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Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
Microphone Patterns
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Microphone Patterns

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  • 1. Microphone Patterns Mics are defined by their pattern vs their sensitivity.
  • 2. Omni-directional
  • 3. Omni-directional <ul><li>360 degree spherical pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds the same from any angle </li></ul><ul><li>Good for handheld interviewing since mic angle is not critical </li></ul><ul><li>Good for lavs worn under clothing since mic angles can shift due to clothing & physical pose </li></ul>
  • 4. Cardioid
  • 5. Cardioid <ul><li>Aka Uni-directional </li></ul><ul><li>Heart shaped? </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal facing </li></ul><ul><li>Sound diminishes as we move around the mic </li></ul><ul><li>Most sensitive in the front, reduced at the side, and almost gone in the back </li></ul>
  • 6. Cardioid <ul><li>Good for reducing feedback & background noise </li></ul><ul><li>Okay for trained reporters </li></ul><ul><li>Cardioid lavs often used for live presentations to reduce feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Cardioid condenser boom mics used to reduce echo in tight interiors </li></ul>
  • 7. Bi-directional
  • 8. Bi-directional <ul><li>Figure 8 shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Picks up from sides, but not front nor back </li></ul><ul><li>The sides are merged as MONAURAL, not stereo Left/Right. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot control the gain of the two sides independently. Would require 2 cardioid mics to do that! </li></ul>
  • 9. M-S Stereo <ul><li>Mid-Side stereo </li></ul><ul><li>Allows adjustment of left/right width </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved by varying mix of a bi-directional mic overlapped by a cardioid mic </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-directional mic is + on one side and – on the other… </li></ul><ul><li>Cardioid is + on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>M+S and M—S yield Left/Right </li></ul>
  • 10. M-S Stereo <ul><li>Stereo effect is created by matrixing the signals from the two mics </li></ul><ul><li>Very dependent on correct phase relationships. Big trouble if phase is not maintained throughout xfer and mixdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires headphone matrix box to hear stereo in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Great tool if you have control over recording, transfer, edit, and final mix. If not, better to use X-Y stereo technique. </li></ul>
  • 11. Hypercardioid
  • 12. Hypercardioid <ul><li>Aka “short shotgun” </li></ul><ul><li>Very directional </li></ul><ul><li>Slight pickup at tail 180 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Least sensitive 120 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Compresses foreground/background, just like a telephoto lens </li></ul><ul><li>Best when deployed above talent. Talent is on-axis, and background noise is off-axis. </li></ul>
  • 13. Ultra-directional <ul><li>aka “long shotgun” </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely directional </li></ul><ul><li>Slight tail </li></ul>
  • 14. About Shotgun Mics <ul><li>Very directional on-axis </li></ul><ul><li>Less directional as we work around to the sides </li></ul><ul><li>Least directional 120 degrees off-axis </li></ul><ul><li>Slight increase in sensitivity at tail </li></ul><ul><li>May not be flat response off-axis: some freq’s are rejected more than others. Distant, hollow sound </li></ul><ul><li>Flat off-axis = lower volume, no loss in quality </li></ul>
  • 15. About Shotgun Mics <ul><li>When used horizontally (like a rifle), they pick up talent as well as everything behind talent </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal may be okay for sound effects, but rarely for dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, tighter pattern = more echo </li></ul><ul><li>Wider pattern = less echo </li></ul>

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