure 8 shaped
      • Picks up from sides, but not front nor back
      • The sides are merged as MONAURAL, not stereo Left/Right.
      • Cannot control the gain of the two sides independently. Would require 2 cardioid mics to do that!
    • M-S Stereo
      • Mid-Side stereo
      • Allows adjustment of left/right width
      • Achieved by varying mix of a bi-directional mic overlapped by a cardioid mic
      • Bi-directional mic is + on one side and – on the other…
      • Cardioid is + on both sides
      • M+S and M—S yield Left/Right
    • M-S Stereo
      • Stereo effect is created by matrixing the signals from the two mics
      • Very dependent on correct phase relationships. Big trouble if phase is not maintained throughout xfer and mixdown.
      • Requires headphone matrix box to hear stereo in the field.
      • Great tool if you have control over recording, transfer, edit, and final mix. If not, better to use X-Y stereo technique.
    • Hypercardioid
    • Hypercardioid
      • Aka “short shotgun”
      • Very directional
      • Slight pickup at tail 180 degrees
      • Least sensitive 120 degrees
      • Compresses foreground/background, just like a telephoto lens
      • Best when deployed above talent. Talent is on-axis, and background noise is off-axis.
    • Ultra-directional
      • aka “long shotgun”
      • Extremely directional
      • Slight tail
    • About Shotgun Mics
      • Very directional on-axis
      • Less directional as we work around to the sides
      • Least directional 120 degrees off-axis
      • Slight increase in sensitivity at tail
      • May not be flat response off-axis: some freq’s are rejected more than others. Distant, hollow sound
      • Flat off-axis = lower volume, no loss in quality
    • About Shotgun Mics
      • When used horizontally (like a rifle), they pick up talent as well as everything behind talent
      • Horizontal may be okay for sound effects, but rarely for dialogue
      • Generally, tighter pattern = more echo
      • Wider pattern = less echo